Skip to main content
Internet Archive's 25th Anniversary Logo

Full text of "The Burlington magazine"

See other formats

, '( f ' t , ^ 




* l(f.^'*JiT LS'^Jt^WMiifl 4V/itt 



Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated & Published Monthly 

Volume XIII— April to September ipo8 

















Dr. E. W. BRAUN 









The Rev. G. S. DAVIES 


















Professor C. J. HOLMES 







D. S. MacCOLL 






Professor HANS W. SINGER 



SON, K.C.B. 










Some Notes on the Origin and Development of the Enamelled Porcelain of the 

Chinese. By Edward Dillon. Part I ....... 4 

Part II 

Puvis de Chavannes : A Chapter from ' Modern Painters.' By Charles Ricketts 

Florence and her Builders. By Professor G. Baldwin Brown 

The Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of some English Churches in Holland. By E 

Alfred Jones .....•••••• 

An Unknown Portrait by Louis David. By Claude Phillips ... 

Mr. Home's Book on Botticelli. By Roger E. Fry 

A Defect of Modern Art Teaching. By C. J. Holmes .... 

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain. By A. Van de Put . 

On Contorniates. By Katharine Esdaile ....... 

Millais's Portrait of Tennyson. By D. S. MacCoU 

The Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts at the Burlington Fine Arts Club 

By Roger E. Fry. I ........ . 

11 ........ • 

The New Italian Law ' Per le Antichita e le Belle Arti.' By Lionel Cust 

M.V.O., F.S.A 

The Snake Pattern in Ireland, the Mediterranean and China. By Christiana J 

Herringham .......••.• 

The Sacramental Plate of S. Peter's Church, Vere Street. By Arthur F. G 

Leveson-Gower .......... 

The Enamelling and Metallesque Origin of the Ornament in the Book of 

Durrow. By Joseph M. Doran ....... 

Doccia Porcelain of the Earliest Period. By Dr. Edmund Wilhelm Braun . 
The Gorleston Psalter. By Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. . 
The Franco-British Exhibition : — 

The French Section. By Charles Ricketts .... 

The British Section. By Robert Ross . . . . • 

Notes on the Applied Arts ....... 

A Recent Addition to the National Portrait Gallery. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O. 


The Passage of the Ravine, by Gericault. By C. J. Holmes 

Jacopo del Sellaio. By Herbert P. Home ...... 

Durer's Works in their Order. By Sir W. Martin Conway, F.S.A. . 

A Bronze Bust of Commodus. By Cecil H. Smith . . . • • 

Ming Bowl with Silver-gilt Mounts of the Tudor Period. I. The Bowl. By 

S. W. Bushell, C.M.G. II. The Mount. By E. Alfred Jones . 

The Medallist Lysippus. By G. F. Hill 

Some Constable Puzzles. By C. J. Holmes ...... 

The French School at the National Gallery 

A Watteau in the Jones Collection. By Claude Phillips .... 
Hairdressing among the Ancient Greeks. By Dr. A. Koester 
Quattrocento Book Collecting — I. By G. T. Clough 






















CONTENTS OF VOL. XIII — continued 


Editorial Articles : — 

The Painter as Critic 3 

The Crisis in Germany ......... 67 

Modern Pictures in the Saleroom 67 

The Affairs of the National Gallery 189 

The Affairs of the National Gallery : A Correction .... 252 

Mr. Epstein's Sculpture in the Strand 191 

The Preservation of Ancient Buildings -251 

Museums . . • • • • • • • • -3^9 

Notes on Various Works of Art : — 

Two Recent Additions to the National Gallery (Sir Charles Holroyd, 
R.E.) ; St. John the 'Baptist, by Cesare da Sesto (Claude Phillips) ; 
The Portrait of a Poet in the National Gallery (Sir Walter 
Armstrong) ; Rembrandt and Elsheimer (Kurt Freise) ; English 
Silversmiths in St. Petersburg in the Eighteenth and Early 
Nineteenth Centuries (E. Alfred Jones) ; Teyler's Second Society 
of Haarlem . . . . . . . . . -33 

Pictures by Goya at the Miethke Gallery, Vienna (Hans W. Singer) ; the 
Plate of the English Church at The Hague (Arthur F. G. Leveson- 
Gower) ; the Reported Picture Forgeries at Munich (Professor 
Hans von Petersen and others) ....... 99 

The Parade, by Gabriel de Saint- Aubin (C. J. H.) ; Ambrose Benzone 
(W. H. J. Weale) ; Drawings by Gerard David (Sir W. Martin 
Conway) ; Notes on some Early Spanish Masters (A. Van de Put) ; 
The Greek Statue from Trentham (Dr. Anton Hekler) ; ' Lanval ' 
at the Playhouse (H. C.) ; A Lost Altarpiece of the Maitre de 
Flemalle (Louise M. Richter) ; The Emblems of the Evangelists 

(J. A. Herbert) 151 

Jacob Meditating on Joseph s Dreams, ?Ln Undescribed Woodcut by Heinrich 
Aldegrever (Campbell Dodgson) ; The Prices Paid for the Sevres 
Porcelain at Windsor Castle (E. Alfred Jones) ; The Demolition 
of the Warehouse of the Persians at Venice (Alethea Wiel) ; A 
Sidelight on\\o''s Annunciation (Gerald S. Davies) . .219 

New Light on Pisanello (G. F. Hill) ; The Cracks in the Ceiling of 
the Sistine Chapel (A. H. Maude) ; A Statue by Giovanni dell' 

Opera (C. J. H.) 288 

A Terra-cotta Bust of Thomas Third Earl of Coventry, by John Michael 
Rysbrack (Lionel Cust, M.V.O., F.S.A.) ; Giulio Campagnola 

(A. M. Hind) 362 

Art in America : — 

The Art of Albert P. Ryder (Roger E. Fry) 63 

Rossetti, an Observation (Robert Ross) ; An Altarpiece of the Catalan 

School (Roger E. Fry) , . . . . . . .116 

Two Specimens of La Farge's Art in Glass 'Kenyon Cox) ; Current 

Notes (W. Rankin) , . .182 


CONTENTS OF VOL. XIU— continued ^^^^ 


Art in America (continued) : — 

The Art of Kiyonaga as illustrated in an American Collection (Hamilton 

Easter Field) .241 

Rembrandt and Van Dyck in the Widener and Frick Collections 

(C. J. Holmes) 3^6 

Rembrandt and Girtin (C. J. Holmes) ; The Cattaneo Van Dycks ; 
Cassone Fronts and Salvers in American Collections — VII 

(V\^. Rankin) 375 

Art in France. By R. E. D 5^y '^77^ 230, 299 

Art in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. By H. W. S. 53, 114, 181, 236, 305, 367 
Letters to the Editor : — 

The Portrait of Jacqueline de Bourgogne by Mabuse (Georges Hulin 
de Loo) ; Herri Met de Bles (C. H. Collins Baker) ; Silver Plate 

made at King's Lynn (H. D. Ellis) 100 

A Portrait attributed to Velazquez (Prince Doria Pamphili) ; The 
Identification of the ' Fuller ' Coast Scene and Similar V\^orks by 

Turner (William White) 167 

The Portrait of a Lady as the Magdalen in the National Gallery 

(J. O. Kronig) 227 

The Greek Statue from Trentham (Cecil H. Smith) ; Portraits in the 

Kann Collection (John C. van Lennep) ..... 292 

The Medallist Lysippus (V. D. P.); Jewellery (H. Clifford Smith) . 366 

Art Books of the Month 41,106,168,227,294 

Recent Art Publications 5°' ^75' 298 



Frontispiece : La Peche ; by Puvis de Chavannes 
(in the possession of Charles Ricketts and 
Charles Shannon) 2 

The Origin and Development of the Enamelled 
Porcelain of the Chinese : — 
I. Vase with date-mark of Cheng-Hua. 2. Vase 
with date-mark of Wan-Li (in the British 
Museum) 7 

Puvis de Chavannes : — 
Plate I — L'Esperance ; by Puvis de Chavannes 13 
Plate II — La Famille du Pecheur; by Puvis 
de Chavannes 16 

The Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of some 
English Churches in Holland : — 
Plate I — I. Silver beakers and bread-dish in 
the English Reformed Church, Amsterdam. 
2. Paten, baptismal bowl, alms-boxes and 
beaker in the English Reformed Church, 
Amsterdam. 3. Inkstands, trays and seal in 
the English Reformed Church, Amsterdam 23 

Plate II— I. Brass pulpit desk in the English 
Reformed Church, Amsterdam. 2. Chalice, 
flagon and paten in the English Episcopal 
Church, Amsterdam 26 

Plate III — I. Beakers and patens formerly in 
the English Church at The Hague. 
2. Flagons and bread-dish formerly in the 
English Church at The Hague (in the 
British Legation, The Hague) . . .29 

Two Recent Additions to the National Gallery : — 
Plate I — Jacqueline de Bourgogne ; by Mabuse 
(in the National Gallery) . . . .32 

Plate II— Portrait of a lady as St. Mary Mag- 
dalen ; Antwerp school (in the National 
Gallery) 35 

St. John the Baptist ; by Cesare da Sesto (in the 

collection of Mr. Claude Phillips) . . 35 

Art in America : — 

The Art of Albert P. Ryder :— 
Plate I— Constance ; by Albert P. Ryder (in 

the collection of Sir William Van Home) • 55 
Plate II— I. Moonlight Marine; by Albert P. 
Ryder (in the collection of Mr. N. E. Mont- 
ross). 2. Moonlight Marine ; by Albert P. 
Ryder (in the collection of Sir William Van 
Home) 59 

Plate III— I. The Forest of Arden ; by Albert 
P. Ryder (in the collection of Mr. N. E. 
Montross;. 2. Death on the Pale Horse ; 
by Albert P. Ryder 62 

A Portrait of a Boy, by J. L. David (in the collec- 
tion of Mr. Claude Phillips) . . .66 

The Origin and Development of Chinese Porce- 
lain : — 

Plate I— Chinese porcelain enamelled with 
five colours, sixteenth century (early or late) 
(in the Victoria and Albert Museum) . . 71 


Plate II — I. Bowl with date mark of Cheng-te 
(1505-1521), with over-glaze decoration in 
five colours (by kind permission of Mr. 
George Salting). 2. Small water-vessel in 
form of carp. ' San-tsai ' painted glazes, 
without black pencilling, probably six- 
teenth century (in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum). 3. Small water-vessel in form of 
Chinese poet resting on jar; 'San-tsai' 
painted glazes with black pencilling, early 
eighteenth century (by kind permission of 
Mr. George Salting) 74 

Plate III — Jar with blue-black ground ; decora- 
tion in relief, slightly countersunk, pale 
yellow and greenish blue ; probably fifteenth 
century (by kind permission of Mr. George 
Salting) 79 

On Contorniates : — 
Contorniates in the British Museum . . 95 

Pictures by Goya in the Miethke Gallery, 
Vienna : — 

Plate I — Donna Cean Bermudez, by Goya (in 
the possession of Herr Miethke, Vienna) . 98 

Plate II — The arrest of a Manola, by Goya (in 
the possession of Herr Miethke, Vienna) . loi 

Plate III — I. Portrait of an officer, by Goya. 
2. The Toreador Pedro Romero ; attributed 
to Goya (both in the possession of Herr 
Miethke, Vienna) 104 

Art in America : — 

Rossetti : An Observation : — 

The Lady Lilith, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti 
(recently acquired for the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York) , . . .119 

An Altarpiece of the Catalan School : — 

An altarpiece of the Catalan school (in the 
collection of Mr. William Laffan) . . 122 

Alfred Lord Tennyson ; by Sir J. E. Millais (in 
the collection of the late Sir James Knowles, 
K.C.V.O.) 126 

The Sacramental Plate of S. Peter's Church, 
Vcre Street : — 
Plate I — Silver-gilt flagons and alms-dish (in 

S. Peter's Church, Vere Street) . . .139 
Plate II — Silver-gilt chalices, patens and dish 
(in S. Peter's Church, Vere Street) . . 142 

Doccia Porcelain of the Earliest Period : — 
Plate I — I and 2. Doccia cup painted by 
Anreiter (in the collection of Herr H. 
Rothberger, Vienna). 3. Doccia cup painted 
by Anreiter (in the Kaiser Franz-Josef 
Museum, Troppau). 4. Doccia flagon (in 
the collection of Herr Cahn-Speyer, Vienna) 147 

Plate II — 5. Doccia tureen (in the museum of 
the porcelain manufactory at Charlotten- 
burg). 6. Doccia tureen (in the Kunstge- 
werbe Museum, Berlin). 7. Doccia cup (in 
the collection of Dr. Sarbo, Budapest) . 150 

The Parade, by Gabriel de Saint-Aubin (recently 

acquired by the National Gallery) . . 153 


LIST OF VLA.T'E^— continued 


Drawings by Gerard David : — 

Plate I — Drawings by Gerard David . . 157 
Plate II— The Marriage at Cana ; by Gerard 

David (in the Louvre) 160 

A Lost Altarpiece of the Maitre de Flemalle : — 
I. Two wings of a triptych by the Maitre de 
Flemalle : Henricus Werlis with St. John 
the Baptist and St. Barbara reading (in the 
Prado). 2. The Annunciation ; possibly 
after an original by the Maitre de Flemalle 

(in the Louvre) 163 

The Emblems ot the Evangelists : — 

St. Mark, from the Durham Book . . . 166 
A Portrait attributed to Velazquez : — 

Portrait of a boy attributed to Velazquez (in the 
collection of Prince Doria Pamphili) . . 166 
Art in America : — 

Two Specimens of La Farge's Art in Glass : — 

1. The Peacock ; panel in coloured glass, by 
John La Farge. 2. The Peony in the 
Wind ; panel in coloured glass, by John 

La Farge 183 

The Passage of the Ravine, by G^ricault 

(recently exhibited at Messrs. Obach's) . 188 

The Franco-British Exhibition : Notes on the 
Applied Arts : — 
Lower part of a cabinet designed by Sir 
William Chambers and painted by William 
Hamilton (1783) (at the Franco-British 
Exhibition) 201 

Recent Additions to the National Portrait 
Gallery :— 
Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and 
Derby (recently acquired by the National 
Portrait Gallery) 207 

An Undescribed Woodcut by Heinrich Alde- 
grever : — 
I. Jacob meditating on Joseph's dream ; re- 
duced from a woodcut by Heinrich Alde- 
grever (in the collection of the Earl of 
Pembroke). 2. Joseph fleeing from Poti- 
phar's wife; from a woodcut by Heinrich 
Aldegrever (in the Kiinsthalle, Bremen) . 218 

A Sidelight on Donatello's Annunciation : — 
Plate I — I. The Madonna of the Annuncia- 
tion ; by Bernardo Rossellino (1447) (in 
the Church of the Misericordia, Empoli). 

2. Terra-cotta altarpiece with the Annuncia- 
tion ; by Bernardo Rossellino (1433) (in the 
cathedral, Arezzo) 223 

Plate n — I. Our Lady of Pity ; by Bernardo 
Rossellino (in the museum, Arezzo). 2, 
Detail from the Tabernacle ; by Donatello 
(in the sacristy of S. Peter's, Rome) . . 227 
Art in France : — 

Portrait by Hans Memlinc (recently acquired 

by the Louvre) 231 

Art in America : — 

Plate I — I, Colour print by Kiyonaga (before 
1770). 2. Colour print by Kiyonaga (1783). 

3. Colour print by Kiyonaga (not later than 
1771) (all in the collection of Mr. Francis 
Lathrop) 237 


Plate II— 4. Colour print by Kiyonaga (1772). 

5. Colour print by Kiyonaga {circa ^1783). 

6. Colour print by Kiyonaga (circa 1779) (all 

in the collection of Mr. Francis Lathrop) . 240 

Plate III — 7. Colour print by Kiyonaga [circa 
1783-87). 8. Colour print by Kiyonaga 
(circa 1783-87) (both in the collection of ^Ir. 
Francis Lathrop) ...... 243 

Plate IV — 9. Colour print by Kiyonaga (1788 
or later). 10. Colour print by Kiyonaga 
(circa 1790) (both in the collection of Mr. 
Francis Lathrop) 246 

Elena Grimaldi, wife of Niccolo Cattaneo (from 
the painting by Van Dyck in the collection 
of Mr. P. A. B. Widener) . . . .250 

A Bronze Bust of Commodus : — 

Bronze Bust of the Emperor Commodus and 
bronze base : circa a.d. 186-192 (in the col- 
lection of Mr. George Salting) . . . 253 

A Ming Bowl with Silver-gilt Mounts of the 
Tudor Period : — 
Ming bowl with silver-gilt mounts of the 
Tudor period (on view at Messrs. Owen 
Grant's, Ltd.) 259 

English lUummated Manuscripts at the Burling- 
ton Fine Arts Club : — 

Plate I — I. Page from the Yorkshire Psalter, 
c. 1 170 (in the possession of the University 
Court, Glasgow). 2. Initial from the Win- 
chester Vulgate, c. 1175 (in the possession 
of the Dean and Chapter of Winchester). 
3. Page from a Psalter written for a nun of 
St. Mary's Abbey, Winchester, c. 1220- 1240 
(in the possession of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge) 264 

Plate II — I. Page from Aldelmus ' De Virgini- 
tate.' Late tenth century (in the possession 
of the Archbishop of Canterbury). 2. Page 
from the Windmill Psalter. Late thirteenth 
century (in the possession of Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan) ....... 266 

Plate III — Part of page from the St. Omer 
Psalter; begun c. 1325 (in the possession of 
Mr. H. Yates Thompson) .... 269 

Plate IV — I. Page from the Psalter of Humph- 
rey de Bohun, c. 1370 (in the possession of 
Exeter College, Oxford). 2. Page from 
works by T. Chaundler, 1457-1461 (in the 
possession of Trinity College, Cambridge) . 272 

The Medallist Lysippus : — 

Plate I — Medals by Lysippus .... 275 

Plate II — Medals by Lysippus . . . . 281 

Plate III — Medals attributed to Lysippus . 284 

The Cracks in the Ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel : — 
Central portion of the Sistine ceiling with the 
natural cracks marked in black ink . . 289 


LIST OF PLATES — co?itinued 


Alt in America:— ,^ • . , • 

Plate I— Rembrandt, by himself. Painted in 
1658 (in the collection o£ Mr. Henry C. 

Frick) . . . • ■ , ■,, 't-, r 

pi;i^e II_Portrait of Canevaro, by Van Uyck 
(in the collection of Mr. Henry C. Frick) . 

pi,\te HI— I. Filippo Cattaneo, by Van Dyck 
(in the collection of Mr. P. A. B. Widener . 
- Clelia Cattaneo, by Van Dyck (in the col- 
Tection of Mr. P. A. B. Widener) . 
The Swing; by jean Antoine Watteau (in the 
Jones collection, Victoria and Albert 


The French School at the National Gallery :— 

Plate I— Portrait of Malibran (?) ; attributed 
to Ingres (in the National Gallery) . . 

Plate n— I. La Main Chaude ; by J. F. de 
Troy (presented to the National Gallery by 
Lieut.-Colonel Croft Lyons). 2. Elisa 
Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany ; by 
David (in the National Gallery) . 

Plate HI— I. Marsh at Arleux du Nord ; by 
Corot (bequeathed to the National Gallery 
by Mrs. Edwin Edwards). 2. Noon ; by 
Corot (lent to the National Gallery by Mr. 
George Salting) . . . •, • : 

Plate IV— The Wood Gatherer; by Corot 
(lent to the National Gallery by Mr. George 

Plate V— The Bent Tree ; by Corot (lent to 
the National Gallery by Mr. George Salting) 335 

Plate VI— I. Sunny Days in the Forest ; by 
Diaz (lent to the National Gallery by Mr. 
George Salting). 2. The Storm; by Diaz 
(lent to the National Gallery by Mr. George 
Salting) • 

Plate VII— I. Roses ; by Fantm-Latour (be- 
queathed to the National Gallery by Mrs. 
Edwin Edwards). 2. The Drawbridge ; by 
James Maris (lent to the National Gallery by 

Mr. J. C. Driicker) 

A Watteau in the Jones Collection : — 

Drawings in three chalks; by Jean Antoine 
Watteau (in the Louvre) .... 












Hairdressing among the Ancient Greeks :— 
Plate I— I. Earliest style : seventh and sixth 
centuries b.c. 2. Early development. 
3. Early and transitional styles after the 
Persian Wars, 4. Fashionable style of the 
fifth century. 5. The fillet : fifth century. 
6. The melon coiffure : second half of fifth 

century 35° 

Plate II — 7. Fifth century, simpler mode. 

8. Fifth century, combination of fashionable 
and simpler modes, with double ribbon. 

9. Another use of the double ribbon. 

10. The knot and double ribbon. 11. De- 
velopment of fig. 4 : the roll with wreath. 

12. The roll with diadem .... 353 
Plate III— 13. Treatment of side locks. 
14. Further stage of fig. 13. 15. The bow 
coiffure: further stage of figs. 13 and 14. 

16. Development of the bow coiffure. 

17. Hellenistic period 356 

A Terra-cotta Bust of Thomas Third Earl of 

Coventry, by John Michael Rysbrack (in the 
collection of the Duke of Beaufort) . . 363 
Art in America : — 

The Cattaneo Van Dycks :— 
The Marchesa Giovanna Cattaneo ; by Van 
Dyck (in the collection of Mr. Henry C. 

Frick) 371 

Rembrandt and Girtin : — 

Easby Abbey ; from the water-colour draw- 
ing by Thomas Girtin (recently acquired 
by the Metropolitan Museum, New York) 374 
Cassone fronts and Salvers in American collec- 
tions : — 
Plate III— I. The Capture of Salerno by 
Robert Guiscard : Florentine, early fif- 
teenth century (in the MetropoUtan 
Museum, New York). 2. The Triumph 
of Caesar : Florentine, mid-fifteenth 
century (in the Bryan-De Montor collec- 
tion, in the possession of the New York 

Historical Society) 377 

Plate IV — Love Disarmed : a salver by 
Girolamo of Siena (in the Jarves collec- 
tion, Yale University) .... 380 



^ THE PAi; TER AS CRi . ^ 

^ I have written about ti- 

the world an incalculable bcivKc. 
;,. -% : ■ vvritings that such r-- • ■> - 
^s of the traditions c: 
thev tell us tlie' little we 
which tri' 

T was annt 

last month 

in? ">- ' ' 


■ ay, R. 
y ort-«. : 

..:.:^'that t...j 

L ling about their 1 
art-criticwould thus appear to be/ 
the devil and the deep sea. Ij 
little or ~ ' ■ ' '"c of the 
parf nf •. ondemnej 

P f he has mast/ -ed it 1 

ble for membership of the Old 
", V ater-Uolour Society. 

No sensible person, of ll , ,., who 

knows anything of modern ar^ literature 

would take Mr, Murray's stri< urcs very 

K-riously, so far as the critics < f our best 

daily and weekly papers are concerned. 

Of their knowledge and ompetence 

^ be no question, and o condemn 

!ticism as a whc e, without 

ralothti thoroughly 

,. :ors to t le provincial 

t ate a gri ve injustice. 

deny that a 


best . 
chant, . 


— tliat HI ail 
ii V. juLi.iou ui ■. xpression fits 
*'^ erartlv that we cannot 
~ of t To attain this 

unity is the aim of all serious pain: 
to decide how far it has been af 
the duty of all serious critics. 1 
should be among our most emini 
one or two who are not known t 
painters is rather -a t 
exceptional taste and .-.! 
argument against the gener 
ceteris paribus, a practical knov. 
painting is an immense help tov ..r 


In short, the increasing frequency with 
which the work of criticism is done by 
professional painters is a thing, I 
^'.eir brother artists ought to be c 
grateful than the public. It is ; 
to understand why the Old Wat. 
should formally rec 
• of cri 





was announced early 


last month by the 'Morn- 
ing Post ' that the Royal 
Society of Painters in 
^^^ Water-Colours had passed 
^^ — i^ n rule forbidding its mem- 

bers or associates to publish any criticism en 
the work of living artists. Only a few days 
later the newspapers reported an attack 
made by Mr. David Murray, R.A., upon 
contemporary art-critics, the gist of com- 
plaint being that they did not understand 
anything about their business. The poor 
art-critic would thus appear to be between 
the devil and the deep sea. If he has 
little or no knowledge of the practical 
part of painting he is condemned by the 
Royal Academy ; if he has mastered it he 
is ineligible for membership of the Old 
Water-Colour Society. 

No sensible person, of course, who 
knows anything of modern art literature 
would take Mr. Murray's strictures very 
seriously, so far as the critics of our best 
daily and weekly papers are concerned. 
Of their knowledge and competence 
there can be no question, and to condemn 
our art criticism as a whole, without 
excepting these and several other thoroughly 
well-equipped contributors to the provincial 
press, is to perpetrate a grave injustice. 
It would be equally unjust to deny that a 
large proportion of the art criticism in the 
press is the merest hack-work ; and the 
best hope for its improvement lies in the 
chance that here and there some able 
painter may take to writing. 

The few painters, from Cennini and 
Leonardo to Delacroix and Whistler, who 


have written about their art have done 
the world an incalculable service. It is 
in their writings that such fragments as 
we possess of the traditions of the fine arts 
survive ; they tell us the little we know 
of the spirit in which the great masters 
approached their art, of the working 
theories of design by which they were 
guided, and of the technical processes 
which they employed. 

It is rarely recognized by the public, 
and sometimes forgotten by persons of 
education, that in painting the subject 
chosen is inevitably connected with the 
technique used to express it — that in all 
perfect art the method of expression fits 
the subject so exactly that we cannot 
think of them apart. To attain this 
unity is the aim of all serious painters ; 
to decide how far it has been attained is 
the duty of all serious critics. That there 
should be among our most eminent critics 
one or two who are not known to fame as 
painters is rather a testimony to their 
exceptional taste and scholarship than an 
argument against the general principle that, 
ceteris paribus, a practical knowledge of 
painting is an immense help towards fair 

In short, the increasing frequency with 
which the work of criticism is done by 
professional painters is a thing for which 
their brother artists ought to be even more 
grateful than the public. It is thus hard 
to understand why the Old Water-Colour 
Society should formally record its veto 
upon the very form of criticism which its 
more capable members should be the first to 
welcome. We trust the rumour is incorrect. 

Thb Burungton Magazine, No, 6i Vol. XUl— April, 1908, 


'HEN the attention of the 
collector is first directed 
to a new branch of art it 
is the artistic merit, or 
I what he regards as such, 
that alone appeals to him. 
But before long the spirit 
of the antiquary insidi- 
ously works its way in. The enamelled plaque or 
the porcelain vase comes to be valued not for its 
aesthetic charm alone. Its relation to other pieces 
of the same class, its age above all, are now 
elements in the estimation of its value. It seems, 
indeed, to be an invariable law in what may be 
called the history of aesthetic appreciation that, as 
time goes on, more and more interest is taken in 
the work of early days. In the case both of pictures 
and of classical sculpture this pushing back of the 
centre of interest began many years ago ; indeed, 
of late years there have been signs that this archa- 
izing tendency has been exhausted, and that the 
movement is now in the other direction. The art 
of the seventeenth and still more that of the 
eighteenth century is again in the ascendant. 
Special points of merit have been found in the 
sculpture of the early Empire, and even that of the 
age of Constantine has found defenders. 

But no such return current is yet to be found in 
the case of the appreciation of the potter's art. In 
the estimation of the artistic merit of Greek vases 
the throwing back of the centre of interest began 
some time since, and now it is not the pottery of 
what is known as the ' fine ' period that appeals to 
some of us most strongly. There is a strength 
and a ' fitness' in the black figure ware of the days 
before the Persian War that had in a measure 
passed away before the end of the fifth century. 
So again in the case of Italian majolica. There 
are many who feel that something had been lost 
when the bold and simple decoration of earlier 
times had given place to the elaborate grotesques 
and careful figure painting of the cinqiicceiito. 
Even if we turn to the Nearer East, to the 
Mahomedan lands where the calm enjoyment of 
rich colour and graceful pattern is less subject to 
development or mere change of fashion, not a few 
collectors take now a keener interest in the lustred 
tiles and rudely glazed jars of the early thirteenth 
century than in the gorgeous wares of Rhodes and 

I have spoken of the insidious penetration of 
the spirit of the antiquary as something likely to 
bias the native artistic judgment. But of course 
the riper judgment that comes of wider and deeper 
knowledge has in it elements of a purely aesthetic 
nature. There grows up, above all, a recognition 
of the spontaneity and of the simplicity of aim in 
the earlier work resulting in a more satisfying 

'fitness.' On the other hand, the increase of 
mechanical facility, the enlarging of the artist's 
palette, these have been snares that have hampered 
the directness and vigour of the craftsman's work. 
There are, then, two elements that have been at 
work in this pushing-back in time of the centre of 
interest in a historical series of objects of art. 
One, the mere ' glamour of time,' it should be the 
duty of the critic to eliminate ; while the other, 
depending upon the superior directness and spon- 
taneity to be found in the work of the earlier 
period, cannot be too prominently brought for- 
w^ard and accentuated. 

Now, in the case of Chinese porcelain we are 
dealing with the work of a people with whom this 
' laudation of bygone days ' amounts almost to a 
religion. One strange result has been that every 
advance in technique, every evolution of style, has 
crept in by side paths or has been disguised as a 
return to the practice of the great men of old. 
The spirit of the antiquary has ruled so firmly 
that the aesthetic judgment has in every case had 
to bow before it. Here, then, the critic of art will 
have much to eliminate, and in endeavouring to 
unravel that most tangled problem, the evolution 
of the potter's art in China, this antiquarian bias 
of the native mind must ever be kept in view. In 
groping one's way back to the earlier work one is 
met, not once only, but many times over, by 
revivals, more or less skilfully carried out, of old 
designs and technical processes. Pitfalls not un- 
like but more complicated than those that beset 
the unravelling of the history of Greek sculpture 
surround on every side the history of Chinese art. 
With us it is only quite of late years that this 
tendency to fall back upon the work of early times 
has spread to the admirers of Oriental porcelain. 
This change of taste has been reflected in the 
demand for the wares of the Ming period. Now, 
although there may be some grounds for this 
change of view in the case of the ' self-coloured ' 
and ' blue and white ' wares, I think that when the 
whole series of the enamelled porcelain of China 
is ranged in chronological order, it will be found 
that little that was made before the reign of Kang- 
he — this is our ' fine' period — has any commanding 
claim for artistic recognition. 

It is, indeed, only with this last group— the 
enamelled ware— that I am concerned here. I shall 
attempt to trace out some of the grounds for the 
relative inferiority of the earlier work. With 
regard to the other groups I may say in passing, 
that although as regards the material itself — the 
porcelain— the Chinese have undisputed right to 
be regarded as the inventors and indeed the mono- 
polisers of the art for a period of nearly a thousand 
years, coloured glazes were certainly in use upon 
pottery of various kinds in Western Asia long before 

they were known to the Chinese. To say nothing 
of the Egyptian wares, the turquoise glazes of the 
Persians were fully developed at a time when the 
Chinese were contented with a rude stone ware, 
either unglazed or covered with a thin colourless 
glassy skin. Indeed, later, in Sassanian times, 
when a fairly regular intercourse had been estab- 
lished between the Nearer and the Farther East, it 
is not unlikely that the Chinese of the Tang or 
earlier dynasties may have learned much from their 
western neighbours. Again, in the case of the 
decoration with cobalt-blue under the glaze, it is a 
question whether the process was not in use in 
Syria and perhaps in Persia before the potters of 
the ' Middle Kingdom ' had advanced beyond a 
monochrome ware. The Chinese native authorities 
trace back their ' blue and white ' ware to the 
time of the Mongol dynasty (thirteenth century). 
We have indeed in our collections no examples of 
this ware of anything like so early a date. On the 
other hand not a few specimens of Syrian pottery 
of the thirteenth or possibly twelfth century, rudely 
decorated with patches of cobalt-blue under a thick 
glaze of alkaline silicate, have lately found their 
way to the West. It is possible that the type, if not 
actual examples, of the earliest application of under- 
glaze blue by the Chinese may be found in a 
certain class of crackle porcelain, or perhaps rather 
stoneware, roughly daubed with blue under the 
glaze that, together with large, heavy pieces of the 
early ' Martabani ' celadon, has been found in 
Borneo and the adjacent islands. 

I now come to what is indeed the main issue in 
this ' preliminary inquiry.' The question proposed 
is : When and under what conditions did the 
Chinese first apply to the glazed surface of their 
porcelain a decoration of coloured enamels ? By 
the term enamel is meant, in this case, a flux con- 
sisting of a lead silicate coloured by various 
metallic oxides. It may be confessed at once that 
no definite answer can be given to this question. 
All that I can hope to do is to sum up the evidence 
that is available and to accentuate the few facts 
that are definitely known. 

It is perhaps a result of the general law of aesthetic 
appreciation referred to at the beginning of this 
article that the word ' Ming ' has of late become 
a name to conjure with ; this is to be observed 
above all in the neighbourhood of Bond Street, 
where the demand has brought forward a ready 
supply. Now, apart from a few, a very few, really 
old pieces, the ' Ming ware' that is to be seen in 
the shop windows of London may be divided into 
two classes; — (i) Examples of archaistic porcelain 
of the time of Kang-he, and perhaps still more of 
his successors Yung-ching and Kien-lung. 
(2) Quite modem ware turned out from kilns in the 
neighbourhood of Pekin and destined for the 
European and American market. It is difficult to 
learn much of what is going on now at King-te- 

Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

chen, the old centre of the Chinese porcelain 
industry. Probably the orders are sent down from 
the court as in old days. The aged empress is 
said to be a connoisseur in porcelain as in other 
departments of art, but I cannot say what class of 
ware is now made for the palace. How far the 
Japanese may now compete with the North China 
kilns is again a moot point. It is not the business 
of the wholesale importer to keep separate the 
goods that arrive from the different eastern ports. 
This was, indeed, the case as long ago as the 
eighteenth century, and it was this mystification 
surrounding the place of origin of the porcelain 
imported that gave rise to such misleading terms 
as 'East Indian' or * Batavian.' Both the paste 
and the glaze of Japanese porcelain may generally 
be readily distinguished from those of their conti- 
nental masters, but I have seen a few ambitious 
examples of Japanese ware that approach closely 
to the Chinese type. As long ago as the seventies 
of the last century some skilfully potted vases of 
enamelled ware were turned out from a kiln near 
Yokohama. They were perhaps made with im- 
ported clay — in any case, they were difficult to 
distinguish from the best Chinese work of the time 
of Kang-he. 

What, then, are the criteria by which the porce- 
lain — especially the enamelled porcelain — made in 
China during the Ming dynasty may be identified ? 
Before attempting to answer that question it may 
be well to glance for a moment at the history of 
this native Chinese dynasty that ruled the country 
for nearly three hundred years (i 368-1 643) to see 
if we can discover any facts bearing upon the 
development of the ceramic art during that period. 
What we find is that this dynasty, like so many 
others in China and elsewhere, reached its maxi- 
mum of power within a short period after its 
foundation. Under two able but short-lived rulers, 
Yung-lo and Hsuan-te, the empire during the 
early years of the fifteenth century attained to a 
strength and unity that are reflected in the arts of 
the period. Shortly after this time the country was 
invaded by the Mongols, and the emperor himself 
made prisoner. Although somewhat later, with 
Cheng-hua, a great name in the annals of porce- 
1am, there was some revival, the succeeding six- 
teenth century was on the whole a period of 
decline. We hear more and more of the tyranny 
and the extortion of the eunuchs who governed 
the provinces while the emperor himself remained 
secluded in his palace at Pekin. In vain did the 
censors protest. Of Lung-king (1567-1572) we 
are told that ' the emperor was devoted to the 
pleasures of his seraglio, and his libertine tempera- 
ment is reflected in the decoration of the porce- 
lain, which is notorious for its erotic character ' 
(Bushcll, ' Ceramic Art,' p. 234). His successor, 
Wan-li, who reigned from 1572 to 1619, is the last 
of whom we hear in connexion with the imperial 

Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

porcelain at King-te-chen. It was a time of 
relaxation of manners. The censors protested m 
vain against the intrusion of the influence of the 
western barbarians, whose merchants at Canton 
and other ports were now eagerly competing for 
trade privileges. As in more recent times, this 
filtering in of foreign habits and tastes was asso- 
ciated by the upholders of the old traditions with 
the decline of morals and the decadence of art. 
This is a point that has to be borne in mmd m 
connexion with the porcelain produced at the 
time. There then followed a period of warfare 
and confusion, during which the Ming dynasty 
came to an end. But it was precisely durmg this 
period that for the first time a steady and extensive 
demand for Chinese porcelain arose, not only hi 
Europe, but, on a far larger scale, in Persia and in 
the Hindustan of the Mogul emperors. In fact, 
from our point of view, this period of confusion 
which continued, in the south especially, for 
several years after the accession of Kang-he (1661), 
may well be classed with the latter part at least of 
the reign of Wan-li. For this period, one that is 
generally ignored by writers on the subject of 
Chinese porcelain (from, say, 1600 to about 1680), 
it would be well if we could find a general name. 
I can only suggest some such term as ' the period 
of Indo-Persian influence,' or' of the seventeenth 
century decadence.' 

The first great emperor of the succeeding — the 
Manchu — dynasty began his long reign in i66r. 
This was Kang-he, the Roi Soldi of China. But, as 
in the case of his contemporary in France, it was 
not till some twenty years after his succession that 
Kang-he was master of the whole country. In 
1677, on the occasion of an important rebellion, 
King-te-chen was burnt down and the kilns de- 
stroyed, and it was probably only after this time 
that any start was made with the renaissance of 
porcelain at King-te-chen.' 

Indeed, as we can now understand, from the 
sixteenth century to the present day there have 
been two competing demands upon the potters of 
King-te-chen. Of these, that for the supply of the 
imperial palace has on the whole tended to the 
preservation of old traditions and to the ignoring 
of new processes and schemes of decoration. The 
other demand has come from the merchants at the 
ports of export — in later days the Treaty Ports — 
who were eager to be provided with a class of 
porcelain suitable to the wants of the countries 
with which they traded. If the first of these 
demands was dominant, the porcelain produced 
was likely to be of great technical excellence, but 
the shapes and the decorations had to follow on 
the old lines. When, on the other hand, the 

• If, hawever, we are to accept the viceroy Lang Tiag-tso as 
the originator of the famous san-^-dc-bienf ware, the Lanl-yao 
of the Chinese, then the revival must have come about before 
the rebellion of the seventies. But this, I think, is doabtful. 

private kilns were busy in executing orders for the 
export trade, there would be an opportunity for 
introducing new and exotic shapes, and full play 
would be given to the use of coloured enamels in 
the decoration. All through the Ming period this 
foreign influence was probably in a measure at 
work, but it was not until the commencement of 
the seventeenth century that it became dominant. 
At the same time there was, as we have seen, in 
the case of the demand from Pekin, a relaxation of 
the old time-honoured restrictions. No wonder, 
then, that in the reign of Wan-li the new spirit was 
carrying everything before it. This is what, for 
us, gives so much interest to the porcelain of this 
period, especially to the class which is decorated 
with enamel colours. There is undoubtedly at 
times an exotic influence to be found both in the 
shapes and in the patterns of the decoration. But 
these new shapes and designs do not point, as was 
the case later on, to a European origin. It is 
rather of the patterns on the textile fabrics of India 
and Persia that we are reminded. So among the 
shapes we find the graceful ibraik and the water- 
vessel for the hookah. 

The Wan-li enamelled wares have a claim to our 
attention in that, as a whole, they form a well- 
marked and easily identified class. Unlike what 
we find in the case of the date-marks of the earlier 
Ming emperors, the nieii-hao of Wan-li, when 
found upon a piece of porcelain, may be accepted 
as indicating the true date.^ 

The importance of the enamelled porcelain of 
Wan-li depends upon the following facts : (i) It 
is the earliest porcelain enamelled over the glaze 
to which we can give a definite date. (2) Of the 
two main classes into which it falls, one, developed 
from the underglaze blue ware, is the primary type 
of the largest family of decorated ware to be found 
in the history of porcelain. It is a family that 
includes a large part of the enamelled wares of 
China, of Japan, and (variously modified) of the 
eighteenth-century porcelain of Europe. On the 
other hand, the second type of Wan-li enamelled 
porcelain, with dominant iron-red, although it ap- 
pears to have had neither ancestors nor successors 
in China, has found many imitators in Japan. 

There are, then, grounds enough, it would seem, 
at least from the kiinst-historisch point of view, for 
claiming a position of some distinction for these 
Wan-li enamels. Nor when looked at from the 
artistic side are these boldly executed and richly 
coloured designs without charm. And yet this 
ware has found little favour with collectors, either 
with us in the West or in China. It is only the 

- The same, I think, may be said of the mark of his prede- 
cessor, the short-lived Lung-king. The porcelain of these two 
reigns is always classed together by the Chinese. It should be 
noted, however, that the date-mark of Wan-li, which generally 
takes the exceptional form of an oblong cartouche placed in a 
prominent position, has been often copied in later times in 




Japanese who have appreciated its merits. For 
the native connoisseur, this ware, no doubt, 
represents a time of decadence and of ' barbaric 
influence. The Western collector finds fault with 
the generally rough character of the moulding and 
the decoration. Though by no means very rare, 
what I may call the characteristic types of Wan-li 
porcelain seldom find a place in our collections, 
even in those that claim to give a special recogni- 
tion to so-called Ming wares. 

Now, in an inquiry into the origin and history 
of decorated porcelain, the more logical course 
would doubtless be to begin with the primitive forms 
and to follow forward the development of the 
genre. We are, however, so much in the dark 
concerning the early history, and so much con- 
fusion prevails on the subject, that the wiser plan 
will perhaps be to fix once for all on the reader's 
mind the two types of enamelled porcelain that, 
as I have said, were after all the earliest of which 
we have any definite knowledge. Both these types 
appear to take their origin in the reign of Wan-li 
or in that of his short-lived predecessor. 

Let us then take the group in which an iron- 
red holds the dominant place in the decoration. 
The class is well represented in the British Museum 
collection, and the vase illustrated in the colour 
plate (No. 2f may be taken as typical ; it is a good 
example of a form that is characteristic of the 
period. The vase is of square section, evidently 
shaped in a mould, with four mask handles, the 
whole imitating in shape an old bronze. It is 
enamelled with dragons and phoenixes, and next 
to the iron-red a leafy copper-green is the most 
noticeable colour ; there are also a few touches of 
yellow; and the decoration, which is distinctly of a 
brocade-like character, had its start in some cobalt- 
blue under the glaze. In a prominent position 

^ The ciloar-plate is reproduced here from ' Porcelain,' by 
Edwird Dillon, by kind permission of the publishers, Messrs. 
Methuen and Co. 

Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

under the upper edge, within a horizontal car- 
touche, may be read, 'Dai Ming IVnn-li nien shi' 
(made in the period Wan-li). Vases of this 
description, of all sizes, are, as I have said, by no 
means uncommon. Smaller examples of a very 
similar ware are often found in Japan, and the 
decoration, applied to stoneware as well as to 
porcelain, has there been copied in more than 
one place. 

There is a ruder subdivision of this family 
where the enamels are confined to the iron-red 
and the leafy green. These enamels are boldly 
and hastily applied in heavy masses on the white 
ground. Such decoration is found, above all, on 
large dishes, rudely potted for the most part ; there 
are several examples in the British Museum. 
Here again this picturesque but rather rough ware — 
it can hardly be the produce of the kilns of King- 
te-chen — has found favour with the Japanese. At 
the old castle town of Inuyama, in the province 
of Owari, I came, many years ago, upon a lately 
abandoned kiln where, among other wares, plates 
of a kaolinic stoneware, hardly to be classed as 
porcelain, had been decorated in a manner closely 
following the Wan-li ware I have just described. 
Here we have a typical example of that survival of 
Ming traditions that is so characteristic of Japanese 
porcelain as a whole. On the other hand, in 
China it would seem that neither type of this 
decoration with dominant iron-red has found 
favour in subsequent days.* 

In the concluding part of this paper I shall 
attempt to show the relation of these Wan-li 
enamels on the one hand to the earlier Ming wares 
and on the other to the manifold developments of 
the time of Kang-he. 

{To be continued.) 

^The rudely enamelled ware was, perhaps, specially made 
for exportation to semi-barbarous lands. Something very like it 
has been found both in the Philippines and in Ceylon. 





lEW personalities in the art of 
ithe nineteenth century afford 
'such scope for study and specu- 
lation as Puvis de Chavannes. 
If we accept Taine's aphorism 
Uhat art is the result of an 
^environment, how shall we 
I account for the work of this 
man who dealt in quintessences and abstractions in 
a period devoted to the noting of detail and inci- 
dent ? Yet, if we allow Mr. Huystnans's angry 
contradiction of Taine's theory, and consider 
art as a revolt from its environment, we are 

hardly nearer a solution of the problem, since the 
work of Puvis de Chavannes is lacking in the 
element of revolt and impatience which has often 
characterized the painting of the century. It is 
probable that Taine is nearer the truth than is 
Huysmans. Neither theory is sufficient to account 
for the creative impulse in man which would seem 
to follow a course known only to itself, in which 
the environment may count in so far that it can 
thwart or destroy, just as an accident may put an 
end to a precious life, yet a noble and stimulating 
environment may fail to bring about its reflection 
in art or be badly served by it. This was the case 

T^uvis de Qhavannes 

with the first Empire, while the ignoble reaction 
accompanying the Restoration was the signal for 
the romantic upheaval ; thus in a period devoted 
mainly to the transaction of small affairs, in a 
period without the desire for epical art — without 
the need of churches and palaces — we witness the 
work of Puvis de Chavannes, who strove for the 
noblest tasks, and who would have been equal to 
satisfying the cravings of some genial Tyrant or 
Pope desirous of seeing the history of the world 
painted in his palace within his lifetime. 

The moment has not yet come in which to view 
the case of Piivis de Chavannes from sufficient 
distance to establish a plausible theory for his 
tendencies : in a sense he is less comprehensible 
than some earlier masters — that is, less easy to 
class. He is more remote than Delacroix, who 
is now comfortably placed in galleries devoted 
to the old masters ; he is still more removed 
from most of us than is Courbet, to whom we 
owe the impulse still obtaining in naturalism and 
its descendant, impressionism. True, we can 
class together a few facts which may serve to 
explain Puvis's technical origin ; we can trace 
the germ of his early manner in a few experi- 
mental paintings by Chasseriau (when still under 
the partial influence of Ingres) and so back to 
Poussin. This plausible explanation might satisfy 
a Frenchman ; it accounts for something in 
his early method of drawing, for something in his 
sense of gesture ; in these things he can be placed 
in a sequent but not unbroken line of French 
masters. Yet to all this we must add the new spirit 
pervading even his earliest works, which is not 
Roman as with Poussin, not neo-Greek as with 
Ingres, nor Ionian and exotic as with Chasseriau. 
To the efforts of these great artists towards a plastic 
and poetic synthesis Puvis de Chavannes has 
added a more racy sense of the French soil, a 
more human and comprehensive vision, and in the 
construction, method and aspect of his paintings 
he has brought a mass of new qualities which 
rank him among the great designers in the history 
of art. 

It is often stated that the nineteenth century has 
seen a new conquest of nature in the art of land- 
scape painting : to some it would seem that the 
field of artistic expression has thus been almost 
indefinitely enlarged ; to others, more sceptical, 
there would seem to be a danger in this apparent 
escape from control and the substitution of the 
mood of a man (out of doors) for that more com- 
plex expression of life and experience which is 
the field of the figure painter. The fact is too 
often overlooked that the greater art includes 
the less, and that landscape painting has been 
discovered and its essential conventions invented 
by figure painters. 

Let us rule out, for convenience, the pale aerial 
backgrounds of Piero della Francesca, the 


dewy distances of Memling and other unsurpass- 
able, if subordinate, renderings of ground and sky 
by the masters of the fifteenth century, and accept 
the fact that the modern conception of landscape 
painting was invented by Titian. The essentials of 
landscape, namely the undulating structure of the 
ground, the rooting and branching of trees, the 
broken illumination of distances and the study of 
afternoon clouds, owe their discovery to him : 
Titian's personal and splendid rendering of these 
beautiful things has obscured the fact that they 
represent the stock-in-trade of nearly all subsequent 
landscape painting. Rubens will add more move- 
ment and glitter, Turner and Constable even more, 
yet the pattern remains almost unaltered,namely the 
undulating foreground, the large and small 
balancing masses of trees and the rolling vista 
beyond. The composing masses are more varied 
with Rubens, with Turner they are often more 
formal (nearer to the architecture of the theatre 
vista). With Corot, in his larger works, the pattern 
is still traditional, a denuded bough cuts across 
the two balancing tree masses, and the distant 
water in the backgrounds of Titian has become 
the gleam of a lake. With each master the pigment 
tends to a more broken surface and the colour 
undergoes a drastic modification, but in some degree 
the same romantic climaxes in nature are chosen, 
and the scene flooded with broken lights and 
shadows. Watteau, one of the greatest landscape 
painters, anticipates something of the melancholy 
grace which characterizes the art of Corot ; but in 
all these masters, including even Constable, Titian's 
plume-like trees have remained. Corot escapes 
from them in chance studies from nature, in the 
rendering of the willows and poplars of the north 
of France. I would admit that in the chronology 
of landscape painting the modification of the 
Titian formula has been considerable,' without, 
however, breaking with the mould. The change 
in the use of pigment has been enormous, ranging 
from shapely, controlled brushwork to a convention 
in which the touch is shapeless as with Constable. 
The range in tonality has gone from gold to silver, 
from amber to ashes, ranging from sunset to dawn, 
but always within the same pictorial scheme, in 
which the spectator stands some distance from 
the scene as if viewing it through a window. 

With Nicolas Poussin, though his indebtedness 
to Titian would seem enormous, we have one of 
the greatest architects of landscape, the equal of 
Titian in the construction of the ground, and the 
superior of Rubens and Turner in this particular. 
With N. Poussin the construction of the banks of 
a river or winding road, the architecture of a hill 
and horizon, reduces the drawing in the pictures of 
Caspar Dughet and Claude to the level of mere 

'Notably with occasional works of Turner, the most experi- 
mental of all landscape painters, if at other times he is the most 
arbitrary and even conventional, showing even the influence of 

T^uvis de Qhavannes 

scene painting. I believe that the constructive 
element in Poussin counts for something in the 
evolution of landscape achieved by Puvis de 

I am aware that a totally new view of nature, 
owing almost nothing to Titian, will be traced 
among chance studies of road and wind-swept 
canals drawn by Rembrandt,- but these were un- 
known even to Milltt and Puvis, and they have, 
therefore, had no influence on the evolution of 
landscape painting ; we prize one or two pictures 
by that delightful but unequal little master, John 
Crome, for a hint at this more intimate or humble 
outlook upon nature which belonged to Rem- 
brandt. Perhaps their influence is yet to come. 

If the influence of Constable's experimental 
workmanship has been enormous, it can hardly be 
said that he brought a great change to the design- 
ing of landscape. His larger pictures are, after 
all, fine academic set pieces in which the trees are 
viewed as mid-distance masses. In his sketches 
there is a more original outlook, something hinting 
at the simplicity of motive and variety of illumina- 
tion which characterizes the colour prints of Japan, 
without equalling them, however, in range of 
subject and illumination. 

Millet, an artist of unequal power, has shown a 
greater originality in the designing of landscape, 
with his finely constructed ground and wand-like 
trees ; he avoids the climax effects of the pro- 
fessional landscape painter, or, at any rate, the 
rendering of them with the large orchestral 
(musical festival) effects of Turner or the per- 
sistent tremolo of the fiddles (with a touch of the 
triangle) which allures us in Corot, and which 
reconciles us to the designs of these masters, 
even when they are monotonous and academic, 
in the sense that they reflect a combination of 
admittedly beautiful or agreeable things. Against 
this tendency which I have just described as aca- 
demic I have nothing to say, since all art in some 
degree is little else, whether the artist selects that 
which he thinks capable of beautiful interpretation 
or else combines elements of beauty from afar ; 
the term academic becomes a reproach when the 
choice is easy to foresee, when the combination 
lures a conventional public on the side of the artist, 
just as the Palladian palaces and arriving ship, the 
pleasant sweep of the bay and the fineness of the 
day flattered the contemporaries of Claude in 
favour of his porcelain skies and zinc seas : such 
gentle 'cheateries ' masquerade themselves in strange 
ways — the string of geese in a sketch by Daubigny, 
the little red cow in a Corot, are agreeable rustic 
touches which add incalculable hundreds to a pic- 
ture in the eyes of the Philistine and the dealer, 
just as English ladies like a portrait which contains 
a white satin dress. 

I shall doubtless be accused of undervaluing 
"These are preserved mainly in the Chatsworth collection. 

the study of light which most of these masters 
have brought to landscape painting ; but this new 
study is in itself hardly more vakiable than the 
conquest of relief which was the aim of the 
Tenebrosi. If this fashion in the painting of the 
seventeenth century stifled painting, and poisoned 
the colour sense of a whole period, the landscape 
painters' rendering of the glitter of sunlight and 
sunset has disintegrated the plastic sense, nar- 
rowed the outlook, and established a convention in 
the conduct of pigment which is unsuittd to the 
expression of form, and so affected the standard of 
figure painting; at any rate it has become a common 
fashion hardly more valuable than the light 
animated manner affected by Ricci and Piazzetta, 
who reacted against the cellar light of theTenebrosi. 

The most original designer of landscape since 
Rembrandt is Puvis de Chavannes. With him 
the character of the ground, the drawing of the 
horizon, have varied more than with any other 
painter. With him we escape once for all from 
the beautiful tree convention established by Titian 
and modified by Corot, in which they are feathery 
masses seen in the mid-distance. With Puvis the 
distant wand-like trees of Millet have become the 
colonnades of tree-trunks which we find in the 
north of France ; his trees are recognizable as 
poplar, willow or sycamore, etc., the leaves are no 
longer the gold or silver feathery masses of Titian, 
Turner and Corot, but a strange pattern against 
the sky, or else sober masses of varying contour 
supported by varying branch forms ; the tree 
trunks have become grey, green or while, and 
beyond extend horizons and skies that are not the 
great summer skies of Titian orthescirocco clouds 
of Tiepolo or the Bengal lights of Turner's fantastic 
sunsets, or the splashes of mauve and rose of 
Corot, but skies that have their hour, like the 
evening hush of the turquoise sky in Le Rcpos, 
the dry light of morning in Lndiis pro Patria, the 
weight of noon in La Vision Antique or the mauve 
of a summer night over the stubble fields in Le 

Puvis de Chavannes has rendered the countless 
moods belonging to the seasons over land and sea, 
in the dawn, noon and twilight ; and do not let us 
forget that these moments are not caught in mere 
racy sketches and studies, they do not owe sparkle 
and charm to freshness of pigment or to some 
chaotic experimentalism in handling. These effects 
form part in a noble scheme in which man has not 
been banished out of nature (to be replaced by the 
temper of the artist) but in which he figures in 
the eternally engrossing drama of work and repose, 
effort or thought, under the spell of passion, 
tenderness and meditation ; in movements of effort 
and moods of compassion ; clothed not merely 
with the perfection of the various ages and sexes 
but viewed in his proper significance as worker or 
dreamer, like those god-like workmen and mothers 

I I 

T^uvis de Qhavannes 

of Le Trm'ciil nnd Lc Rcfos or like the dreamers 
and creatures of infinite tenderness and foresight 
painted as the Saiuic Gciicvilvcrcillani svrPfiris or 
Virgil liskiiiiig io ihe Bees, or else we have those 
women transfigured by tenderness and charm of 
the Dottx Pays or La JoileUe (Haviland collection) 
in which we shall find expressed, with a primaeval 
candour of vision and emotion, that mood of 
worship which we find steeped in languor and 
ritual in the art of Rossetti, or steeped in a 'tenderer' 
sensuality with Giorgione and other poet-painters 
to whom beauty has been revealed as a force upon 
which rested the destinies of a generation. For, 
like all great masters, besides the moods in which 
his art is stimulating as a tonic and beyond the 
possibilities of the common man, Puvis de 
Chavannes paints also those moods of ecstasy in 
which we find the love of beauty and ease and 
grace which have also their power of consolation. 
He has moods of playfulness, in which he records 
the strange, quaint, sudden movements of children, 
as in the Doux Pays and La Peclic. He has 
moments of gaiety and fascination, as in the 
Jeiines Filles an bord de la Mcr. He expresses 
ecstasy in the figure of the painter in I' Inspiration 
Chrctienne and in the St. John of which the new 
Dublin gallery possesses a fascinating imfinished 
version, on the whole less coherent, less ' central ' 
than the famous picture, but of the greatest interest 
as the only decoration by the master outside the 
galleries of France and the Boston Library. 

The first time I saw Puvis de Chavannes was in 
the Louvre. He was standing in front of that 
admirable antique sometimes called a Sea Deity, 
sometimes Alexander the Great ; in the crowding or 
herding out of the visitors leaving the gallery I saw 
him again, one of the last to leave, before Lc Deluge, 
that masterpiece of Poussin. The works he was 
studying help to explain the trend of his partialities. 
I called upon him two years later with a friend, 
like myself a youth of twenty, and, looking back 
across the years, I remember him as the man of 
his work, simple, grave and genial, touched and 
charmed by our raw and uncultivated admiration 
for his painting. He had just finished his first 
pastel, a later phase of his practice in which he 
has passed into the collections of tardy purchasers. 
He confessed to being still the owner of all his 
small pictures, for criticism does not allow a variety 
of range to a man, and ' the painter who paints 
large must not paint small.' From time to time 
his speech became admonitory, and he launched 
forth into disapproval of current tendencies, the 
photographic drawing of many, ' la perfection 
bete qui n'a rien a faire avec le vrai dessin, le dessin 
expressif!' and against Mes pochades d'atelieret de 
vacance.' I remember the insistence with which 
he underlined the fact that the cartoon for the 
Sorbonne was but the skeleton of the design with- 
out the colour-scheme which would transform it ; 

and as a matter of fact this vast allegory would 
seem to have won a huge popular suffrage owing 
to the enchanting contrast between the sky and 
the dark semi-circle of trees closing in this new 
Parnassus of the arts and sciences. 

I would now consider certain details of his 
method wherein he resembles certain other 
masters, or else reacts against their tendencies. 
For years the character of his drawing counted 
as an element of unpopularity and misconception. 
In a period in which drawing had dwindled into 
more or less careful copying — when artists, in 
fact, could not draw without the presence of a 
mode! — his preoccupation with the finding of 
a kind of drawing which would express the major 
saliences and characteristics and yet form part of 
the design of the whole picture, his study of 
accented and rhythmic drawing, was incompre- 
hensible and offensive. I do not know if the accusa- 
tion that Puvis de Chavannes could not draw led 
to a further accenting of his tendencies and so 
reduced some of his later figures almost to symbols 
or types ; it is more probable that some other 
preoccupation intervened, such as the lightness of 
tone which deprives the painter of the illusion of 
relief. In the earlier designs at Amiens the human 
form is rendered w'ith a great insistence upon 
largeness of construction and relief — that is, upon 
the plastic quality of form. The colour-scheme 
of the four earlier works is still in a sense conven- 
tional : they have the effect of noble tapestries, 
there is a survival of an influence caught from 
the decorative works of Chasseriau. This applies 
also to the aspect of La Peche, which is contempo- 
rary with Le Travail, and those splendid sanguine 
studies now for the most part in the Luxembourg. 
The sense of form, however, is more massive than 
with Chasseriau and more naturalistic ; this gives 
way in the seventies and eighties to a massive 
simplicity in which no thought of Chasseriau is 
possible ; from the first Puvis de Chavannes 
possessed a monumental sense of landscape 
unsuspected by his forerunner, who counts among 
French painters much as Andr6 Chenier counts 
in French literature. 

The climax of the master's method was reached 
in the first series executed for the Pantheon and 
in the Lndus Pro Patria. Between these works we 
can place the Doux Pays and Panvrc Pecheur. These 
masterpieces can challenge comparison with the 
work of any master done at any period ; in them 
the classical or Olympian mood of the earlier 
designs has given way to one more human, 
more genial, more racy and more original. The 
last ten years of the master's life saw a further 
simplification in his method of drawing, and an 
ever-increasing lightness of tonality. This change 
was at first distasteful to the French public, which 
in the eighties was enamoured of the ball 
dresses and top hats of Gervex, then at their 


L'liSI'tNANCl:. I'Ki'M MM I'AIMIM. i;> l'i\i^ :<i ^HAi.VNNh.- 

I'l.ATE I 




newest, and with the photographic reahsm preva- 
lent in the Salon. The amber Hght and astonish- 
ingly musical ambience in Le Bois sacre won suff- 
rages from all Paris, to whom, for the moment, 
this work appealed quite suddenly. In the Salon it 
produced the effect of some Greek fragment lost 
in an upholstered drawing-room with the velvet 
poufs and pink lamp-shades then in vogue. In 
later life what I have termed the musical ambience 
usurps the place to some extent of the human 
interest which had belonged to the works executed 
in the seventies and early eighties. In the Boston 
decorations little else survives, though in centrality 
of conception and design the last decorations in 
the Pantheon, left unfinished at his death, are 
not inferior to the first'; but in these as in the 
Sorbonnne and Hotel de Ville decorations the 
synthesis in method is perhaps ever so slightly on 
that side which has rendered him acceptable to 
the lovers of latter-day impressionism and symbol- 
ism in painting and literature, and the last work 
of Puvis de Chavannes has become acceptable to 
poetic young gentlemen and aesthetic young ladies 
as if he had no talent but only a very personal 
manner. Perhaps in the last works the sense of 
form has become too abstract. The colour-sense 
follows a line of development towards a greater 
aerial quality, till it becomes little else than the 
blues of the sky and shadows of France. 

The art of Puvis, which had been classical and 
robust inider the lyrical impulse of Chasseriau, 
more normal and more emotional in his maturity, 
melts in its last phase into a lyrical and musical 
mood. The masculine interest in the worker and 
thinker gives place to the charm of the muse and 
the ministrant ; the classical women of the Donx 
Pays become the aerial girls of the Boston decora- 
tion ; the racy human types, at one time so French 
in character, give way to the nymphs with aston- 
ished eyes of L'Autoiiiite, the aesthetic girls and 
youths of the Rouen decorations and the superbly 
conceived but abstract types of L'Hiver. 

Where did Puvis learn the aerial tonality of 
the major portion of his works ? In the four early 
decorations at Amiens, and in La Pechc, the 
prevalent tone is that of some noble and natural- 
istic fresco by some master who had seen Lcs 
Boiiviers by Benozzo Gozzoli in the Riccardi 
chapel, and the Death of Adam by Piero della 
Francesca ; there is in them a classical influence 
also which is difficult to describe, which is different 
from that which inspired Chass6riau, whose 
mural decorations show the pervading influence 
of certain Pompeian frescoes, such as the Medea 
from Herculaneum and the superb Hercules and 
Telephiis and Hercules and Onipliale also at Naples, 
one of which had been copied by Ingres. 

The grey and blue and green general tonality 
in Puvis's work increases with the simplification 
of his method. The general aspect of his designs 

Puvis de Qhavannes 

has been compared to Piero delta Francesca, but 
if this influence reacted upon him years after he 
had visited Italy, the resemblance is of the slightest 
to those who know the radiant and steady silver 
light in which Piero has bathed the subjects of his 
frescoes. I incline to suggesting an almost inexplic- 
able influence caught from chance works of Corot 
to account for the evolution of this profoundly 
original phase of painting, which, like other 
original efforts, was partly instinctive, then con- 
scious, and then strongly willed. Behind him lay 
the fact that the great fresco painters — Giotto, 
Angelico, Piero della Francesca and Michelangelo 
— had painted in a paler key than other designers 
who had been less successful in mural decoration, 
and that these frescoes brought light and colour 
to the buildings. Chasseriau and Manet each 
brought back the rumour of the blonde paintings 
of Italy, and we have two fashions in art to help in 
strengthening this tendency : on the one hand, the 
growing love of the fifteenth-century painters, and 
on the other impressionism, which strove to break 
with the exigencies and traditional practices of oil 
painting. The will of the time was in part turned 
towards the practice of a lighter scheme of painting, 
and the artifices of chiaroscuro or the expressive 
quality of relief became distasteful. This tendency 
was doubtless fostered in part by the discovery of 
the art of Japan ; in this movement towards light- 
ness Puvis de Chavannes took the lead, painting 
decorations which were tuned to the grey of the 
stone walls on which they were to be placed, and 
which stood out in the Salons among the studio 
top-light effects of the smart painters of the time 
with something of the pallor of a map among 
coloured oleographs. 

I have striven to describe Puvis's discoveries 
in landscape, his originality and variety in the 
conception and design of his work, and his enor- 
mous range of vision. The space at my disposal 
does not allow me to describe the curiously 
fortunate and quite original balance of interest 
which he has established between the environ- 
ment of land and sky and the human interest in 
his paintings, for which there is hardly any 
absolute precedent in the art of the past It 
might be described as figure painting with land- 
scape background, or else as pure landscape 
painting with or without figures. I have striven 
to explain his noble qualities as a draughtsman of 
monumental figures, and the range of his emotions 
which make him acceptable to the more balanced 
lover of realism and to the student of Greek art 
(they need not necessarily be at variance). I have 
striven to hint at the musical and harmonious 
scale of colour which supports or, more properly, 
forms an integral part of his designs. Technically, 
he strove for a method which tends towards effects 
that are new to oil painting. In this singular effort, 
which after all had its reason in the durability of 

PuvJs de Qhavannes 

the medium, we may detect a limitation in the 
master, or, more properly, a self-imposed limit to 
his aim. It is probable that certain great beauties 
we admire in the racy conduct of pigment and 
the love of what is called quality, were of 
little interest to him, at any rate they were 
unnecessary to his purpose as a decorator ; yet 
certain easel works show this preoccupation, such as 
UEspemncc and U Enfant Prodigue whilst the most 
beautiful of all his pictures, Le Panvre Pcchcur, dis- 
penses with all subtleties of surface to produce an 
effect of remote beauty as of some work by astrange 
unknown master of some distant clime and period. 
The love of quality in pigment, or brush- 
work, was not in the scheme of this painter 
of mural decorations, whose smaller works charm 
one like some little fresco detached from the 
walls of some non-existent Herculaneum, buried 
in the imagination of a man who had at once the 
painter's vision and the direct sense of emotional 
appeal of the poet. 

The master's range of subject was foreign to 
two generations of contemporary painters who 
were striving to specialize themselves ; the dignity 
and singleness of his art and aim exasperated two 
generations of critics who missed the opportunity 
for self-important pronouncements or admonition. 
The vestrymen and placemen who governed the art 
politics of his time gave him walls to decorate, as 
often as not, as an afterthought ; these decorations 
cost the artist on an average ;£200 each. 

Two cities in Europe outside France possess 
important pictures of his, Dresden and Dublin. 
He is still comparatively unknown in England, but 
the present artistic temper of this country is still, 
for the moment, under the Salon and Paris atelier 
ideals against which Puvis de Chavannes had to 
contend some twenty years ago.'' 

3 We owe two of the photographs illustrating this article to 
the courtesy of M. Darand-Ruel. 


OR romantic associations and 
for artistic interest Rome stands 
easily first among the cities of 
Italy. A claim for Ravenna 
as next in rank might be 
reasonably urged on the strength 
of her unique treasure in the 

early Christian mosaics on the 

beautiful blue grounds of primitive tradition, and 
of her churches and tombs wherein we are trans- 
ported back, without any shock of surprise, some 
fourteen hundred years. In the judgment of 
most people, however, the deutereia will be a matter 
of contest between Florence and Venice, and the 
popularity of the two cities is attested by the out- 
put of books in the titles of which their names 
appear. The work which gives the occasion for 
this article • is not merely one more of the many 
readable volumes on the famous Italian cities and 
their artistic attractions, it is something better and 
more distinctive. The author of it does deal to 
some extent with the history and the life of the 
city at different periods, but the main subject of 
the volume, as explained in the preface, is the 
Florentine building art, and the more general 
passages are designed to elucidate the relation of 
the city life to the architecture which has been ' its 
chief vehicle of contemporary and permanent 

In so far as the book deals with the architecture 
of the city it merits a cordial welcome, for the 
author has not been content to dilate upon these 

• 'The Builders of Florence," by J. Wood Brown, M.A. With 
seventy-four illustrations by Herbert Railton. London : Methuen 
and Co., 1907. i8s. net. 


buildings from the historical or romantic stand- 
point, but shows himself a student of the technique 
of the constructive art, and analyses the fabrics 
from this point of view in a thoroughly practical 
fashion. Very many of his readers who know 
their Florence well will learn interesting facts that 
are quite new to them about buildings they have 
visited scores of times, and about which they have 
the guide book information at their fingers' ends. 
Mr. Wood Brown has made good use of the 
monographs on Florentine buildings which have 
appeared in recent years, such as Mospignotti's 
' Duomo di San Giovanni,' with its constructive 
analysis of the Baptistry, and Pietro Franceschini's 
' L'Oratorio di San Michele in Orto in Firenze,' 
and has made contributions of his own, especially 
to the subject of the older domestic architecture. 
'The original building unit in Florence, as 
elsewhere in Italy during the early Middle Age, 
was the tower ; that is the house built on the nar- 
row foundation sufficient for a single small room, 
and added to, not horizontally but vertically . . . 
the towers of Florence were not distinctively 
castles, as it has been the custom to represent them, 
but common houses, built on narrow sites because 
the whole city must be limited by a wall capable 
of defence at every point ; which houses were then 
carried high to meet the wants of a growing 
population.' These sentences introduce a discus- 
sion of the stone towers, their union in groups, and 
ultimate crystallization into a form that gives the 
key to the general scheme of the later palazzo of 
the Renaissance. The interest of the demonstra- 
tion lies partly in the fact that the Florentine tower- 
houses were treated in a fashion similar to that 

Florence and her Builders 

prevailing in a famous stone-built fortified mediae- 
val city in our own country, the city of Edinburgh. 
The parallel is worth a moment's attention. In both 
cases additional space was gained for the denizens 
of the stone structures by throwing out wooden 
galleries supported on beams and struts, so that at 

natural for adherents of the same family to live side 
by side, so the insula, though divided up into sep- 
arate dwellings, might represent the seat of a clan, 
and this solidarity might be emphasized by a com- 
mon well, and perhaps a common chapel, in the 
courtyard. At first the heights of the towers varied 

J Wooj>- Brov'N 


'^dcoJ Florentine Towar-^roup^m^wus fo I250 

first sight the house fronts seemed to be of timber, 
though as a fact there was only a facing of wood 
clinging to the stone structure behind. It is 
curious to note that of two travellers who give 
evidence of the aspect of Edinburgh in thesixteenth 
century one reports that all the houses were of 
wood, the other, who examined a little more closely, 
that they were all of stone. Fig. i - reproduces 
Mr. Wood Brown's diagram of a group of early 
Florentine towers of the period before 1250, with 
their wooden fronts. Each tower he believes to 
have been of very narrow dimensions on the ground 
plan, but they were placed closely together, and 
arranged so as to form a square block or insula 
surrounding a central courtyard. It would be 

* Reproduced from Mr. Wood Brown's drawing by kind 
permission of the publishers, Messrs. Methuen and Co. 

greatly, and any proprietor that needed more space 
could always add another story to his edifice, but in 
the year 1 250 a law was passed that all private build- 
ings of more than fifty braccia in height should be 
cut down to this uniform level. This the author 
suggests would give a certain unity to the block, 
and formed the model of the later palazzo, which 
in the early example of the Bargello, and the sub- 
sequent ones of the Renaissance palaces, is still 
the same block with central courtyard, but has 
changed the numerous separate residences of 
which it was originally composed for continuous 
suites of apartments forming a single domicile. 
Our concern however for the moment is with 
the early form of the tower. This had a lowest 
story vaulted in stone and devoted to purposes 
of business by the merchant citizen who owned 


Florence and her Builders 

the dwelling and used the upper stories for his 
actual domicile. Here the arrangement is exactly 
what we find at a later date in the older stone 
houses of Edinburgh. The basements of some at 
any rate of these houses were vaulted, and were 
entered from the level of the street quite inde- 
pendently of the rest of the house, access to which 
began on the first floor, reached by a picturesque 
outside stair, many specimens of which have 
happily survived. Mr. Wood Brown does not 
tell us how the upper stories were reached in his 
early Florentine towers. On these upper stories 
the wooden galleries were thrown out, on a 
system which the diagram makes clear. Numerous 
examples occur of the stone brackets that once 
helped to support the galleries and now pro- 
ject aimlessly from the stone fafades, and Mr. 
Railton's drawings, with which the volume is 
illustrated, give many specimens. Specimens of 
actual wooden galleries on facades have not, so far 
as we know, survived in the Florence of to-day, but 
in Edinburgh they are still in evidence, and may 
be regarded as among the most curious features 
of antique domestic architecture that this country 
has to show. Fig. 2, copied by permission from 
a portion of a drawing of Advocates' Close in Mr. 
Bruce Home's ' Old Houses in Edinburgh,' gives 
specimens of these wooden fronts supported on 
beams projecting from the stone walls. The 
origin of them is quite clear, for the timber 
outwork or ' brattishing ' was a common feature 
of mediaeval military architecture, and it was 
from the castles that the city houses adopted 
the fashion. For access to these galleries it 
was necessary to use the windows of the stone 
front as doors, or to enlarge some of these for 
that purpose, and fig. 3, reproduced by permission 
from the fourth volume of Messrs. McGibbon and 
Ross's ' Castellated and Domestic Architecture of 
Scotland,' shows a portion of the outer face of 
the so-called ' Palace of Mary of Guise,' now 
demolished, in Milne's Court, Edinburgh, where 
we see the marks of a wooden gallery that had 
been taken down, and a doorway, which may 
previously have been a window, that gave access 
to it. 

The later development of the stone house under 
the influence of the wooden galleries is interesting, 
and there is a parallelism here again between the 
Italian and the northern city. In his fourth chap- 
ter, the author derives the characteristic Florentine 
loggia, as we find it for example in the Mercato 
Nuovo, from the vaulted ground story of the early 
domicile. ' In a dado of many towers,' he suggests, 
'inhabited by different branches of some one power- 
ful, perhaps aristocratic family, while, as to-day, 
many of the basements, cut off by their solid vaults 
from the upper storey, might be let as shops to 
minor artisans or poorer traders, one of greater 
importance, generally at a corner and so facing on 

two streets, was set apart almost religiously as the 
family loggia. Here the head of the house saw 
clients and contadini on business in the morning ; 
and here his wife sat to receive company in the 
afternoon. By degrees, where there was space 
available, pillars were set in front of the corner, 
and a wide roof stretched over them which found 
a bracketed bearing on the tower wall above or 
beside the great door arches of the basement. Thus 
the loggia grew by encroaching on the street, 



where the lines of its new roof and columns made 
a charming effect, as any one may see at the Canto 
degli Alberti in Via dei Benci.' From this begin- 
ning the loggia developed as an independent 
structure deriving its columns from the supports 
of this projecting portico, its vault from that of 


Florence and her Builders 


the original basement of the tower. The author 
suggests also another Hne of development from 
this same starting point of the vaulted basement of 
the tower, but here we doubt very much whether 
his foundation will carry the desired superstructure. 
He makes a significant remark that parish churches 
in Florence may in many cases have grown out of 
the chapels in the residential instilae, but the deriva- 
tion of the church campanile from the residential 
tower is a different matter. The history of the 
ecclesiastical tower is still obscure, but we should 
need to be convinced of the early origin and wide 
diffusion of the narrow residential tower before 
we could accept it as a source for the ecclesiastical 
towers which appear in early mediaeval days in so 
many lands of the West from Erin to Sicily. In 
the form of the turrets containing the stairs to the 
upper galleries of a church, as at San Vitale, 
Ravenna, and Aachen, or as an entrance for 
building as at the latter place, the tower is early, 
and is essentially from the first a part of the church. 
Mr. Wood Brown's single domestic tower that 
moves out of its rank beside the others and comes 
to stand by the church as its ' Clergy House and 
Belfry in one,' we venture to question, for it was 
not only at Florence or in Italy that this develop- 
ment of ecclesiastical architecture was being worked 
out. Furthermore, the theory that the vault of 
the tower basement spread to the church and 
accounts ultimately for the vaulting of its aisles 

and nave is too big for its basis. Vaulting is 
too widely diffused, and as regards the side aisles too 
clearly motived by the need for supporting the 
galleries which came into use in the early mediae- 
val period, for this suggestion to have plausibility. 

Mr. Wood Brown is on much firmer ground 
when he confines himself to the actual develop- 
ment of the forms of the domicile. The origin of 
the sporti, or projecting upper stories of Florentine 
houses supported below on stone corbels, may 
undoubtedly be found in the earlier wooden 
galleries, which the sporli reproduced in perma- 
nent materials. This process led to the 'archi- 
tecture of the bracket,' as he calls it, ' which was 
now carried out in stone and brick on the lines of 
the earlier wooden construction,' and resulted in 
various picturesque forms of projections or cor- 
belled supports, in many cases closely copying the 
earlier wooden brackets and struts. These details 
are fully illustrated in the numerous and attractive 
drawings with which the volume is supplied, and 
there is no space here to call attention to special 
points in the development. A word must be said 
however of the curiously exact Edinburgh parallels. 
It is not a little remarkable to find two cities so far 
apart in degrees of latitude resembling each other 
so closely in their building features. Both were 
however stone-building cities where vaulting was 
understood (in this Scotland was far ahead of 
England), both were cities of merchants who 
found a commercial use for the separate basement 
story, and both were cooped up within a narrow 
circuit of walls and accordingly ran their houses 
up to inordinate heights, while both finally adopt- 
ed the military device of the wooden ' brattishing,' 
in the form of the projecting gallery entered from 
the original windows of the stone structure. Mr. 
Wood Brown believes that a first-story gallery 
might be supported below by upright wooden 
posts from the ground. This was commonly, too, 
the case in Edinburgh. In the case of both cities, 
when the gallery and its supports were petrified, 
as has just been noted, permanent projections 
were corbelled out on stone brackets, but the 
wooden prop also became the stone column, and 
accordingly the open loggie, which are character- 
istic features of the ground floors of the inner 
courtyards of the Renaissance palaces, may be re- 
garded as lineal descendants of the wooden features 
shown in a corresponding position in Fig. i. In 
Edinburgh one example still survives of stone 
columns supporting a stone front that has replaced 
one of timber. It is in the house called ' Glad- 
stone's Land ' in the Lawnmarket. Remains of 
another were to be seen till recently, when the 
City Architect's Department needlessly destroyed 
it. Qiiis ciistodid ipsos ciistodcs ? 

This part of the volume before us has been 
dwelt on at length because to most people it will 
have a fresher interest than notices of Florentine 


Florence and her Builders 

history and social life, on which there has been a 
making of many books. The analysis of early 
domestic architecture of the city is indeed so 
attractive that the part of Chapter IV on civil archi- 
tecture, together with portions of the later ones 
on the Bargello and the Palazzo della Signoria, 
would make a very useful reprint in the form of a 
hrochurc, which visitors to Florence interested in 
the subject might carry with them on their pere- 
grinations. The volume itself is very heavy and 
is largely made up of historical disquisitions that 
are best perused at home. What is said here applies 
also to the chapters where some of the public 
buildings, such as Or San Michele and the Bap- 
tistry, are analysed from the structural standpoint. 
These parts of the book are the most definite and 
satisfactory in statement. 

The plan of the work involves the association of 
historical and social discussions with the different 
buildings passed in review, and in this way occa- 
sions are found for notices of the early development 
of the city, of the history of Florentine commerce 
with the rise and fall of industries, of the forms of 
government under the Republic, of the warfare of 
Imperial and Papal parties, and the like. The 
connexions are not always very obvious, as when 
the murder of Buondelmonte gives rise to a discus- 
sion of the struggle for dominion between the 
Empire and the Church, and the author acknow- 
ledges in his preface that the various topics are held 
together by no very obvious thread. There are 
interesting passages however about persons as well 
as institutions, such as the notice of Niccolo 
Acciaiuoli, linked on to a visit to the Certosa of the 
Val d'Ema. We should have been given the ideal 
presentment of the hero, in his light surcoat over 
his mail, that Andrea dal Castagno painted in the 
villa at Legnaja, and under which is the high- 
sounding inscription, ' Magnus Thetrarcha de 
Acciarolis Neapolitani Regni Dispensator ' ! The 
history of Florence, it must be admitted, is not in- 
spiring. Commercial interests are too much in 
evidence, and the faction struggles grow weari- 

some through iteration. We miss the spaci- 
ousness of Venetian history, the imposing stability 
of the maritime state, her world-wide in- 
terests. To know Venice aright one must not 
only haunt the lagunes, but must wander in 
the Eastern Mediterranean, where on a hundred 
shores the moles and ramparts of massive stone- 
w-ork, the winged lion in effigy, are still eloquent 
of her power and her pride of empire. Well might 
her citizens in the thirteenth century boast that, 
though they lived among the sea waves with hardly 
land enough about them for the foundations of 
their houses, yet ' for fruitful gardens and splendid 
castles they had Dalmatia, Albania, Roumania, 
Greece, Trebizond, Syria, Armenia, Egypt, Cyprus, 
Candia, Apulia, Sicily, with other lands, islands 
and kingdoms, where they found profit, pleasure 
and security ' ! 

But if in the political and social sense the story 
of Florence is cramped and even sordid, her 
empire was an intellectual empire, and as we 
wander through the world of thought her trophies 
and insignia are ever in view. The vernacular 
literature of Europe owes to Dante an immeasur- 
able debt, and in the domain of culture generally 
we look to the Florence of the early Renaissance 
as the evangelist of a spiritual ideal that has pro- 
foundly influenced mankind. Hers was the con- 
ception of a perfectible human nature, on a basis 
of richly developed powers of body and mind con- 
trolled by reason and self-knowledge. However 
one-sided may seem to some people this con- 
ception of human nature, as the revival of a great 
Hellenic idea that had inspired the thought of 
Plato it will be fruitful as long as civilization 
endures. Humanism made the pursuit of know- 
ledge an inspiring quest, its use a joyful energy of 
the being that glorified life. It was not her 
merchants and her statesmen that made Flor- 
ence great, but her thinkers and her artists, 
and these have won for her a dominion as wide 
as that of Venice, and one that will never pass 




places of 
tongue, followed 
unrest in England 

OLLAXD, as the chief sea- 
canning power in Europe in 
the seventeenth century, attract- 
ed large numbers of seafarers 
and merchantmen from Britain, 
who quickly formed small com- 
munities at the important Dutch 
ports. The establishment of 
worship, with services in their own 
as a matter of course. Religious 
had its share in increasing the 

English and Scotch congregations in Holland. 
The list of these churches is a long one ;' several 
have disappeared, but a goodly number still remain. 
Two of these were recently visited by the writer, 
and the plate of a defunct church examined ; and 
it is the vessels of these three which will be de- 
scribed in these pages. This description of these 
old vessels will, it is hoped, prove not unacceptable 
on historical grounds. 

1 Vidt Stevens's ' History of the Scottish and other British 
Churches in the Netherlands,' 1833. 











Old Silver Sacramental Vessels 

The English Reformed Church, Amsterdam." 
This church celebrated its tercentenary last year, 
the first service having been held on the 3rd 
February, 1607. Theoriginal record of this opening 
service is still preserved there, and it is worthy of 
inclusion in this article, if only for its quaint 
language : 'In the Jaere of our Lord and Saviour 
1607, the third day of the moneth commonlij callet 
fabruarij about four of the clocke in the afternone 
is the Church in the Round Bagijnhof opened and 
in praesens of Mijn Heer de Schoutand Dr. Petrus 
Plantius minnister of the reformed Duch Church 
in Amstelredamme is the praechingstoel brought 
in that same Church and set up for the Englich 
people dwelling in Amstelredamme in Holland. 
The next day following being the Lords daij about 
nijn of the clocke in the foernone after praij and 
thancksgeiving unto Godt hath Dr. Johannis 
Pagetius minnister of the Englich Church praecht 
the first sermon in that forsaijde Church and the 
text was Create in me a cleane hart o God — psalm 
51, vers 10.'* The earliest cups were of pewter, 
which were not superseded by silver until 171 2, when 
Izaak Sinkeson, an elder of this church between 
1710 and 1720, gave the four plain silver beakers 
(fig. i). They are engraved with a double mono- 
gram, C. T., and the height is 8§ in. They bear the 
Amsterdam mark, with the date-letter B, for 1712, 
and the unknown maker's mark, BS, in an oval 
cartouche. On 29th December, 1771, it was deter- 
mined to provide silver vessels in place of the other 
pewter ones then in use, and the following minute 
was passed : ' It is to be observed that on Feb. 27th, 
1771, at a friendly meeting of the Ministers and of 
Elders and of Deacons in and out of office of this 
Church, it was proposed that, considering the Dishes 
and Basons for the service of the Communion Table 
in our Church are of Pewter, a subscription should 
be made for furnishing our Communion Table 
with one large Dish, two lesser Dishes and two 
poor Boxes, all of pure silver.' The silver vessels 
here referred to are still in use, but the pewter 
ones have disappeared : — 

I. A large plain bread dish (fig. i), with a shaped 
reeded border, applied with acanthus leaves at 
intervals. It is engraved inside with the mono- 
gram E. C. A., representing ' English Congrega- 
tion, Amsterdam,' and the date, 1771. The follow- 
ing inscription is engraved on the back : ' For the 
use of the Communion table of the English 
established Church in Amsterdam, for ever, as 
specified in the Registers of the said Church, 
December the 29th, a.d. 1771.' Diameter, i8iin. 
Marks : (i) The mark of Amsterdam ; (2) a lion 
rampant ; (3) the date-letter M in a circle ; (4) the 
unknown maker's mark, I S L. 

■^ Previously used by the order of nuns called the Begijnen, 
named after St. Begga. 

" For an account of this church consult a pamphlet (1908) by 
the present minister, Rev. \Vm, Thomson, M.A., B.D. 

2. Two patens (fig. 2), reproductions in a smaller 
size of the above dish. They are engraved with 
the same monogram, date and inscription. Dia- 
meter, i2| in. 

3. A deep baptismal bowl (fig. 2), with 
the same border as the foregoing vessels, and 
engraved with the same monogram and date. 
Inscription : ' For the use of the H. S. of the 
Baptism of the English established Church in 
Amsterdam for ever as specified in the Registers 
of said Church, December the 29th, A.D. 1771.' 
Diameter, i2|^ in. ; depth, 3iin. 

4. The two alms-boxes (fig. 2), which are 
deposited on the holy table at the Communion 
service, are of ebony, mounted in silver. They 
are rectangular in form, with two plain silver 
handles, foliated at the ends and attached to spiral 
rosettes on the boxes. The mounts on the top 
edges correspond to those on the dishes and 
patens, while the others are plain. An oval medal- 
lion in a reeded and foliated frame, and with a 
knot at the top, is suspended from the rim on the 
front and back, both being engraved with the 
same monogram, E. C. A., as the other vessels. It 
has the same maker's mark. Length, exclusive of 
the handles, 8 in. ; width, 6^ in. ; height, 7^ in. 

Though not sacramental vessels, the pair of old 
Dutch pewter inkstands in the vestry of this 
church are not devoid of interest (fig. 3). They 
have plain oblong trays, on four short scrolled feet 
fitted with one vase-shape receptacle for ink and 
one for sand. Size, loj in. long, 6| in. wide. They 
have no marks, and they can hardly be much 
later in date than 1700. The same form of inkstand 
often appears in Dutch pictures of the last half of 
the seventeenth and early in the eighteenth cen- 

The seal of the church is of ivory with a silver 
head, engraved with a figure of the Good Shepherd 
and this inscription: ' ECCL-ANGL'AMSTERD' 

(fig- 3)- 
One other object in this church deserves more 

than a passing notice, namely, the brass pulpit- 
desk, which consists of an oblong laurel frame, 
with a lion rampant on flat open scroll foliage in 
the centre, and with the monogram of King 
William and ^Lal■y and the date, 1689, in a wreath 
of palms, surmounted by a royal crown : it is 
supported on a lion's claw, also of brass (fig. 4). 
It was given with a pair of candlesticks, which 
have since disappeared, by William and Mary, 
perhaps in commemoration of their accession to 
the English throne.* They are known to have 

*A Dutch silver spoon, with figures of William and Mary on 
the end, in the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, commemoratts the 
same event. The following is a literal translation of the Dutch 
inscription thereon : — 

' Thus shines the bravery and virtue of William and .Mary, 
The bliss of the Britons, the joy of Holland. 

Rejoice the Church of God in her liberation by this couple. 

Crowned in the great year of wonders, this April 21st, 16S9.' 


Old Stiver Sacramental Vessels 

worshipped in this building on more than one 

Mention must not be omitted of the numerous 
old foot-warmers, with earthenware bowls for 
burning charcoal, and wood stools, that have 
survived in this church, though no longer used. 
They are similar to that in Gabriel Metsu's picture, 
The Singing Lesson, in the royal collection of Eng- 

The English Episcopal Church, Amster- 
dam. This church retained its silver communion 
vessels and the original register, the latter dating 
from 1698, in spite of the loss of its building, its 
funds and the dispersal of the congregation during 
the French invasion of 1806. These vessels ' are 
three in number (fig. 5) and comprise a plain 
chalice with stem, of conventional form, with 
paten-cover, engraved with the sacred monogram 
and inscribed,'In Usum Ecclia AnglicanaeAmstelo- 
dami D.D. Honoratissimus Jacobus Brydges 
Baronis Chandois de Sudelis Filius Natu Maximus 
A.D. 1713.' The paten-cover has moulded edges 
and is engraved with the same inscription. The 
foot is engraved with the sacred monogram. 
Height of cup, 8| in ; diameter of the mouth, 5 in ; 
foot, 4I in. The paten-cover is 6| in diameter 
and I in. high. London date-letter for 1713-14. 
Maker's mark, Be, with two stars above, and a fleur- 
de-lys below, in a shaped shield — probably for 
Thos. Bevault. 

The tall, plain, cylindrical flagon with domed 
cover is engraved with the same inscription and 
sacred monogram, and bears the same London 
marks as the chalice. Total height, iif in. ; height 
of the body, 10^ in. ; diameter of the mouth, 4 in., 
and of the base, 6§ in. 

The large plain paten, circa 1748, has a narrow 
moulded edge, and stands on a short truncated 
foot. It is engraved with the sacred monogram 
in the centre, and with the following inscription 
in a scroll on the back : ' In Usum Ecclesiae 
Anglicanae Amstelodami D.D. Honorabilis 
Eduardus Compton Armiger A.D. 1749.' Diameter, 
io| in. ; height, i^in. Marks: (i) Mark of Am- 
sterdam ; (2) unknown maker's mark, RB, in an 
elongated oval cartouche ; (3) lion rampant 
crowned ; (4) the date-letter, P, in an oval. 

English Church at The Hague. The eleven 
silver vessels' of this now defunct church are 
carefully preserved at the British Legation, The 
Hague. Earliest in date are two plain beakers on 
wide moulded bases (fig. 6). They are inscribed 

^The donor of the chalice with its paten-cover and the flagon 
was James Brydges, eighth Lord Chandos of Sudeley, born 
1642, succeeded his father as third baronet 1651-2, was ambas- 
sador to Constantinople 1680-1 to 1685, married Elizabeth, d. 
and coheir of Sir Henry Bernard, of London, Turkey merchant ; 
he died i6th October, 1714. 

6 Their rescue from alienation is entirely due to Mr. A. F. G. 
Leveson Gower, formerly secretary at the British Legation at 
The Hague. 


under the lips : ' [ohn Price Ministir. A v Swaane- 
wyk G vander heyden Elders H van Spreken and 
J. de Baans diacens.' The following inscription 
is engraved in a plain shield, enclosed in a wreath 
of palms, in the centre of the bodies : ' The Gift of 
George Carew Esquire to remaine with the English 
Church in the Hague for Euer, Maij the 15, 1674.' 
On the opposite side a shield of arms, presumably 
the donor's, is engraved : three lions passant. 
Crest — a demi-eagle rising from a cup. They are 
inscribed underneath : ' E.x dono Georgij Carew 
May 15, 1674.' Height, 6§ in. ; diameter of the 
mouth, 4^ in., and of the foot, 3 in. Marks : 
(i) Mark of The Hague ; (2) M in a circle ; (3) 
lion rampant crowned ; (4) \V in a plain shield. 
The two flagons (fig. 7.) have cylindrical bodies, 
which are plain except for the narrow borders of 
chased acanthus leaves below the moulded lips 
and above the wide moulded bases. The thumb- 
pieces are a sun with a human face therein ; an 
acanthus leaf is applied on the shoulder of the 
plain scrolled handles. A shield of arms is 
engraved on the flat circular platforms on the 
covers : Argent six chess rooks sable, for Rock- 
wood, impaling Azure a chief argent with three 
voided lozenges azure therein, for Thorogood. 
Crest — .'\ chess rook sable between two wings erect. 
One flagon is inscribed underneath : ' Given 
on the 6 octob 1681 two hundred Gilders towards 
the making of two Silver flaggons for the Com- 
munion Table the Rest Being added by the 
Consistorij By msris Mary Thorrowgood w'iddow 
of Mr. Robert Rockwood in his lifetime envoye 
extraordinary from the Electer Palatin to the 
States of the united Provinces.' The other flagon 
is inscribed : ' The two flaggons were made the 
25th March 1682 and by speciall Command of the 
donatrix are to Remain with this our EngHsh 
Church for Ever.' Total height, 10 in., height of 
the bodies, 9 in., diameter of the mouths, 4^ in., 
and of the bases, 5I in. Marks : (i) The Hague 
mark ; (2) lion rampant crowned ; (3) H, in 
a plain shield, with crown above ; (4) \VH. with 
a trefoil below, in a shaped shield. 

The large bread dish (fig. 7), dating from about 
1690, is plain, with a shallow depression and a 
wide flat rim. The donor's arms are engraved in 
the centre with a foliated scroll mantling : Quar- 
terly I and 4, three stars ; 2, three feathers ; 3, a lion 
rampant, holding an ear of corn. Crest — a demi- 
lion holding a branch. A circle, containing the 
following inscription, surrounds the arms : ' Studio 
et opera lohannis Vander Heijden DeGoiida luris 
Consulti.' Diameter, 14 in. Marks : (i) the 
Hague mark ; (2) lion rampant crowned ; (3) L, 
in a shield, crowned ; (4) two indistinct initials. 

The pair of plain dishes used as patens (fig. 6) 
are similar to the large dish, but smaller, being 
I2|in. in diameter. "The arms of the donor are 
engraved in the centre, surrounded by this 







Old Silver Sacramental Vessels 

inscription : 'A legacy of Jacob Haviiis Advt. 
in his lijftetime Elder of this Congregation.' It 
has the same marks as the above dish. 

This list of plate is completed by two small 
plain circular plates, diameter yi in., and two 
smaller ones, diameter 4^^ in. All these were made 
at The Hague in the eighteenth century. 

Interesting old silver vessels exist in other 
English and Scotch churches in Holland, but as 
these have not been seen personally by the writer 
they are excluded from this article. As the need 
for separate services in the English language 
became unnecessary owing to the merging by 

marriage of the British settlers with the Dutch, 
much of the old plate began to disappear, as did 
that of the once numerous foreign Protestant 
churches in England.' A notable instance is the 
fine set of four early seventeenth-century beakers 
from the Scotch church at Kampveer,* which were 
bought some years ago in a shop in the Strand by 
Earl Egerton of Tatton, who presented them to 
Manchester Cathedral. 

' E. Alfred Jones's ' Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign 
Protestant Churches in England,' 1908. 

'For an illustration andanaccouni of these see A. J. S. Brook's 
article in the ' Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland,' Vol. i, third series, 1890-g, pp. 166-173. 


Two new pictures have been added to the Van Eyck 
Room at the National Gallery, and they take their 
places worthily on what is perhaps the finest 
wall of the whole collection. No. 221 1 is 
by Mabuse — to give him his old pleasant 
and familiar name ; it is said to be a portrait 
of Jacqueline de Bourgogne, and was exhibited 
under that title at the Toison d'Or Exhibition at 
Bruges last summer, where the clear colour of the 
costume and background shone out like a flower 
in the dark modern-mediaeval palace, amidst gay 
banners and glints of line armour that seemed to 
be worn by men-at-arms passing in and out 
amongst the black-cloaked spectators. Mabuse 
was the last of the perfect prophets of patience 
who preached the perfection of the Van Eycks. 
To-day they are our delight and refreshment ; they 
tell of ages when men worked quietly at what they 
could do best day after day in the gabled workshops 
of the old Netherland towns, completing a finger 
or a pearl as well as they could, and spending the 
quiet afternoon on the sunny bench of a neigh- 
bouring tavern, or playing skittles with a fellow- 
artist, occasionally in the evening gathering at their 
guildhall, to be escorted home, perhaps rather 
roisteringly, by their apprentices carrying torches. 
This peaceful routine was broken, unfortunately, 
now and then by the horrid presence of foreign 
mercenaries, who killed everybody who could not 
run away fast enough, and gave local colour to 
many a picture of the Massacre of the Innocents. 
Mabuse, however, somewhat of a courtier, followed 
his patron over Europe to Italy, and, filled with the 
glamour of the Italian Renaissance, became false to 
his native art. The painters of his period and after 
lost the perfection of their forebears and ran 
to wriggles, devils and other exaggerations. In 
his own later works Mabuse introduced elaborate 
backgrounds of badly designed architecture that 
could only be carried out in ugly cast iron work, 
instead of his old gothic stone possibilities, and 
nude figures that were nothing but ugly diagrams of 

anatomical monstrosities. Only in portraiture his 
old cunning remained, and he added to it a fine 
' sfumato ' borrowed from Leonardo. The per- 
sonages look like the solitary donors of some altar- 
piece taken from a Holy Conversation, the saints 
all departed to heaven. Our new picture seems 
to have been painted after the master's return 
from Italy, when he was working for Philip of 
Burgundy, at Middleburg or Mechlin, about the 
year 1515. The picture represents a young lady 
of rank, richly dressed and wearing a superabun- 
dance of pearls : her persimmon-red velvet bodice 
is edged with them, her white satin sleeves elabor- 
ately braided with an interlaced pattern of silver 
blue are studded with them, her bonnet-shaped cap 
matching the sleeves has pearls on the pattern ; 
round the white band which is tied under the 
chin there are two rows of large pearls beautifully 
gradated into the shadow, there are fine pearls on 
the rich gold chain round her neck, with a pyramidal 
sapphire in the centre. A large jewel of seven 
sapphires with a large pendant pearl supported 
by a thin gold chain is pinned to the front of 
her bodice. The face is very softly modelled with 
Leonardo-like gradations of grey. The lady has a 
fair fine skin, very fine soft and wavy golden-brown 
hair and round dark hazel eyes. Her mouth is 
curious, the trick of her under-lip is like Charles V 
— a very Hapsburg mouth,' reminding one of 
Suckling's rather painful simile : 

' Her lips were red ; and one was thin 

Compar d to that was next her chin 

(Some bee had stung it newly),' 

How pleasant it would be if this lady sliould 
turn out to be, as Mr. J. P. Heseltine cleverly sur- 
mises, the sister of Charles who married Christian of 
Denmark and who was the mother of Princess 
Christina whose picture by Holbein queens it so 
gloriously in the German room — long may she 

Our Mabuse lady holds a hollow planetary sphere 

' From Miss A. Ediih Hcwett's notes on the two portraits of 
Eleonora of Spain in ihe February number, p. 309, it seumsthat 
this feature was Buigundian. 

Notes on Various Works of Art 

in her left hand and points to the letters on the 
widest band. Possibly by this the time of her 
birth may be indicated, and so indirectly we may 
find out who she is. Whoever she is, here she 
stands against a translucent grass green background 
framed in a wooden moulding harmonizmg with the 
frame. The painting of the pearls in this picture is 
peculiar; they each have accurate pearly grey 
reflections and little round high lights of solid 
impasto surrounded by a region of wonderful 
blue moonlight that is very characteristic. The 
picture is on oak i foot 2 inches high by 11 
inches wide. . . 

No. 2163 is not so important as, but it is very 
similar to. No. 221 1. It is a half-length portrait 
of a young lady as Saint Mary Magdalen, probably 
her name-saint. She wears a handsome gold- 
brocaded dress, edged at the neck and wrists with 
fur and laced over a cherry-red bodice. Attached 
to the lacing is a fine jewel consisting of three 
sapphires, two red stones and a large pear-shaped 
pearl pendant. This beautifully painted pearl is 
more solid than the pearls in No. 221 1, but it has 
the same extended region of blue moonlight round 
the high light. On her forehead is another jewel, 
a dark sapphire surrounded by eight pearls held in 
its place by a black velvet ribbon ; a similar ribbon 
supports another jewel, like a locket, round her 
neck. She wears a single-stone ruby ring on the 
second joint of the third finger of her left hand. 
This hand supports a gold repousse vase on which 
may be seen a figure of Mercury with his winged 
hat and staff and two beasts below. On the cover 
is a sea-maid carrying a cupid on her shoulders. 
This cover is held in place by the right hand, 
which has a single-stone ring, a sapphire, on the 
second joint of the first finger. The saint has a 
thin gold halo, which came to light when the 
picture was cleaned, and fine auburn hair hanging 
down her back. She has a delicate nose, and her 
mouth is partly open, showing her lower teeth, 
which gives her an anxious expression. The lids of 
her beautiful dark grey eyes are curiously lifted over 
the pupils, her complexion is very pale. She is seen 
against a dark blue background. The flesh painting 
is more transparent than the flesh painting of the 
early works of Mabuse, but the dress and details are 
very like the work in that master's great picture at 
Naworth, the Adoration of ihe Magi ; Lord 
Carlisle, the happy owner of that masterpiece, is 
persuaded that this little work is by the same hand, 
and he ought to know. This masterpiece, the 
Adoration of the Magi, closes the great period of 
early Netherlandish art with a glorious flourish of 
triumph, as the Adoration of the Lamb at Ghent 
opens it with the finest master-work the school 
ever produced. No. 2163 is on oak 8^ in. high 
by 6 in. wide, and has an arched top. 

Charles Holroyd. 


I HAVE had the good fortune to discover a St. John 
in the Wilderness, which I confidently attribute to 
the Leonardesque painter, Cesare da Sesto. The 
reproduction which accompanies this note relieves 
me of the obligation to give a detailed description 
of this panel, which measures 24 in. in height 
by 15 inches in width (sight measure), and is, 
all things considered, in a very remarkable state 
of preservation. The Milanese painter has 
here illustrated the passage to be found with but 
slight variation in the Gospels of St. Matthew 
and St. Mark: 'And John was clothed with 
camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his 
loins ; and he did eat locusts and wild honey.' 

The Precursor is represented not as the haggard, 
fiercely earnest preacher, fevered with ecstatic 
passion, but as the magnificent athlete in the 
freshest bloom of manhood. Cesare has evi- 
dently been concerned less to represent the 
saint in the rest and solitude of the wilderness 
than to show his hand in the drawing and model- 
ling of the nude, to give what the Germans call an 
Aktstudie, a study of the human body in its per- 
fection. The landscape is of rare originality and 
beauty, with an exquisiteness of finish that has 
in it nothing mechanical. It is, indeed, this fresh- 
ness and imaginative power in landscape art, of 
which not a few of Cesare's works afford evidence, 
that makes it additionally difficult to understand 
why — as is asserted by Vasari and Lomazzo, with 
especial reference to the great Baptism of Christ in 
the collection of Duke Scotti at Milan— he should 
have accepted the collaboration, as a landscapist, 
of Bernazzano. The lighting of the youthful 
figure, as it appears, somewhat too far forward in 
the picture, in the dark yet half-luminous shade of 
the cave, is carefully considered and very skilful. 
The lovely peep of mountain and dale, melting 
into blue distance, that we get through the mouth 
of the cave is perhaps more Alpine than true 
Italian in character ; but the cave itself, with its 
edges clothed with boldly jutting, leafy under- 
growth, is, to my thinking, of a more Southern 
type than the rest. 

Very characteristic of Cesare is the treatment of 
the branches, sharply relieved against the sky,and of 
the leaves themselves with their precise outline and 
somewhat rigid decoupe effect. Note in particular 
the large shallow bowl into which the young 
prophet, radiant and impassive, is gathering 
honey from the overhanging branches. This is 
precisely similar to the bowl with which St. 
John— there an older, graver, and more hieratic 
personage— is baptizing Christ in the Scotti 
Baptism above mentioned. It closely resembles 
also the upper portion of the dish with the severed 
head of St. John the Baptist in Mr. George 
Salting's Salome and the Executioner, of which 


< ^ 

X ,,, 

■= 3 


another probably original example, less fine in 
quality, exists in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna. 
Among the many points absolutely characteristic 
of our master are the drawing of the mouth and 
peculiar setting of the eye, the painting of the 
orange-coloured, crisply waving hair, the olive 
colour of the polished flesh, the drawing of 
the arms and extremities, the careful, almost 
metallic finish of the modelling, the polished 
surface of the whole. As regards these and 
other morphological details, comparison may 
usefully be made with the somewhat later 
St. Jerome in Penitence, by Cesare, which has quite 
recently been added to the Brera Gallery. A point 
of extreme importance must here be emphasized. 
The Milanese painter in the modelling of his 
St. John — in my picture no ascetic enthusiast, 
as I have already pointed out, but a youthful 
Hercules — has obviously been much influenced by 
the Torso of the Belvedere, which famous antique 
was, as I need hardly recall, brought to light in 
Rome during the pontificate of Julius II. Cesare 
could hardly have seen in Milan a drawing or study 
of the precious fragment discovered so few years 
previously; so that we have here fresh evidence 
that he was in Rome at the moment of 
Raphael's predominance there, and diligently 
studied the antique, as well as the masterpieces of 
the Urbinate and his school. The position of the 
Torso — a youthful Hercules reposing — is somewhat 
different from that of the St. John, but the imita- 
tion of the anatomy, especially in the rendering 
of the thorax and the belly, and generally in the 
sculptural modelling, is too striking to be accidental. 
The lower limbs, in moulding which the master 
has trusted more to himself and his living 
model, have much less grandeur than the upper 
part, less muscular grip too than the mighty thighs 
of the Torso. Cesare was a great draughtsman 
in the manner of Leonardo, as we may gather 
from his studies lin the Accademia of Venice, the 
Albertina of Vienna, and elsewhere ; and this is 
just the picture that would in all probability 
have been preceded by more than one study, 
both from the antique and the living nude. 
Signor Malaguzzi Valeri in his very interesting 
article, ' Cesare da Sesto e un nuovo acquisto della 
Pinacotheca di Brera,' published in the ' Rassegna 
deir Arte ' for February last, has shown that several 
among the red-chalk drawings by Cesare in the 
Accademia were done for the St. Jerome 
in Penitence newly placed in the Brera, a 
painting for which in the ordinary course of 
things less preparation would surely be required 
than for the St. John the Baptist here reproduced. 
At present, however, I know of no drawings that 
would apply to my picture. It is possible that 
the publication of this, as 1 believe, unknown 
work, may draw some such from their hiding- 
place in the portfolios. 

Notes on Various JVorks of Art 

This is not exactly the occasion for a sus- 
tained analysis of Cesare da Sesto's csuvre or 
an inquiry into his exact place in Milanese 
art ; and, indeed, space is lacking for any 
such attempt, even if I were that way in- 
clined. I may state, however, that to my thinking 
the eminent critics who have dealt with the subject 
have somewhat overstated the case in noting 
Cesare's passage from the Leonardesque to the 
Raphaelesque. No doubt he was an eclectic ; no 
doubt he earnestly strove, as the influence of the 
departed Leonardo naturally weakened somewhat 
in Milan, to become a satellite of the central sun 
of Rome, and to shake off what he may possibly 
have come to look upon as provincialism of style. 
Yet he was, and in essentials remained to the end 
of his career, a Milanese Leonardesque. Take 
for instance the Madonna of the Bas-Relief 
formerly in the collection of Lord Monson, 
and now (as I learn from Signor Malaguzzi 
Valeri's article) in that of Earl Carysfort. This 
is to my thinking still markedly Leonardesque, 
not less in technique than in execution ; and we 
find a strong reminiscence of this picture — an 
absolute repetition, indeed, of certain figures — 
in the great Adoration of the Magi of the Naples 
Gallery, which is reckoned, not without reason, 
one of the latest and most Raphaelesque of 
all Cesare's works. Strive as this Milanese may, 
and does, in this his most extensive work, for 
the gravity, the dramatic intensity of the Roman 
style, his suavity and mannered grace, his calm in 
storm, his sweetness in lieu of stress, are Leonard- 
esque (though emphatically not Leonardo's) to the 
core. The Madonna and Child, ivith Saints, of the 
Hermitage at St. Petersburg, which Signor Mala- 
guzzi Valeri proves to be essentially different from 
Lord Carysfort's Madonna of the Bas-Relief, bears 
much the same relation to the great altar-piece. The 
Virgin and Child enthroned between St. John the 
Baptist and St. George (in the collection of Sir 
Frederick Cook), as the Madonna of the Bas-Relief 
does to the Naples altar-piece. And in Sir 
Frederick Cook's picture, late though it is, we may 
trace Milanese and even Venetian elements, as well 
as Raphaelesque. Morelli has placed the Madonna 
of the Bas-Relief inthe Roman period, and at least as 
late as 1520, chiefly on the evidence of the fragment 
of a classical relief in the left corner, from which 
the picture has obtained its distinctive title. 
But surely this evidence is very unsubstantial, if 
we weigh it against the eminently Leonardesque 
character of the work as a whole. It should 
be borne in mind that the classical bas- 
relief is by no means peculiar to, or even 
frequent in, Raphaelesque art. We more readily 
find examples, indeed, in the art of Venice : as, for 
instance, in the early Blood of the Redeemer by 
Giovanni Bellini, in the National Gallery ; in the 
Baffo, Bishop of Paphos, of the youthful Titian now 


Notes on Various Works of Art 

at Antwerp ; and in the great picture to which the 
erroneous title Sacred and Profane Lo^e will ever 
cHng, argue as we may. Cesare da Sesto is, indeed, 
if I may be allowed to press my point a little farther 
still, in the earlier and more spontaneous manifesta- 
tions of his art the most Milanese of all the Milanese 
Leonardesques, excepting, perhaps, the monoton- 
ous, the entirely subjective and undramatic 
Gianpetrino. Andrea da Solario preserves to 
the end something of the fire and passion of the 
Venetian school, "in which, as we must assume, 
he was trained. Ambrogio de Predis has a 
stronger sense of character, though far less finesse, 
and less sustained accomplishment than Cesare ; 
and he is, moreover, in closer sympathy with the true 
Leonardo. Luini, who really belongs in origin to 
the Foppa-Borgognone group, although his art 
is, a little later on, wholly overshadowed and trans- 
formed by the influence of Leonardo's works, has no 
doubt the Milanese suavity, even to excess ; but he 
has it in his own subtly sweet and winning fashion — 
with a certain noble serenity, as well as winning 
grace, that is peculiarly his. Cesare da Sesto is 
wholly self-centred, wholly taken up with studied 
elegance of rhvthm, with exquisiteness of finish, 
with outward perfection. He is strangely, some- 
times almost repellently, cold in his Milanese 
suavity that so imperfectly reproduces the dis- 
quieting watchfulness, the impenetrable mystery, of 
the supreme master. And yet, wholly self-centred, 
self-contemplative as he is, we must account him one 
of the most accomplished technicians, one of the 
most remarkable artists, among those who stand 
for the Leonardesque phase of Milanese art. 

It is, perhaps, in his landscape backgrounds, so 
delicate and so fanciful, that he shows the nearest 
approach to absolute originality. 

Claude Phillips. 


In the life of Ariosto prefixed to Sir John Haring- 
ton's English version of the ' Orlando Furioso,' 
published in 1591, a curiously detailed description 
of the poet's appearance is given. As Harington 
was not born until 1561, this description, if from 
his own pen, must either be second-hand or taken 
from a picture. Let me quote it : ' Ariosto,' says 
Sir John, 'was tall of person, of complexion melan- 
cholic, given to much studie and musing ... he 
was of colour like an olive, somewhat tawnie in 
his face, but fayre skinned otherwise, his haire was 
blacke but he quicklie grew bald, his forehead was 
large his eyebrowes thin, his eye a little hollow 
but very full of life, and very blacke, his nose was 
large and hooked, his teeth passing even and white, 
his cheekes but leane, his beard very thin, his neck 
well proportioned, his shoulders square and well 
made, but somewhat stooping. . . . His counter- 
fait was taken by Tytiano that excellent drawer as 


well to the life that a man would thinke yet it were 
alive. He was honoured with the Lawrell, etc' 
This description fits, with an accuracy which 
surely cannot be accidental, the much-debated 
portrait of a poet in the National Gallery (No. 636), 
which was catalogued so long as 'Ariosto, by 
Titian,' which then, for a season, became, officially, 
' A Poet, by Palma,' and is now ' A Poet, by Titian.' 
Harington's authorities for the life of Ariosto are 
given by himself as ' Gierolamo Porro of Padoa, 
Gierolamo Garofaloof Ferrara, and Simon Fornari 
of Rheggio.' -Can one of these gentlemen, on 
being called on for a description, have refreshed 
his memory with the help of our portrait 'by 
Tytiano, that excellent drawer,' which answers so 
completely to his catalogue of Ariosto's features ? 

Walter Armstrong. 

In The Burlington Magazine for November, 
1907, Dr. N. Restorff drew attention to a hitherto 
unnoticed connexion between Rembrandt and 
Elsheimer, suggesting that the former's Rape of 
Proserpine in the Kaiser Friedrich Museum at 
Berlin is inspired, as regards the motif of the action 
and the draperies, by the so-called Contento, 
ascribed to Elsheimer, in the Alte Pinakothek at 
Munich. Dr. Restorff does not, it is true, omit to 
mention that Elsheimer's authorship of this picture 
is doubted by some critics, who consider it merely 
a copy made by Nikolaus Kniipfer of the lost 
original. But his conclusion might almost give 
the impression that he does not agree with them, 
and that he considers the Munich picture to be an 
Elsheimer, or at least — by his 'perhaps' — grants 
that this is possible. This possibility, however, no 
longer exists, since Friedrich Schlie, in his work 
on Nikolaus Kniipfer,' has proved that the Munich 
Contento cannot be from the hand of Elsheimer. 

Schlie believed himself also to have conclusively 
proved that it was a work by Kniipfer — in fact, 
the first draft of his masterpiece of 1652, now in 
the Grand Ducal Museum at Schwerin, and not 
an exact copy of a supposed lost original, but a 
fundamentally independent development of the 
still extant painting by Elsheimer in the Basle 
Museum (which Dr. W. Bode also considers 
authentic). These conclusions, however, did not 
remain undisputed. Thus Dr. HofstededeGrootwas 
the first to declare himself against Knupfer as the 
painter of the Munich Contento, without wishing 
to support its attribution to Elsheimer himself. 

Secondly, Heinrich Weizsacker/ who agrees with 

' Translated by L. I. Armstrong. 

^ Friedrich Schlie. ' fiber Nikolaus Knupfer und einige seiner 
Gemiilde, besonders iiber seine Jagd uach dcm Gliick (sog. 
Contento) in Miinchen und Schwerin. Zugleich ein Keitrag zur 
Elsheiiner-Frage.' .Schwerin, 1896. Schlie gives here for the 
first time a very acceptable interpretation of this generally 
misunderstood picture. 

• ' Kepertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft,' Band xxi, p. 186. 

Schlie in the question of the attribution of the 
Munich Contento to Kniipfer, disputes Elsheinier's 
authorship of the Basle picture. He endeavours to 
estabHsh the close connexion of the Munich Con- 
tento with the supposed lost picture by Elsheimer, 
which Sandrart saw in the Cabinet Du Fay at 
Frankfort-on-Main and described in his ' Teutsche 
Academie.' The arguments he puts forward — 
especially the fact that two more almost identical 
replicas * must go back to the same lost original 
by Elsheimer — make it fairly probable that the 
Munich picture may really be regarded as a copy, 
and that, therefore, the possibility of Rembrandt's 
having been irifiuenced by Elsheimer's original 
picture may be considered. This is, however, not 
finally proved, for Schlie's hypothesis that the 
Munich Contento is an independent working-up of 
the Basle picture, and that this is by Elsheimer, 
may some day be confirmed. But as long as it is 
not quite certain whether the motive of the drapery 
in the other lost Elsheimer picture of Contento was 
the same as that in the replica at Munich, painted, 
according to Schlie and Weizsacker, by Kniipfer, 
it is necessary to speak with a certain reserve of 
any influencing of Rembrandt. If the draperies 
differed, we could assume that Kniipfer was in- 
fluenced by Rembrandt's Rape of Proserpine, an 
influence which his other works do not contradict. 
Another artist, too, who belonged both to the 
Elsheimer circle (Lastman, Pynas, etc.) and after- 
wards to that of Rembrandt, Claes Moeyaert, 
painted in 1644 a Rape ofProserpi)ie, which, though 
an artificial work, was closely connected with 
Rembrandt's picture. It was sold in 1892 at the 
Biirger-Thore auction for no francs. 

Since the Rembrandt-Elsheimer discussion has 
been opened, perhaps I may be permitted one 
more reference to it. 

Dr. Bode very rightly claims that Rembrandt's 
picture, Jupiter witli Philemon and Baucis, in the 
collection of the late Mr. C. T. Yerkes, of New York, 
was inspired by the example of the same subject 
painted by Elsheimer, in the Dresden Gallery. In 
this case, indeed, we are fairly safe in supposing that 
Rembrandt knew the original itself, as this is 
mentioned in the papers left by his friend, Jan van 
de Capelle.' It is true that the reversed arrange- 
ment might make one doubtful, and seem to indi- 
cate the probability that Goudt's engraving, dated 
1612, was the ' model.' However, both the original 
and the engraving after it were probably known to 
Rembrandt, for another work by Rembrandt seems 
to me to be connected with that of Elsheimer. In 
Dr. Bode's possession there is a pen-and-ink 

* One, preserved only as an engraving in reverse, was in the 
Cabinet Poullain at Paris. The other is that painted in water 
colours by Elsheimer's pupil, J. Konig, in 1617 (>igned and 
dated), in the miniature collection of the Kgl. Kesidenz at 

» Cf. ' Oud Holland,' 1892, p. 33, and W. R. Valentiner's ' Rem- 
brandt and his Circle,' p. 97. 

Notes on Various TVorks of Art 

drawing by Rembrandt for his first version of 
Christ and the Disciples at Em mans (reproduced in 
the ' Leidsche Jaarboekje,' 1906), which repre- 
sents the figure of Christ in profile corresponding 
to that of Jupiter in Elsheimer's Dresden picture, 
also in shadow against a light background. The 
relation between the two, in spite of the change of 
theme, seems to me to proceed not only from this 
study, but still more plainly from the completed 
painting, the small, effective picture in the collec- 
tion of Madame Andre-Jacquemart at Paris, since 
several details in this picture indicate the con- 
nexion, and the figure in the background with the 
second source of light appears also in Elsheimer's 
picture. This picture, amongst the best, if not the 
best, of Rembrandt's quite early works, is, strangely 
enough, also in reverse, both of his own sketch 
and of Elsheimer's original. Probably this is but 
another sign of the regal manner in which Rem- 
brandt took his own course, even when utilizing 
another artist's conception. Kurt Freise. 

The recent researches ' in the archives at St. Peters- 
burg of Baron A. F. de Foelkersam, the able and 
courteous curator of the annexe to the Winter 
Palace known as ' Peter the Great's Gallery,' 
have brought to light the names of several English 
silversmiths who migrated to the new Russian 
capital in the eighteenth century. As the Baron's 
contributions on the subject are published in the 
Russian language, it will doubtless be of interest 
and value to many readers of The BURLINGTON 
M.4GAZINE if I give the results in English. 

The removal of the capital from Moscow to the 
banks of the Neva appears to have attracted arti- 
ficers of all kinds from various parts of Europe. 
In the silversmith's art alone, a large number of 
names of craftsmen from Sweden, Germany, 
Austria and other places are recorded in the books of 
the guild founded specially for the foreigners ; the 
native Russian silversmiths had a guild with regu- 
lations of their own. 

The ■ following is a list of the names of the 
English silversmiths, with a few other details : — 

Samuel Gibbs, described as an ' Englishman,' 
son of an English widow who married Lieutenant 
John Eberhardt Hartmann, an officer in the Russian 
army. His step-father apprenticed him for five 
years to a German silversmith, named G. Jasper, 
who had settled in St. Petersburg. Samuel Gibbs 
became a master-goldsmith in 1727. 

Robert Hogg, ' from London,' entered his name 
14th November, 1776. 

William Donarth, born in London, became 
master-goldsmith i8th January, 1786. He would 
seem to have had a flourishing business if we may 
'Published in ' Starye Gody,' 1907. 


Notes on Various JVorks of Art 

judge from the number of boys— five — apprenticed 
to him. His widow continued the business after 
his death in 1805. 

It must not be assumed that the above exhausts 
the Hst of English silversmiths ; other names, 
suspiciously English in origin, also occur, but in a 
Russianized form. These are omitted here because 
the nationality is not given in the records. 

Unfortunately no examples of their productions 
have so far been discovered ; but perhaps the 
publication of Baron Foelkersam's list will be the 
means of discovering specimens. 

These English silversmiths did not, apparently, 
practise their craft in England before migrating to 
Russia, as did one or two of the silversmith- 
emigrants to America. The explanation probably 
is that they started out upon the termination of 
their apprenticeship in London. 

In making notes a few weeks ago for my volume 
on the old English silver in the possession of the 
Czar of Russia I came across a small gold watch 
set with large and valuable diamonds, in the 
magnificent Imperial collection of which I am 
publishing a separate book. It is named inside 
' Robert Hynam.' Accordmg to Britten's ' Old 
Clocks and Watches ' this watchmaker is described 
as ' horloger de la Cour, St. Petersburg,' where he 
settled. He was on the Livery of the Joiners' 
Company in 1776, when his address was given as 
' Russia.' The number of English clocks of the 
eighteenth century not only in Russian palaces 
but also in churches and monasteries is certainly 
remarkable. E. Alfred Jones. 

HAARLEM, 1908 
The directors of the Teyler Foundation and the 
members of Teyler's Second Society have arranged 
to propose the following subjects to those entering 
for the prize they offer : The completest possible 
catalogue of the pictures existing in the churches 
and religious institutions of the Northern Nether- 
lands previous to the year 1566 ; and in the second 
place a catalogue raisoiine of the pictures of the 
Northern Netherlands and neighbourhood painted 
before the year 1566 which still exist. 
.' Since attention has been given to the pre- 
Reformation pictures painted in the Netherlands, 
it has become clear that a large number of them 
originate from the northern part of that district. 
Ancient writers such as Van Mander mention but 
few painters of that time, and can point to very 
few works. The study of archives and art litera- 
ture has much increased the list of names, and, 
what is more important, of the pictures produced. 
The work of Albert van Ouwater and Geertgen 
Tot Sint Jans at Haarlem, of Cornelis Engel- 
brechsten and Lucas van Leyden at Leyden, of 
Jacob Cornelisz and Pieter Aertsz at Amsterdam, 
of Jan van Scorel at Utrecht, of Hieronymus Bosch 

at Bois-le-Duc, etc., can now be studied, thanks 
to the researches of our neighbours. 

Thanks, too, to the results of these researches, 
the tradition that the iconoclasm of 1566 ruined 
all the works of art in the churches of the Northern 
Netherlands has been proved untrustworthy. But, 
with a view to full consideration of the field of 
inquiry, it is necessary first to point out as accu- 
rately as possible what pictures existed in the 
Northern Netherlands before the year 1566, and, 
secondly, to give a catalogue raisonne of the 
pictures of North Netherlandish origin which are 
still extant. 

The first of these points can only be ascertained 
by a thorough examination of the archives of the 
churches and religious houses. Secondly, in com- 
piling the catalogue raisonne the origin of the 
pictures enumerated must be traced as far back as 
possible, and the copies which are still extant must 
be indicated. 

The prize for the best and most exhaustive 
answer is a gold medal from the society, of an 
intrinsic value of 400 gulden. 

All answers must be sent in before the ist April, 
1910, and will be judged before the ist May, 1911. 
They must be easily legible, and written in Dutch, 
French, English or German, in Latin characters, 
by another hand than that of the author. 

No additions may be made to any answer after 
it has been sent in. No answer which is incom- 
plete at the time of presentation will be con- 

The society reserves the right of ownership of 
all treatises sent in, together with the right of pub- 
lishing the winning answers, with or without 
translation, in the society's ' Treatises,' but the 
authors may not publish their answers without 
the society's consent. The society also reserves 
the right to make any use it thinks fit of the 
unsuccessful answers, and to withhold or to 
mention the author's name ; in the latter case, 
however, his permission will be obtained. 
\ Authors of unsuccessful treatises will be supplied 
with copies thereof only at their own cost. 
' The answers must be sent in anonymously, 
signed only with a pseudonym, and accompanied 
by a sealed note bearing the same pseudonym, 
arid containing the name and address of the 
author, to the Foundation House of Pieter Teyler 
van der Hulst at Haarlem. 

The illustration of The Frosty Morning, by J. M. W. 
Turner, which appeared in our March number, 
was reproduced by kind permission of Mr. Franz 
Hanfstaengl, of 16 Pall Mall East, S.W., and the 
illustration of the Interior at Petworth, in the same 
number, by kind permission of Messrs. W. A. 
Mansell and Co., 405 Oxford Street, W., the plates 
in each case being made from copyright photo- 




Early Woodcut Initials. Selected and anno- 
tated by Oscar Jennings, M.D. Methuen. 
2 IS. net. 
Dr. Jennings has brought together a splendid 
collection of mediaeval and Renaissance initials, 
and the 170 pages of facsimiles, containing over 
1,300 specimens from the presses of Germany, 
Italy, France, Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands 
and England, give a survey of the whole subject 
which could hardly, except in certain details, be 
bettered. Completeness in such a matter is hardly 
possible or desirable ; either the editor must restrict 
himself to some definite group of presses and aim 
at the exhaustiveness dear only to specialists, or 
he must choose the best initials from all presses 
with an eye to their artistic merit, and delight the 
man of taste. This Dr. Jennings has achieved 
with eminent success; no book on initials hitherto 
produced has been so rich in beautiful things, and 
the author has wisely included, so far as possible, 
examples hitherto unpublished. The reproduc- 
tions, moreover, are exceedingly good. 

The late gothic printers achieved in this depart- 
ment of the decoration of books, as in others, 
results that no later generation has excelled ; none 
of the sixteenth-century work in this book is so 
satisfactory to the eye as the early Ulm and Augs- 
burg letters and the alphabets in red from missals 
printed by Sensenschmidt and Drach. The balance 
between the letter itself and the decoration is more 
perfect in such an initial as the B of Richel (Basle, 
p. 134) than it could ever be when the letter came, 
as with Holbein, to be laid on the top of a little 
picture which would be complete without it. 
Beautiful specimens are given of the late fifteenth- 
century alphabets of Venice, forerunners of that 
Augsburg Renaissance decoration in which Weiditz 
bears the palm, and a Spanish alphabet (p. 255) is 
of special technical interest as a capital example of 
the manicre criblee applied to such a purpose. 

Every student of a special period will probably 
miss in such a volume something that he would 
expect to find there, and be rewarded by the dis- 
covery of something new. A few remarks on the 
German sixteenth-century work by known artists, 
absent or present, may be of interest to certain 
readers. Holbein's initials produced in England 
are not even mentioned in the text. From the list 
of German alphabet designers on p. 20 the names 
of Durer, Burgkmair, Schaufelein should be de- 
leted ; Cranach's claim to a place is doubtful ; 
Springinklee, Schon, Traut, Hopfer, Breu, Lem- 
berger should be inserted. Specimens of Spring- 
mklee's initials in the Eichstiidt missal (Holzel, 
1517) would have been welcome if they could 
be found uncoloured ; Schon designed a fine 
alphabet for Petreius, which we miss. Dr. Jennings, 
as a bibliographer, can perhaps hardly be expected 
to have read the special literature on such minor 

artists as Breu and Traut, specimens of whose work, 
fully described, he has given unwittingly on p. 123 
(not from a Constance missal, but from the Regens- 
burg and Constance breviaries) and p. 132. When 
people write ' Burgkmair ' in this connexion they 
mean ' Weiditz.' Diirer designed no alphabet except 
the plain ones in his book on proportion. The 
alphabet published under his name (p. 168) is a copy 
by Anton von Worms from the finer original by 
Weiditz reproduced in this magazine in February. 
Anton von Worms is represented by better, more 
original work in the large letters on p. 166, and 
smaller ones (p. 167). The preposition ' by ' is used, 
by the way, with provoking ambiguity for artists and 
printers alike in the brief, sometimes inaccurate, 
titles at the foot of the plates. Weiditz is not respon- 
sible for the last two letters on p. 125. The fine 
Hagenaw alphabet on pp. 264-268 is doubtless by 
the artist who signed the Crucifixion cut in the 
same missal with a monogram to be deciphered, pro- 
bably, as G.Z. (Gabriel Zehender ?). The handsome 
alphabet designed for Apianus (pp. 274-5) is not, I 
am convinced, by Ostendorfer, to whom, since 
Weigel, it has been attributed ; but by an artist more 
schooled in the manner of the ' Kleinmeister.' 
Several of its letters occur as early as 1533-34. The 
aged man with sphere and compass in the C is 
derived from ' Messahalah, De scientia orbis motus,' 
Nuremberg, 1504, a book which of late has enjoyed 
a certain notoriety in connexion with Diirer. 

The four Strassburg letters on p. 159 from a 
'Pogge' (why thus gallicize the name?) printed by 
Schott for Knoblouch, 1513, are of special interest 
as belonging to an alphabet by Hans Baldung 
unrecorded in the literature on that artist, and new 
to the reviewer. One letter from it, G (wanting 
here), is given without indication of its provenance 
in the text to Dr. G. von T6rey's publication of 
Baldung's drawings. While recognizing in these 
initials the hand of Baldung, I was puzzled for a 
moment by reading Dr. Jennings's statement that 
one of them was used by Schiirer in 1505; Baldung 
was then in his prentice days at Nuremberg — he 
became a citizen of Strassburg in 1509. Reference 
to Proctor (10179) revealed a serious inaccuracy in 
the new book : the date should be June, 15 10, 
Schiirer's earliest date being June, 1508. Full 
information about the alphabet, only six letters of 
which are known, may be wrested from Proctor's 
sternly reticent pages. 

This is by no means the only error of Dr. Jen- 
nings. In addition to a frequent vagueness as to 
the source from which his initials are derived, due 
in part to their being reproduced from some col- 
lection of initials, not directly from the books, 
there is a deplorable laxity about his spelling of 
names and titles ; ' Waechstein' for Wechtlin is 
a glaring instance. The statement about Durer 
as an engraver (on wood), p. 20, is an extraordinary 
perversion of history. The book shows some 
signs of having been originally planned on a more 


Engraving and Numismatics 

ambitious scale, and there may have been obstacles 
to its completion which should plead against a 
harsh judgment on what has actually been accom- 
plished. C. D. 

naar belangrijke Prenten en Teekeningen, uit- 
gegeven onder leiding van J. Ph. Van der 
Kellen Dzn. Amsterdam : W. Versluys. 12 
parts. ;^3 3s. 
This series of reproductions is intended to interest 
a wider public than that of special students of 
engraving in the treasures and rarities of the Print 
Room at Amsterdam. The editor proposes to 
adhere to no strict system, chronological or other- 
wise, in making his selection, but to give specimens 
of all kinds of work remarkable for artistic merit. 
The first part includes specimens of Mantegna, 
Baldung and Saftleven, a mezzotint portrait of the 
Princesse de Lamballe, St. Aubin's Bal Pare, and 
two drawings by De Gheyn. These are re- 
produced in collotype without reduction of scale. 
An introductory plate explains the processes of 
engraving to the uninitiated by illustrating en- 
graved plates side by side with the impressions taken 
from them. The titles and explanatory notes are 
printed both in Dutch and French. The publica- 
tion would be more likely to find a home in private 
libraries if its dimensions (nearly 23 by 18 inches) 
were somewhat smaller. C. D. 

Seals. By Walter de Gray Birch. Connoisseur's 
Library. 1907. Methuen and Co. 25s. net. 
It was natural that Dr. Birch should have been 
asked to write the volume on seals for the Connois- 
seur's Library, for he has probably examined and 
catalogued more impressions than any one in this 
country. Experience, however, is one thing ; the 
art of imparting knowledge another — and of this 
art the author has not proved himself a master in 
the present work. It is not suggested that he has 
failed in an easy task, for the problem of presenting 
the history of seals in a form at once concise, 
scholarly and readable is admittedly one of 
extreme difficulty. 

Voltaire once compared a certain history rich in 
disconnected facts to a diary, remarking that a 
journal is no more a history than a pile of bricks 
is a house. The volume before us lies open to a 
similar criticism : here is the material for a respect- 
able building, but no structure. Most of the 
chapters are piles of facts composed by the method 
of simple enumeration ; they impress the reader 
like a series of extracts from a catalogue compressed 
into the semblance of a continuous narrative. A 
reference to Dr. Birch's British Museum catalogues 
explains the resemblance, for although there is no 
literal reproduction the atmosphere of a catalogue 
is continually present. But what the connoisseur 
and the general reader alike require is not a register 


but a treatise, lucidly written and logically arranged, 
in which the various lines of development, artistic 
and historical, should be followed out in a manner 
at once interesting and scientific. Such a treatise 
should have a certain sculptural quality, giving the 
significant its due prominence and relegating the 
secondary to the background. The present volume 
lacks all relief : each detail has the salience of that 
which precedes and follows it. The reader is not 
told with sufficient clearness why the fine seals are 
to be admired, or by what processes of growth they 
attained their excellence. The statement that they 
are fine occurs in the alphabetic enumeration, the 
rest is left for the student's own discovery. The 
treatment of sigillography on its historical side is in 
the same manner incidental rather than consecutive. 
Heraldry and the lore of costume, which are so 
intimately connected with seals, receive alike short 
and inadequate measure. The proportion of space 
allotted to seals of different countries will also 
occasion some surprise, for although our English 
seals of the best period are among the finest ever 
produced, to dismiss all foreign examples in some 
fifty pages is to accord them less consideration 
than they deserve. Too little notice, again, has 
been given to matrices, a most important part of 
the subject. Any one unfamiliar with our museums 
would hardly gather from this work that large col- 
lections of matrices are still in existence. 

These are the cardinal defects which seriously 
detract from the value of the book ; compared 
with them, errors of detail are perhaps of secondary 
interest. But since accuracy in works of this kind 
is of fundamental importance, a few conspicuous 
errors may be noticed. The head on the seal of 
Bernard of Parma is a copy of the portrait of 
Frederick II from the gold coins of that emperor, 
but Dr. Birch describes it as an unconventional 
portrait of Our Lord, conceived after the style of 
a Roman emperor. Corone, the seal of whose 
bishop is illustrated on plate xxxvi, is not near 
Athens, but almost as far away as it could well be 
while remaining within the limits of Greece. 
Neither the intaglio with a wyvern nor that with 
the Agnus Dei, reproduced on plate iii, can ac- 
curately be described as ancient, in the sense of 
antique, gems. The mistakes in the first chapter, 
which is necessarily a compilation, should receive 
greater indulgence than those committed elsewhere, 
but some of them are too glaring to escape at- 
tention. There is a strange confusion between 
Sylla and Scylla ; and of Greek gems of the fourth 
century it is said that their designs 'possess the 
stiff unnatural drawing which characterises that 
epoch.' After this, the statement, in another part 
of the book, that Diocletian lived in the fifth 
century ceases to surprise. There is more than one 
unnecessary error in the description of Egyptian 
and Babylonian signets. Engraved cylinders go 
back very much further than B.C. 2200; and the 

use on p. II of the form Uzukh (Ur-ukh ?) instead 
of the modern version Ur-Engur, seems to show 
that Dr. Birch has relied for his information upon 
books which are now quite out of date. 

It is an ungrateful task to dwell upon the faults 
of a book which contains a mass of useful informa- 
tion. Better digested, relieved of the more serious 
maccuracies which disfigure it, the work might 
have attained a high level of excellence; even as 
it is, it IS by no means to be regarded as valueless 
Though it fails to reach the standard set by the 
better volumes in the series to which it belongs, it 
will continue of service until the appearance of the 
exhaustive book for which we are still condemned 
to wait. The student already familar with the 
general history of seals will find here a great number 
of details assembled for the first time between two 
covers ; and if he uses ordinary caution, may con- 
sult the volume with profit and convenience. 

As has been the case with all the numbers of 
this series, the publishers have done their best in 
the present instance : the book is well printed and 
well illustrated. It is a pity that these advantages 
should be partly neutralized by the absence of 
references from the text to the plates, a source of 
some annoyance to all but the rare class of leisured 
readers. q 

The Coins and Medals of the Knights op- 
Malta. Arranged and described by Canon 
H. Calleja Schembri. London : Eyre and 
Spottiswoode. 42s. net. 
The admirable work of E. H. Furse, ' Memoires 
Numismatiques de I'Ordre Souverain de Saint Jean 
de Jerusalem,' has, since its publication in 1885, 
been the chief authority on the coins and medals 
of the Knights of Rhodes and Malta. It is true 
that certain additions have been made to our 
knowledge of the series in the last two decades, 
and most of them are incorporated in Canon 
Schembri's book. It is doubtful, however, whether 
these additions are important enough to warrant 
the publication of a volume, nine-tenths or more 
of which are merely a repetition of information 
already to be found in Furse. We should not 
complain if the writer showed any particular com- 
petence for his task. But his qualification may be 
gauged by the fact that at the outset he misin- 
terprets the legend on the gold sequins of Philip 
Villiers de I'Isle Adam, apparently not realizing 
that it is merely a blundered version of the legend 
on the ordinary Venetian sequin. It is improbable 
that this Grand Master exercised the right of 
strikmg coins at all in Malta, and the writer, who 
admits that there is nothing to prove where the 
coins were struck, would have done better to follow 
Furse in relegating them to Rhodes. The author's 
treatment of the medals cannot be called scholarly 
his acquaintance with the literature of the subject 
being slight. We find an occasional reference to 


Engraving and Numismatics 

the work of Armand ; but, had he used it intelli- 
gently, he might have given the names of the artists 
of some medals which in his descriptions appear 
as anonymous, although they bear signatures. He 
might also have added one to his list of medals of 
Jean Parisot de la Vallette. The half-tone plates 
are none of them good, and some quite the worst 
we have seen — in curious contrast with the sump- 
tuousness of the binding. 


A Catalogue Raisonn£ of the Works of the 

Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the 

Seventeenth Century. Based on the work 

of John Smith. By C. Hofstede de Groot 

(with the assistance of Dr. W. R. Valentiner). 

Translated and edited by Edward G. Hawke. 

Vol I. London : Macmillan. 25s. net. 

Though inclusion in Smith's catalogue has long 

been an advertisement in the auction-room, the 

distinction has lost force of recent years. John 

Smith was a wonderful man, and the book by 

which he immortalized himself a wonderful book. 

But he made no pretence either to completeness 

or accuracy, and it was thus inevitable that the 

advance of modern knowledge should make a 

revised edition essential. In the first place Smith 

is no infallible guide as to authenticity ; he was a 

very clever dealer indeed, but his critical judgments 

were of a more rough and ready kind than those 

which represent the accumulated labours of a 

generation of modern scholars. Fashion, too, has 

changed, and a selection which omitted Brouwer, 

Hals, Vermeer, and several others who are now 

recognized as among the most famous of Dutch 

masters could not be regarded as final. 

For the revision of such a book no living 
authority could be more competent than Dr. de 
Groot, and the English translation is excellent 
and accurate. The artists dealt with in the first 
volume are Steen, Metsu, Dou, de Hooch, Carel 
Fabritius and Vermeer of Delft. The 250 pages 
devoted to Jan Steen alone represent a colossal 
amount of labour. We should not, perhaps, feel 
inclined to describe the exquisite Lute Player 
in the Wallace collection (150) as ' similar in style ' 
to the Terrace Scene in the National Gallery (142 1), 
for the former is among the most superb and 
translucent of Steen's works, while the latter, with 
all its grand design, is hard and opaque. Nor 
does Egbert Heemskerk deserve to be dismissed 
as ' a very indifferent artist.' He was narrow and 
exceedingly unequal, but his best works in jewel- 
like richness of colour and in painter-like handling 
deserve a far more generous recognition. The list 
of works by Metsu and de Hooch suggests the 
hope that a notice of the paintings of Ochterveldt, 
on occasion an admirable master, may some day 
be found possible. Carel Fabritius and Vermeer 


'Painters and Painting 

of Delft raise problems that are more complicated 
than those of figures and measurements, and as 
regards both artists Dr. de Groot adopts a. strictly 
conservative attitude. In the case of Fabritius 
caution was specially necessary, as the few works 
that are his beyond all possible question vary con- 
siderably in style, and the omission of one or two 
well-known pictures attributed to him in English 
collections is comprehensible in a book which has 
to exclude tentative attributions, but in the case of 
so rare a master a picture like the Reading Man 
in Sir Frederick Cook's collection at Richmond 
deserved at least a reference, even if in the editor's 
opinion the generally received attribution was 
untenable. In omitting The Lesson (National Gal- 
lery, No. 1699) from the work of Vermeer there 
was more apparent reason, for though the style and 
sentiment are exactly what we might expect from 
Vermeer in his youth, it is so wholly unlike the 
Christ in the Honse of Mary and Martha, with its 
strong reflection of the manner of Fabritius, which 
is actually Vermeer's earliest known painting, that 
hesitation becomes a duty. The price (;^'2,40o) 
paid for our one indubitable Vermeer might have 
been mentioned, and the initials of the signature 
cannot correctly be described as ' intertwined.' 
The reference to ' pictures ' by L. Boursse in the 
Wallace collection is surely incorrect ? The only 
example known to us is No. 166 ; Interior : 
Woman Cooking. 

No brief notice, however, can do justice to the 
wonderful amount of information compressed 
into the book, which will prove as indispensable to 
every serious student of Dutch pictures as it is to 
their owners and collectors. 

Die Kunst des Portrats. By Wilhelm Waetzoldt. 

Leipzig : Hirt and Son. 1908. Paper, M. 12 ; 

bound, M. 14.50. 
The art of portrait-painting has from the earliest 
days, since the painter became an artist on his 
own account, exercised a growing fascination for 
the minds of both artist and spectator, and, it may 
be added, for the patron of art as well. This is 
easily intelligible, for where the artist has the 
advantage of a series of living models to work 
from, each presenting some different aspect to in- 
terest him and call out his ability, the spectator 
sees something which is akin to his own person- 
ality and therefore more easily apprehended by 
the untutored mind. When, however, the question 
arises, what is a good portrait ?, there is a bewilder- 
ing diversity of opinion, with which the average 
mind finds some difficulty in coping. 

Should a portrait be an exact counterfeit, or an 
interpretation ? Should it only please, or should 
it convey a lesson ? Should it show the sitter in 
a conventional pose, or should it illustrate some 
momentary action or expression ? Should the 
lace or the costume predominate ? Such are a 


few among the many questions which rise to the 
lips, and have to be answered by the portrait 
painter. Herr Waetzoldt has set himself the task 
of reviewing the history of portrait-painting from 
the earliest day to the present, from the rude efforts 
of primitive man and of children to Watts, Len- 
bach, Boecklin and Anders Zorn. It can be under- 
stood therefore that within the 450 pages of his 
book there is a great deal to read, and as the 
author's style is not easy, while the sentences are 
long, and many of the words small sentences in 
themselves, the reader requires some time and 
leisure for his task. 

Herr Waetzoldt does not lay down any rules 
for the painting of portraits. He merely reviews 
the long list of portrait painters in different styles 
and different periods in order to illustrate the 
different phases of the art and the various pro- 
blems arising therefrom which the painter is called 
upon to solve. The latter portion of the book is 
devoted to an interesting study of the self-portraits 
of artists. As a contribution to the history of 
Kunst nnd Wissenchaft the book has considerable 
value, and those who have patience to read sen- 
tences like the following will be rewarded for their 
pains. In his concluding words the author says : — 
' Von den prinzipiellen iisthetischen Problemen der 
Menschendarstellung zu den individuell-psycholo- 
gischen des darstellenden Menschen ging der Weg 
unserer Betrachtung. Wir begannen mit der 
Kunst der bildnerischen Individualiserung und 
schlossen mit der malerischen Selbstoffenbarung 
der kunstlerischen Individualitat. . . .' 

One of the most satisfactory features of this in- 
teresting book is the high place given to the great 
portrait painters of the English school — to Hogarth, 
Reynolds, Gainsborough and Watts — and the re- 
spect shown not only for the paintings of this 
school but for the value of the written works of 
Jonathan Richardson and Sir Joshua Reynolds as 
a source of inspiration to the artist. L. C. 

La Peinture Anglaise de ses Origines A nos 
Jours. Par Armand Dayot. Avec 25 helio- 
gravures et 282 illustrations dans le texte. 
Paris : Lucien Laveur. 50 francs. 
This large and profusely illustrated book is one 
of the many signs of the interest which the conti- 
nent is now taking in British art. M. Dayot brings 
to his task uncommon assiduity and enthusiasm 
as well as the practical experience of all kinds of 
painting which an Inspector-General of the Fine 
Arts in France is bound to possess. The field 
covered by his book, moreover, is as wide as, and, 
so far as living painters are concerned, even wider 
than, that occupied by the vast work of Muther ; 
and the pictures selected for illustrations are less 
hackneyed. Here and there, indeed, we notice 
mistakes in attribution, notably in the case of 
Constable. But for the most part the scope and 

appearance of the book are all that could 
be desired in an introductory study of the sub- 

When we come to details the verdict cannot be 
quite so satisfactory. In the first place the proofs 
ought to have been read by an Englishman, since 
misprmts in names and dates are distressingly 
common, and some of them will baffle even those 
whose acquaintance with the subject is more than 
elementary. Nor are the blunders confined to 
names and dates. The list of Ruskin's principal 
works omits all mention of 'Modern Painters,' 
'The Stones of Venice' and 'Seven Lamps of 
Architecture' ; J. F. Lewis is mentioned with John 
Linnell as a painter of stormy landscapes ; while 
the list of Preraphaelites who imitated Madox 
Brown in the painting of detail includes the names 
of Burne Jones, Stanhope, \V. Fisk (sic) and 
Strudwick. To call old James Ward a painter 'd'un 
metier sec et penible' does not suggest any very 
definite memory of that artist's fluid and forcible 
brushwork, and many other instances of similar 
inaccuracy might be enumerated. The fact is, 
M. Dayot has tried to assimilate rapidly a subject 
which even in England has proved too much for 
any single writer, and he hasadded to his difficulties 
by sweeping both small and great into his net, and 
dealing with water colour and caricature as well as 
with oil painting. We cannot always in conse- 
quence see the wood for the trees. It would have 
been wiser to concentrate attention upon the chief 
figuresand thecardinal movements in English paint- 
ing, and leave the minor men alone. Even in Eng- 
land they havealready become negligible quantities, 
and it is unlikely that they will ever be more than 
that elsewhere. In afield so limited it would be pos- 
sible to obtain good authority for the essential facts, 
and to do critical justice to the artists selected. 
The present work, in spite of its comprehensive- 
ness, its enthusiasm and the admirable way in 
which it IS produced, cannot be called trustworthy 
in either of these respects. 

C.J. H. 

Sir Henry Raeburn. By R. S. Clouston. 
London : Newnes. 3s. 6d. net. 

Sir TH0M.4S Lawrence. By R. s. Clouston. 
London : Newnes. 3s. 6d. net. 

The short biographies prefixed to the collections 
of pictures which are the feature of Messrs. 
Newnes's series are well adapted to their purpose, 
and preserve a just balance between biography 
and criticism. In the Lawrence volume the por- 
trait called Miss PheUfs (sic), on p. 16, has surely 
been inserted in error. Neither costume nor 
painting shows a trace of Lawrence. The portrait 
of a lady on p. 22 also does not look like Lawrence 
though it IS evidently a very good picture, not un- 
worthy of Watts in his early days. 

T^atnters and T^ainting 

Velasquez. By R. A. M. Stevenson. London : 

Bell. 3s. 6d. net. Perugino. By G. C. 

Williamson, Litt.D. London : Bell. 3s. 6d. 

net. Piero della Francesca. By W. G. 

Waters, M.A. London : Bell. 3s. 6d. net. 

PINTURICCHIO. By Evelyn March Phillips. 

London : Bell. 3s. 6d. net. 
Messrs. Bell have done well in reissuing their 
' Handbooks of the Great Masters ' at a cheaper 
price, for, though the volumes of the series are of 
unequal merit, the majority of them exhibit a 
higher standard of scholarship than is common in 
popular English books on art, and a considerable 
proportion of them deal with painters of whom no 
other account is generally accessible. The late 
Mr. R. A. M. Stevenson's book on Velazquez has 
always enjoyed a great reputation, and in its present 
form should find a still larger circle of readers. 
The book on Pinturicchio shows evidence of 
careful study and is moderate and sensible in tone. 
In that on Piero della Francesca the author was 
evidently overwhelmed by the greatness of his 
subject, which called for more largeness and clarity 
of treatment than have been given it. The book on 
Perugino, too, was no easy task, for few painters 
have combined such considerable beauties with 
so much weakness. 

Fifty Years of Modern Painting— Corot to 
Sargent. By J. E. Phythian. London: 
Grant Richards. los. 6d. net. 
The various attempts that have been made to 
sum up the art movements of the last half-century 
seem to show that the task is at present almost an 
impossible one. The chief actors on the stage are 
always so closely beset by a crowd of lesser "lights 
and supers that we cannot distinguish them plainly. 
Time is necessary for the revelation of the real 
protagonists, and thus in his careful book Mr. 
Phythian has been most sucessful with his earlier 
chapters. When he comes to artists who are but 
recently dead or are still working among us his 
vision becomes less clear. A tendency to moralize, 
an occasional reliance upon Dr. Muther, and the 
not infrequent verbal confusions are more impor- 
tant faults than the few errors of fact we have 
noticed, so that the book, if not inspired, is by no 
means a bad introduction to the subject— the 
more so because its judgments are fair to many 
diverse ideals and are generally backed by a sound 
appreciation of design. It is therefore unlucky 
that Mr. Phythian, while praising the painting of 
Sandys and Israels, should be unjust to Paul 
Baudry, and miss the significance of Daumier. 
Being intended chiefly for English readers, the 
volume pays special attention to British art, with 
results that are sometimes odd. Daubigny is but 
a name in a list,five words are devoted to Monticelli, 
but Mr. Yeames has a whole paragraph to himself, 
and Boughton more than a page. The little 


Painters and Painting 

illustrations are not ill selected, though L'^mou; 
Vainqiiciir does not show the real Millet, and the 
landscape by Camille Pissarro surely represents 
Louveciennes, not Vincennes ? C. J. H. 

L'CEUVRE DE J. B. S. Chardin et de J. H. 
Fragonard. 230 reproductions. Introduc- 
tion par Armand Dayot. Notes par Ldandre 
Vaillant. Paris : F. Gittler. 
This profusely illustrated memorial of the exhibi- 
tion of Chardin and Fragonard held last year at the 
Galerics Georges Petit makes no pretence to the 
completeness of a catalogue raisonm, since, as M. 
Vaillant remarks, the notes are no more than a 
summary of the information he obtained while 
acting as secretary to the exhibition. We at once 
detect, for instance, the absence of certain famous 
works by Chardin, and in the case of one example 
illustrated the notes mention the replica in the 
Cook collection at Richmond but omit the second 
replica in the National Gallery. Yet if the book 
makes no pretence to completeness it is none the 
less a valuable series of reproductions of two of 
the most notable masters of eighteenth-century 
France, and representing the two strongly con- 
trasted aspects of the national character. In 
Chardin we have French logic, science, balance 
and good sense applied consistently to the art of 
painting as they have rarely or never been applied 
elsewhere, except perhaps by Velazquez ; in 
Fragonard the ease, gaiety and luxury of the court 
which the Revolution overwhelmed attain complete 
aesthetic fruition. 

Wilton House Pictures. By Nevile R. Wil- 
kinson. 2 vols. London : Chiswick Press. 

Captain Nevile Wilkinson's catalogue of the 
collection at Wilton House is conceived on a 
sumptuous scale, is admirably printed, and is illus- 
trated with good photogravures of the most famous 
works in Lord Pembroke's possession. Even from 
a cursory examination it is evident that the cata- 
loguing has been most carefully and completely 
done, and the work is a worthy summary of present 
expert knowledge on the subject to which it is 
devoted. We note that in the discussion of the 
Diptych the late M. Bouchot's name is misspelled. 


Art in Needlework. By Lewis F. Day and Mary 
Buckle. B. T. Batsford. 5s. 

The handbook on embroidery by Mr. Louis F. Day 
and Miss Mary Buckle, of which a new edition has 
lately been issued, illustrates sufficiently the difficul- 
ties that the compiler of such a volume has to 
deal with. The question of illustration is the first 
preoccupation ; such a book has to be issued at a 


price that shall make it available for students, and 
the result is a small page and illustrations cramped 
and reduced until most of the detail is lost and 
they are not of much value to just the person for 
whom the book is intended. Miss Buckle is an 
accomplished embroideress and Mr. Day a prac- 
tised writer on art-manuals, and they have dealt 
with this difficulty with considerable but not un- 
qualified success ; most of the illustrations, too, are 
very clear considering their small scale. 

The stitches described are given in a series of 
samplers of which the wrong side is also pictured, 
an ingenious device greatly helping the already 
clear explanations. Five or six of the samplers 
and the accompanying letterpress, however, might 
well have been cut out. A great many useless and 
trifling fancy-stitches are discussed, taking up 
space that could then have been given to more 
serious sides of the art. This is a defect not 
particular to Mr. Day's book but common to all 
handbooks on this subject ; they all make too much 
of the stitch and too little of style. In the chapter 
on chain-stitch, nothing issaid about the fascinating 
bird which initials the chapter ; two lines are 
devoted to the beautiful piece of German white 
work on page 44 ; while the rest is mostly given to 
explanation of a sampler dull enough to frighten 
any student away from the work. All the freshness 
and ingenuity of this charming stitch have trickled 
away under the enchanter's wand. The inlay 
Rescht work, with its bold use of chain-stitch, is 
dealt with in a rather languid spirit that gives little 
reflection of its splendour, and the example shown 
is not striking or of the best time. "The finest 
Rescht work leaves one breathless with delight 
before its flower-like beauty and wonderful large- 
ness of handling. 

Mr. Day never loses sight of the importance of 
thoroughness in technique, but he does sometimes 
lose sight of the importance of quickening the 
interest and stimulating the taste of his student- 
readers. The writing is too impersonal, not human 
enough. The chapters on church work and on 
treatment of the figure would have been better 
away. A few pages on figure-work and a bare 
mention of the finest mediaeval embroideries 
merely puzzle a student ; she will have heard some- 
thing of their romance and beauty, and will want 
to know more about them, but Mr. Day is too 
busy with careful and able explanation of lesser 
things to tell the tale of these. 

The chapter on a ' Plea for Simplicity ' is the 
best in the book, and I wish to give it unqualified 
praise. Putting myself in the place of an inquiring 
student, I know that, coming to the book for 
guidance, I should get more out of these few pages 
— an epitome of suggestion and information and 
the best sort of advice— than from all the rest of 
the book. It is an admirably skilful bit of writing. 

May Morris. 


A History of the Minories, London. By 
E. M. Tomlinson, M.A. Smith, Elder & Co. 
i8s. net. 
The eastern wards of the city of London are rich 
in associations with the early rehgious guilds, and 
the writer of this interesting volume has earned the 
gratitude of all lovers of antiquarian research. 
Comparatively few persons frequenting the thor- 
oughfare between Houndsditch and the Tower 
Bridge are aware that they are passing through 
Knighten Guild, so named by King Edgar in com- 
memoration of the accomplishment of three com- 
bats — one above ground, one underground, and the 
third in the water — and a successful tournament in 
East Smithfield by each of thirteen of his bravest 
knights. Such was the ancient designation of the 
ward of Portsoken, which was ruled over by the 
prior of the church of the Holy Trinity within 
Aldgate until the priory was surrendered to King 
Henry VIII, when his reverence was superseded 
by an alderman of London. The priory of the 
Holy Trinity on the one side and the Tower of 
London on the other have hitherto somewhat 
obscured the Sisterhood of the Order of St. Clare, 
which settled in this ward and gave its name to the 
street known as the Minories. Dugdale in his 
' Monasticon ' says : ' King Edward the I in the 
2 1st year of his reign granted his licence in 
mortmain to Edmund his brother and his wife 
Blanche Queen of Navarre to build a house in the 
parish of St. Botolph's without Algate for nuns 
of the order of Minoresses there to remain in the 
service of God, the Blessed Mary and St. Francis.' 
The abbey which was then erected covered about 
five acres of ground outside the city wall between 
Aldgate and the Tower and on the east side of the 
Minories. It was enclosed by walls with gates, and, 
although within the area of the parish of St. Botolph, 
Aldgate, obtained all the privileges and immunities 
of a 'peculiar.' Formerly a precinct, it subsequently 
became annexed to the Liberty of the Tower, until 
a few years since it was absorbed into the county of 
London. Mr. Tomlinson has compiled a most 
interesting account of the abbey, which will be a 
valuable nucleus for a more detailed history of the 
order. Upon the suppression of the abbey in 1538 
King Henry VIII, desiring when at his palace at 
Westminster ' to have the nobles of his Realm and 
his faithful and trustie Counsaillours to be nere 
unto the said Palace,' granted the precinct of the 
Minories to the See of Bath and Wells in exchange 
for the bishops' residence then near Temple Bar, and 
for the next ten years it was known as Bath Place 
and occupied first by John Clerk, formerly rector 
of Hothfield (not Northfield, as Mr. Tomlinson 
has it), Kent, a devoted servant of Cardinal Wolsey; 
then by W. Knight (who succeeded Clerk as 
bishop), at one time rector of Romald Kirk (not 
Ro/iald Kirk), and vicar of Bangor, and holder of 
numerous other preferments. Bishop Barlow, 

Knight's successor, was the last bishop of Bath 
to occupy Bath Place, for in 1548 he transferred 
the entire precinct to King Edward VI, who in the 
sixth year of his reign granted it to the ill-fated 
Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk, and it was subse- 
quently acquired by the marquis of Winchester, who 
presented it in 1563 to Queen Elizabeth, when a 
considerable portion of the buildings was con- 
verted into storehouses and workshops for the 
ordnance department. 

A residence was assigned to the Lieutenant- 
General of the Ordnance, an important post held 
by many distinguished men. The rules devised 
by Sir William Pelham, Lieutenant-General in 
1566, for organizing a volunteer office contain some 
practical suggestions which would not be now out 
of date — viz., amongst others: ' that all men joining 
the force should be free from all taxes and that the 
towns provide prizes to be shot for annually." 
It was during Pelham's tenure of office that the 
body of the gallant Sir Philip Sidney was brought 
to the Minories and laid in state there until its 
burial at S. Paul's. Sir William Heydon and his 
brother Sir John, the last Lieutenant-General of 
Ordnance before Cromwell's government took pos- 
session, were long resident in the Minories and 
took an active interest in the concerns of the parish : 
their name is preserved to the present day, as 
Haydon Square and Haydon Street still remain. 
Colonel Legge was appointed by King Charles II, 
and his vault in the church was until quite recently 
the burial-place of the Dartmouth family. This 
little church is the only building of interest now 

Owning no allegiance to the bishop of London, 
its ministers claimed and long exercised the right 
of performing marriages without banns or licence, 
and the fees which were received for these cere- 
monies formed the main part of their income, for 
although the precinct was subject to a 2s. 9d. 
tithe under an Act of Henry VIII, the inhabitants 
appear to have claimed the ownership of the tithes 
as if they were lay rectors, and only raised amongst 
themselves a very small pittance for their minister. 
In an adjacent parish where a 2S. Qd. tithe was 
payable, the parishioners quarrelled with their 
patrons (recently described as ' the poorest col- 
lege in Cambridge'), and the dispute was settled 
by a private Act of Parliament fixmg in perpetuity 
the amount to be paid in lieu of tithe, which is now 
raised by an occasional rate of a fraction of a penny, 
evidence that the citizens of London were perhaps 
wiser in their generation than the patrons. The 
parish registers and other parochial records being 
in excellent preservation have enabled the author to 
continue the history of this interesting piece of Old 
London down to modern days. The illustrations 
have been selected with care, but the index is some- 
what meagre. 

C. R. R. 



Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. I5y 
Lewis Carroll. Illustrated by Arthur Rack- 
ham. London : Heinemann. 6s. net. 
No better testimony to the skill and humour of 
Tenniel could be adduced than this new edition 
of the ' Alice in Wonderland ' which he immor- 
talized. Mr. Rackham is among the cleverest, 
daintiest and most fanciful of our illustrators, 
and his taste in colour carries off the variations on 
Tenniel's inventions which, form the . full-page 
plates. When restricted to black-and-white, the 
draughtsmen meet on even ground, and the 
younger one is hopelessly beaten : there is no 
disguising it. The colour plates, however, will 
ensure a certain sale for the book, and, after all, 
it was presumably produced to that end. 

zig : Klinkhardt and Biermann. M. i6 yearly. 
This new periodical, edited by Dr. Georg Bier- 
mann, has made a successful first appearance with 
a double number for January and February. The 
contributors include Dr. Bode, with an article on 
Donatello ; Dr. Habich, who has discovered a 
portrait of Burgkmair in a picture by the elder 
Holbein ; Professor Strzygowski, whose article on 
Orientalism in mediaeval Italian architecture is 
beautifully illustrated ; and Dr. Steinmann, who 
writes on the less known portraits of Michelangelo. 
Shorter articles deal with Ostendorfer, Griinewald 
and Velazquez, while Dr. Pauli traces the compo- 
sition of Manet's Dejcmicr snr I'herbe to an unex- 
pected source, an engraving by Marcantonio ; the 
juxtaposition of the two designs is both convinc- 
ing and amusing in the extreme. Correspondence 
from the chief cities of Europe, reviews and notes 
of interest to collectors, which form the remaining 
sections of the magazine, are intelligently written 
and arranged. The carefully classified biblio- 
graphy mentions articles in the ' Saturday Review,' 
besides other weekly and even daily journals. If 
the standard achieved by the first number can be 
maintained, the ' Monatshefte,' published at a 
moderate price and in a handy size, should be 
assured of success in Germany and elsewhere. 
Contributions will appear in English, French and 
Italian, though in the first number the only article 
by a foreign contributor has been written in 
German. C. D. 

The Bibliophile. A magazine and review for 
the collector, student and general reader. 
Vol. I, No. I. March, 1908. Thanet House, 
Strand. 6d. net. 
The promoters of this new magazine have inter- 
preted the word ' bibliophile ' in its widest sense. 
There is a tacitly acknowledged difference between 
the Greek and the English form of the expression, 
and this first number is adapted to appeal rather 
to the latter class — to the ' book-loving ' general 


reader than to the bibliophile proper. Mr, A. W. 
Pollard stands pre-eminent among the contributors 
as at once a bibliophile and a bibliographer, and 
in the article on ' Early Book Advertisements ' he 
gives a delightful taste of his stores of out-of-the- 
way learning. Mr. Samuel Clegg writes well on 
Thomas Hollis, and among other good things is 
Dr. Peachey's note on history in book-plates. The 
inclusion of such names as G. K. Chesterton and 
Arthur Hayden will, no doubt, promote a healthy 
circulation. The magazine is well printed, and 
includes among the illustrations four good colour- 

(Gand, 1907.) Publiees par Paul Bergmans, 
secretaire general du Congres. 2 vols. 419 and 
542 pp. ; 18 plates and 83 text-illustrations. 
Gand. 1906-7. 
The last fascicle of the Annals of this admirably 
organized congress, held at Ghent August 2 to 7, 
has lately reached us. There were three sections : 
the first devoted to prehistoric and proto-historic 
archaeology ; the second to history ; and the third 
to monumental archaeology and the history of 
art. The memoirs submitted to the congress 
were printed as soon as they were received by the 
secretary, and circulated among the members, 
giving them ample time to prepare whatever obser- 
vations they might wish to make to the assembly. 
These memoirs, classed and reprinted, form the 
second volume of the Annals of the twentieth 
congress issued on the opening day, while in the 
first, now published, will be found a full report of 
the proceedings and discussions. 

In the third section considerable attention was 
given to domestic architecture, and an immense 
collection was exhibited of elevations and photo- 
graphs, and of some plans illustrating examples 
remaining in each of the provinces of Belgium ; 
incidentally the origin of stepped gables, so often 
spoken of as Flemish, was discussed ; many 
examples were cited not only in Belgium, but in 
Germany, France, Switzerland and Scotland, 
ranging from the twelfth century onwards. It 
was clearly demonstrated that the adoption of 
stepped gables and of crenelated house-fronts was 
the natural and logical outcome of the employ- 
ment of brick, or, as in Scotland and at Tournay, of 
rag stone, these not being suitable for a continuous 
slope. There was also some discussion on certain 
points relating to the history and works of the 
Van Eycks, and M. Hulin pointed out that the 
lighting in two contrary directions in some of 
their works was due, not to these having been 
executed by two persons, but to the backgrounds 
having been painted from studies of landscapes 
made in the open air and the figures from models 
in the studio. 


Another point discussed was whether buildings 
were, as a rule, designed and carried out by the 
same individual. There can be no doubt that in 
Belgium, at the end of the fifteenth century, 
buildings were sometimes designed by painters, a 
practice which, unfortunately, became pretty 
general in the sixteenth, and led to the erection 
of such architectural monstrosities as the palace 
of the prince bishop of Liege. In stating that the 
Bruges painter, James Coene, was summoned from 
Paris to Milan at the end of the fourteenth century 
to make designs for the entire cathedral from the 
foundations upwards, that generally very exact 
critic, M. Hulin, was evidently misled by the asser- 
tions of the late M. H. Bouchot. Had he examined 
the original documents, he would have seen that 
Coene was merely employed to make drawings of 
all that had been executed, which drawings he 
began on the morrow of his arrival in August, 1399. 
{Sec Burlington Magazine, Vol. vu, p. 160, 
May, 1905.) 

The desirability of multiplying the number of 
local museums was urged by some persons. This 
is a common enough fad with many people at the 
present day, especially in France, where, owing to 
the confiscation of churches, many paintings and 
works of art which, if sometimes not too well cared 
for, were at all events seen by the people and in 
their proper surroundings. On the other hand 
most of the museums in the smaller towns are 
little better than warehouses where such works as 
are relegated to them are difficult of access, and, 
when admission is obtained, are in many cases 
found to be perishing from damp and neglect. No 
new museums should be built unless sufficient funds 
can be raised to ensure proper care, and the ser- 
vices of a competent person to catalogue the objects 
and make them educationally useful, and a proper 
number of guardians to protect them from injury 
and theft.^ Belgium is better off in this respect, 
and some of her museums are admirably arranged 
and well cared for, as for instance those of Namur 
and St. Nicolas ; but in some of the larger towns, 
in spite of the wealth of many of the inhabitants, 
there is a sad lack of dignified feeling which 
ought long ere this to have secured the erec- 
tion of a suitable building. A paper by Canon 
Van der Gheyn as to the loan of works of art by 
public museums to temporary exhibitions gave rise 
to an interesting discussion and to the adoption of 
a motion that no work of any importance belong- 
ing to a public institution should be lent except 
when the object of the exhibition is to aid the 
solution of some archaeological or artistic problem, 
and even then only if a proper building is provided 
with a suitable staff of guardians. There have of 

' Even the paintings in the Louvre are neither well cared for 
nor properly protected, and the catalogue o£ those by the Old 
Masters is one of the dearest and least well edited of any of the 
principal collections in Europe. 

late years been too many exhibitions the main 
object of which has been the attraction of a number 
of visitors. The recent exhibition of the Golden 
Fleece may be cited as an example : valuable 
paintings were borrowed from museums as far 
away as St. Petersburg and Madrid which had no 
connexion with the Order, whilst many of less 
iinportance as works of art which would have 
helped to illustrate the history of the Order might 
have been and were not obtained. Several other 
papers of interest, including one on Hugh Van der 
Goes and another on the domestic architecture of 
Bruges, will repay perusal. 

W. H. James Weale. 


Professor Lethaby has just published, through 
Messrs. Batsford (2s. net), the first of a series of 
studies of Greek buildings represented by frag- 
ments in the British Museum. It deals with the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus, and makes out a good 
case for a structure differing essentially from that 
formerly proposed by Dr. Murray. ' Murillo,' by 
Albert F. Calvert, is the latest addition to the 
Langham Series of Art Monographs (Siegle, Hill 
and Co., cloth is. 6d. net, leather 2s. 6d. net). 
'The Sanity of Art ' (New Age Press, is. net) is a 
reprint of a reply, written by Mr. G. Bernard Shaw 
some years ago, to Dr. Nordau's ' Degeneration.' 
While ostensibly beating the bones of a buried 
reputation, it does so with so much science and 
vigour as to remain a sound and stimulating piece 
of criticism. The ' Bulletin of the Metropolitan 
Museum of New York' and the ' Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts ' are as usual well written and well illus- 
trated. The chief articles in the former deal with 
Greece and Crete, in the latter with Japanese 
colour-prints. The catalogue of the John Gooch 
collection of Old Masters of the Dutch, Flemish, 
Spanish, Italian and French schools (Paiba and 
Paiba, is. 6d.), which will be sold early in May, 
with that of the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art 
at Dublin (Dollard, is.), and the Report of the 
Board of Education on the National Competition 
for 1907 (3s.), are the three largest illustrated 
catalogues we have received. The reproductions 
of the Dublin pictures deserve a special word of 
praise. Four good catalogues of Mr. Karl Hierse- 
mann, of Leipzig, must also be noticed : Oriental 
Art (No. 343), including a number of Japanese 
colour-prints ; Antique Art (No. 344) ; Architec- 
ture (No. 345) ; Costumes and Uniforms (No. 349). 
Messrs. Baer, of P'rankfort, send the latest number 
of their ' Biicherfreund,' which contains a special 
illustrated list of cuts by Jorg Breu. 



Maspero (G.). L'archeologie egyptienne. Collignon (M.). 
L'archeologie grecquc. (9x6) Paris (Picard & Kaan), 

3 fr. 50 ; bound, 4 fr. 50. Revised and enlarged t ditions of 
well-known handbooks of the ' Bibliothecjue de I'enseigne- 
ment des Beaux-Arts.' 

Brinton (S.) The Renaissance : its art and life ; Florence, 

1450-1550. (13 X 10) London (Goupil), 10 guineas. 

RiEGL (A). Die Entstehung der Barockkunst in Rom. Aus 

seiiien hinterlassenen Papieren herausgegeben von A. 

Burda und M. Dvorak. (10x7) Vienna (Schroll). 
Gnoli (U.). L'Arte umbra alia Mosfra di Perugia. (10x7) 

Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti grafiche). Illustrated. 


WiEGALL (A. E. P.). A report on the antiquities of lower 
Nubia (the first cataract to the Sudan frontier), and their 
condition in 1906-7. {14 x 10) Oxford (Univ. Press), 65 fr. 
Publication of the Egyptian Dept. of Antiquities. Illustrated. 

Angeli (D.). Koma. Parte la. Dalle origini al regno di 
Costantino. (11x7) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti gratiche), 
1.3.50. 128 illustrations. 

LABBfe DE LA Mauvini^re (H.). Poiticrs et Angouleme, Saint- 
Savin. Chauvigny. (ux8) Paris (Laurens), 4 fr. ' Villes 
d'Art Celebres ' series. 113 illustrations. 

Keymond(M.). Grenoble etVienne. (11x8) Paris (Laurens), 

4 fr. Illustrated. 

ViTRY (P.) and BriIcre (G.). L'^glise abbatiale de Saint-Denis 

et ses tombeaux, notice historique et archeologique. (7x5) 

Paris (Longuet), 2 fr. 50. 18 phototypes, plans, etc. 
Martin (J. B.). Histoire des eglises et chapelles de Lyon. 

Tome I. (13x10) Lyons (Ladrauchet). Illustrated. 
Godfrey (J. T.) Notes on the churches of Nottinghamshire. 

Hundred of Bingham. (10x6) London (Phillimore). 

LoNDl (E.). Alesso B.aldovinetti, pittore fiorentino, con. 

I'aggiunfa dei s>uoi ricordi. (10x7) Florence (Alfani & 

Venturi), I. 4. Illustrated. 
Zottmann (L.). Zur Kunst der Bassani. (12x8) Strasburg 

(Heitz), 10 m. 26 plates. 
GoFriN (A). Thiery Bouts. (9x6) Brussels (Van Oest), 3 fr. 50 

Frey (K.). Michelagniolo Buonarroti. Sein Leben und seine 

Werke. Vol.1. (10x8) Berlin (Curtius). With a volume 

of documents, etc. Phototypes. 
HoRNE (H. P.) Alessandro Filipepi, commonly called Sandro 

Botticelli, painter of Florence. (15x10) London (Bell), 

10 guineas. Photogravures. 
Dayot (A.). J. B. Simeon Chardin. Avec un catalogue com- 

plet de Iceuvre du niailre par J. Guiffrey. (15x12) Paris 

Piazza, 200 fr. Photogravures. 
Klossowski (E.). Honore Daumier. (11x8) Munich (Piper), 

30 m. 90 plates. 
Hymans (H). Les van Eyck. (9x6) Paris (Laurens), 2 fr. 

50. 'Les Grands Artistes.' 24 illustrations. 
Mayr (J.). Wilhelm Leibl : sein Leben und sein Schaffen. 

(11x8) Berlin (Cassirer), 18 m. Illustrated. 
Klaiber (H.). Leonardostudien. (12x8) Strasburg (Heitz), 

6 m. 
ToESCA (P.). Masolino da Panicale. (10x7) Bergamo (Isti- 
tuto ital. d'arti grafiche), 1. 7. Illustrated. 
De Bosschere (J.). Quinten Metsys. (9x6) Brussels (v. 

Oest), 3 fr. 50. Illustrated. 
Mayer (A. L.). " Jusepe de Ribera, (Lo Spagnoletto). (10x7) 

Leipzig (Hiersemann), 24 m. 43 phototypes. 
Knapp (F.). Andrea del Sarto. (11x7) Leipzig (Knackfuss), 

4ni. 122 illustrations. 
Collignon (M.). Scopas et Praxitele, la sculpture grecque au 

IVe siccle jusqu' au temps d'Alexandre. (9x6). Paris 

(Plon), 3 fr. 50. Illustrated. 

Lethaby (W. R.). Greek buildings represented by fragments 
in the British Museum. I— Diana's Temple at Ephesus. 
(10x6) London (Batsford). 2s. Illustrated. 
Beschrijving van de Grafelijke Zalen op het Binnenhof te 
's Gravenhage. (14x11) Hague (Mouton), 18 fl. Illus- 

• Sizes (height x width) in inches. 

BEYLife (General L. de). Prome et Samara. Voyage archeo 
logique en Birmanie et en Mesopotomie. (11x8) Paris 
(Leroux), 7 fr. 50. Vol. I of the publications of the Societe 
fran9aise des fouilles archeologiques. 
Arnott (J. A.) and Wilson (J.). The Petit Trianon, Versailles. 
(19x15) London (Batsford), 3 pts.. each 21s. net, sub- 
scription price. Illustrated with measured drawings and 
photographs, including the furniture, metalwork, etc. 
Baum (J.). Die Bauwerke des Elias Holl. (10x7) Strasburg 

(Heitz), 10 m. 33 plates. 
Victoria and Albert Museum. Topographical index to measured 
drawings of architecture which have appeated in the prin- 
cipal British architectural pubbc.ations. (9x6) London 
(Wyraan), ijd. 

Pictures in the collection of J. Pierpont Morgan at Prince's 
Gate and Dover House, London. With an introduction by 
T. Humphrey Ward and biographical and descriptive notes 
by W. Kober;s. 3 vols. (22 x 17) London (privately 
printed). Photogravure plates. 
Farrer (Rev. E.). Portraits in Suffolk houses (West). (11x9) 
London (Quaritch). 25s. net ; 50s. net, large paper. 
Martin (W.). Galerie Gustav Rittcr Hoschek von Miihlheim 
in Prag. (8x5) Prague (Dr. Melnik, Grubengasse, nr. 5). 
59 plates. 
Konstantinowa (A.). Die Entwickelung des Madonnentypus 
bei Leonardo da Vinci. (12x8) Strasburg (Heitz), 6 m. 
10 plates. 
Temple (A. G.). Modern Spanish painting, being a review of 
some of the chief painters and paintings of the Spanish 
school since the time of Goya. (11x9) London (Fair- 
bairn), 5 guineas net. 59 photogravures. 
Phythian (J. E.). Fifty years of modern painting: Corot to 
Sargent. (8x6) London (Grant Richards), los. 6d. 
net. Illustrated. 
HopPNER (J., R.A.). Essays on art. Edited, and with an 
introduction by F. Rutter. (7x4) London (Griffiths), 
2S. 6d. 

EsPfeRANDlEU (E.). Recueil general des bas-reliefs de la Gaule 
romaine. Vol. I : Alpes Maritimes, Alpes Cottiennes, 
Corse, Narbonnaise. (11x9) I'ar's ( Ministere de I'lnstruc- 
tion Publique), 40 fr. Illust'-ated. 
Nebbia (L.). La scultura nel duomo di Milano. (14x10) 
Milan (Hoepli), 1. 85. Official publication of the ' Fabbrica 
del Duomo.' 384 photfitypes. 
Serrano Fatigati (E.). Port.adas artisticas de monumentos 
espanoles desde el siglo xiii. hasla nuestros dias (11x7). 
Madrid (Hauser & Menet), 20 pesetas. Illustrated. 
Dieulafoy (M.). La statuaire polychrome en Espagne. 
(14x10) Paris (Hachette), 100 fr. 83 phototypes, 3 in 

Uspensky (T.). L'Octateuque de la BibliothSque du Serail a 
Constantinople. (12x9) Leipzig (Harrassowitz). Text in 
Russian ; with phototype plates in atlas. 
CoCKERELL (S. C). The Gorleston Psalter. A manuscript of 
the beginning of the fourteenth century in the library of 
C. W. Dyson Perrins. London (Quaritch), 
21 plates. 
Thompson (H. Y.). Illustrations of one hundred manuscripts 
in the library of H. Yates Thompson. Vol. I, containing 
48 plates illustrating ten French MSS., eleventh-sixteenth 
centuries. (14x10) London (Chiswick Press), 42s. net. 
DoREZ (L.). Les manuscrits a miniatures dela bibliotheque de 
Lord Leicester a Holkhain Hall, Norfolk. Choix de minia- 
tures et de reliures. (18x13) Paris (Leroux), 125 fr. 60 

Delisle(L.). Recherches sur la librairie de Charles V. Two 
vols. (10x6) Paris (Champion), 30 fr. Vol. "con- 
tains the inventories of Charles V, Charles VI and John, 
duke of Berry. With portfolio of 26 phototypes (15 x 11). 

DURRIEU (P.). Les Antiquites Jud.aiques et le peintre Jean 
Foucquet. (16x13) Paris (Plon), 60 fr. 27 plates. 

Lindner (A.). Handzeichnungen alter Meister im Besitze des 
Museum Wallraf-Kich.artz zu Koln am Rhein. (15x12) 
Cologne (Abels), 20 m. 25 phototype plates, 


Recent Art Publications 

Moreau-Nelaton (E.). Le portrait a la cour des Valois. 
Crayons franfais du XVIe siecle conserves au Musee 
Conde a Chantilly. 5 vols. (17 x 12) Paris (Lib. centrale 
des Beaux-Arts). Vol. I text, and 4 portfolios of mounted 


WUSTMANN (G.). Der Leipziger Kupferstich im 16, 17 und 
18 Jahrhunderts. (10x6) Leipzig (Hirschfeld). Forms 
Part III of the Neujahrsbliitter of the Leipzig civic library 
and archives, i plate. 

Lehrs (M.). Karl Stauffer-Bern, 1857-1891, ein Verzeichnis 
seiner Radierungen und Stictie. Mit dem Manuscript zu 
einem ' Traktat der Radierung' aus dem Nachlas des 
Kunstlers. Dresden (Arnold), 40 m. 12 plates. 

Vernier (E.). La bijouterie et la joaillerie egyptiennes. 

(14x11) Cairo (Institut frani;ais d'arch^ologie orientale), 

45 fr. 25 plates, and 200 text illustrations. 
Ball (T. S.). Church plate of the City of Chester. London 

(Sherratt & Hughes), los. 6d. net. 12 plates. 
Jones (E. A.). The old silver sacramental vessels of foreign 

Protestant churches in England. (12x10) London (Dent), 

21S. net. 22 plates. 

Crisp (F. A.). Catalogue of Lowestoft china. (13 x 10) Privately 
printed (Grove Park Press, 270 Walworth Road, S.E.), 
21S. 14 chromo plates and i photogravure. 


HE exhibition season is now 
almost at its height. The 
'Ind^pendants' opened their 
salon in the Cours-la-Reine 
on March 21st, too late for 
any notice of it here this 
month ; it will remain open 
until the end of April. The 
New Salon will open its doors 
as usual on April 15th and the Old Salon on May 
1st. An exhibition of an unusual character, which 
promises to be interesting, is announced for the 
beginning of April at the Mus6e des Arts D^coratifs, 
but its opening is not likely to take place before 
the middle of the month. This is the retrospective 
theatrical exhibition, which will include everything 
connected with the history of the theatre — models 
and designs of scenery, reproductions on a reduced 
scale of theatrical machinery, theatrical costumes 
and other accessories, etc. Puppet-shows and the 
theatre of the marionette will have their section of 
the exhibition. The exhibits of the greatest interest 
from a purely artistic point of view will be the 
pictures and sculptures relating to the history of 
the theatre and the portraits of famous plajrwrights, 
theatrical decorators, actors and actresses. I hope 
to give some account of the exhibition in a future 
number of The Burlington Magazine. The 
exhibition, which has been organized by the Union 
Centrale des Arts Decoratifs, will remain open 
until the end of September so that summer visitors 
to Paris may have the opportunity of visiting it. 

The Lyceum Club, which has lately established 
itself in Paris, celebrated the formal opening of its 
house in the Rue de la Bienfaisance by an inter- 
esting exhibition of pictures by deceased women 
artists. Madame Vigee-Lebrun was represented by 
eleven pictures, most of them representative. 
Perhaps the finest was the portrait of Yolande de 
Polastron, duchesse de Polignac, lent by the due 
de Polignac. The portrait of Le Bailly de Crussol, 
from the collection of the due d'Uzes, was another 
picture of high quality. The due de Rohan lent 
the well-known portrait of Madame Dubarry in 
his possession. Two pictures of still-life by 
Madame Vallayer-Coster, a pupil of Chardin, were 

among the most interesting in the exhibition. This 
excellent eighteenth-century artist is less well- 
known than she deserves to be — perhaps because 
her pictures get labelled with the greater name of 
her master ; one of the pictures exhibited belongs 
to the well-known painter, M. Albert Besnard. 
There were two pictures by Judith Leyster, an 
interior of good quality, and a portrait of a man 
which was as fine an example of her work as could 
be found. Of the more recent artists represented 
perhaps the most interesting was Eva Gonzales, a 
pupil of ALanet, five of whose pictures were shown. 
The little society of painters and sculptors, which 
used to be called La Nouvelle Societe and is now 
without a name, is holding its annual exhibition 
at the Galeries Georges Petit. As usual, it is one 
of the best modern exhibitions of the year ; the 
standard maintained by the twenty-three members 
represented is relatively a very high one. On the 
whole M. Jacques Blanche carries off the honours. 
He shows no less than fourteen pictures and has 
never appeared to greater advantage ; the little 
picture La Hoiissc dc Chintz is a fine piece of paint- 
ing and is extraordinarily charming, though it is 
but a picture of a sofa in the corner of a room. Of 
the more important works shown by M. Blanche, 
the two, Fenuue devant une glace (robe grise) and 
Jcnne Fille devant line glace (jupe rouge), deserve 
special mention in the cursory remarks for which 
alone we have space. The portrait of Sir Coleridge 
Kennard must also be noticed. Altogether, this 
exhibition will further enhance M. Blanche's reputa- 
tion. M. Raoul Ulmann, the young painter whose 
pictures attracted attention in this exhibition last 
year, has had the honour of selling one of the 
pictures which he is exhibiting to the State. The 
choice is a good one, for the picture — a view of the 
Seine in a mist with the Trocadero faintly seen 
in the background — is one of the best of the dozen 
that M. Ulmann shows ; it will go to the Luxem- 
bourg. M. Ulmann is, perhaps, too much influenced 
by Cazin, but his work has both charm and origin- 
ality and is certainly improving every year. One 
of the most remarkable pictures in the exhibition 
is M. Lucien Sivnon's La Recolte de poininesdc ten c, 
quite the best piece of work that he has yet 

fArt in France 

produced. M. Gaston la Touche shows a charming 
picture, La Belle an Boh dormanl, in his best 
manner, and M. Le Sidaner is as interesting as 
usual. M. Lobre's pictures of the interior of 
Chartres Cathedral deserve a special mention, as 
do the portrait of Mademoiselle de Mornant by 
M. Antonio de La Gandara and La Plage and 
other pictures of M. Ren6 Prinet. M. Besnard 
is disappointing, though his unfinished portrait 
promises to be good. M. Henri Martin is as 
clever and as disagreeable as usual. Mr. Sargent, 
by his Portrait of Lady S. . . ., more than ever 
justifies his claim to be considered the Lawrence 
of our time ; the picture is as brilliant as it is 
superficial. Among the best work in the exhibition 
is that of M. Zacharian, an Armenian painter of 
still-life ; one can see that M. Zacharian has studied 
Chardin, but he is no imitator, although his work 
is intensely French. Among the sculpture is a 
fine bust of Mr. J. Pulitzer, by M. Rodin, the 
President of the Society, who also sends a strange 
composition called Le Scnlptciir ct sa muse, quite 
unworthy of his great reputation. The latter would 
more fitly have been entitled ' Le Sculpteur s'amuse' 
— at the expense of his admirers. A bust of Pro- 
fessor Pozzi by M. Troubetzkoi is an excellent 
piece of work. 

There are and will be during the next two 
months innumerable one-man exhibitions in the 
various galleries, many of which ought to be 
noticed, did not space fail. A very interesting and 
much-discussed exhibition was that of M. Rent^ 
Seyssaud at the Galeries Bernheim. Nothing could 
be in greater contrast to M. Seyssaud's extreme 
impressionism than the water colours of ^L 
Charles-Louis Geoffroy exhibited at the Galeries 
Shirleys ; M. Geoffrey has studied but does not 
imitate the great English masters of water colour, 
and he has a future. The work of M. Henri 
Tenr6, exhibited at the Galeries Georges Petit, 
must also be mentioned. 

The system of admission by payment is at last 
established in the museums of the town of Paris, 
the difficulties mentioned last month having been 
overcome. The result is that the museums are 
empty except on Thursdays and Sundays, when 
admission is free, and they are so crowded that it 
is dilScult to move about or see anything. In the 
first week of the new system rather more than 500 
people in all visited the museums on the paying 
days ; since then no figures have been published, 
and it is believed that the numbers are steadily 
decreasing. Unfortunately, although the Dutuit 
collection is still free, most visitors to the Petit 
Palais are not aware of the fact, as the separate 
entrance to this collection is through a small door 
at the side which is scarcely visible. This collec- 
tion has, therefore, suffered like the others. It is 
generally believed that this foolish experiment will 
be short-lived ; the opinion of those responsible 


for the management of the museums seems to be 
tiiat the pecuniary results of the new system are 
no compensation either for its disastrous effect on 
the attendance or for the additional trouble and 
expense which it entails. 

It will be remembered that the Grand Palais, 
where the Salons and other public exhibitions are 
held, was built by the State at the time of the 
International Exhibition of 1900 on land belong- 
ing to the town of Paris. The lease of the land 
will expire at the end of this year, and the State 
has proposed to buy it ; this, however, would be 
impossible without a new law, as the Champs- 
Elysees were given to the town by Charles X in 
1828, under a law which enacted that they should 
never be alienated. The Municipal Council intends, 
it is said, to propose to the State that it shall take 
over the Grand Palais, power being reserved to 
the State to hold there those exhibitions for which 
it is responsible. It is, however, probable that the 
State will prefer to renew the lease of the land. 

The State museums have lately made some 
interesting acquisitions. The Louvre has acquired 
for the very moderate price of 25,000 francs an 
extremely fine picture by El Greco, which has not 
yet been hung in the galleries but which I have 
had the opportunity of seeing. The picture, which 
measures 8 ft. 8 in. by 5 ft. 8 in., represents Christ 
on the cross against a background of the extra- 
ordinary thunder-clouds that Greco loved ; at the 
foot of the cross on either side are the half-length 
portraits of the donors, Diego and Antonio 
Covarrubias, sons of the celebrated architect of 
Charles V. Diego, who was a priest, is represented 
in a surplice or rochet, his brother in the dress of 
a gentleman of the period. The picture was 
painted for an altar in the church of the nuns of 
the Visitation at Toledo, where it remained until 
1835, when, on the suppression of the religious 
orders in Spain, it passed into private hands. Later 
it became the property of the late M. Isaac Pereire 
of Prades (Pyr6nees-0rien tales) who, in 1869, 
being at that time a candidate for the representation 
of the arrondisscment in the Chamber, offered the 
picture to the parish church of Prades. The offer 
was refused and M. Pereire presented the picture 
to the local Palais de Justice ; in 1904 it was 
removed to the Mairie in consequence of the 
decision to remove religious emblems from the law 
courts, and M. Leprieur has acquired it from the 
Mayor and Municipal Council. M. Paul Laforce 
points out in the ' Gazette des Beaux-Arts ' that the 
picture must have been painted before 1577, in 
which year Diego Covarrubias died, and probably 
dates from a time very shortly after Greco's 
arrival at Toledo and a few years before he painted 
the famous Burial of the Count D'Orgaz, in which 
also there is a portrait of Antonio Covarrubias. 
The picture is a great and majestic work of art, 
worthy alike of its painter and of the Louvre ; the 

Art in France 

Christ IS a noble and beautifuj figure, and the 
portraits are intensely real. 

M. de Nolhac has made a most interesting and 
valuable acquisition for the palace of Versailles, 
a portrait of Camille and Lucille Desmoulins with 
their infant child. At present no attribution has 
been found for the picture, which has consider- 
able artistic qualities in addition to its historical 
interest and seems to have been painted about 
1793. It will be placed in the rooms devoted to 
the Revolution. M. Henry Marcel's annual report 
in regard to the Bibliotheque Nationale mentions 
several important acquisitions in addition to the 
bequest of M. Audeoud mentioned some months 
ago. Among them are a copy of the Hemes de 
Rome, of Simon de Collines (1543), of which there 
is only one other known example in France, and 
that incomplete, and also some interesting manu- 
scripts. The departments of prints and medals 
have also received valuable additions. 

The sales continue to be rather unimportant. 
The only one of any special interest since last 

month has been that of the collection (mostly of 
modern pictures) of the late M. Jules Cronier. 
The highest price of the sale was that of 39,100 
frs. for the Pecheiir amarre a la rive of Corot. 
Three pictures by Harpignies fetched the high 
price of 20,000 frs. apiece, and other pictures by 
this artist sold well. The prices of the pictures by 
Ziem were lower than they have been hitherto ; 
a good one, Le Port de Marseille, fetched only 
16,800 frs., and the others lower prices — but none 
of theZiems were of the first quality. The Bergere 
gardaiit ses moiitons of Charles Jacque sold for 
30,000 frs., a very high price for this artist, but it 
was a specially fine example of his work, and the 
other pictures by him went for much smaller sums. 
The pictures by Jongkind sold very well, at prices 
ranging from 2,450 to 6,400 frs. There were 
several pictures by A. L. Bouchd:, which were 
much more contested than has ever been the 
case with his work before. One went up to 2,600 
frs. In all cases ten per cent, has to be added to 
the prices mentioned. R. E. D. 




HE tremendous success 
the exhibition of 
eighteenth century art at Berlin 
was of course due in part to 
the fact that it was a society 
function. Every one con- 
nected with the Imperial 
court of necessity helped 
towards making this show, instituted in honour of 
the Emperor, a signal success. For a time at least 
the academy which housed the collection was 
guarded by regular sentinels, just as if the 'guests' 
of his Majesty had been living crowned heads, 
instead of painted pictures. 

Even London has seldom — if ever during the 
last fifty years — seen such a collection of work 
united in one place. But it is a mistake to imagine 
that the show amounted to a Wallace Collection, 
enlarged. There was perhaps as much fine, first- 
class work to be seen here as the Wallace Collection 
contains, and slightly more. About one-half of 
the paintings, however, were not quite of the first 
order, and the canvases which modern collectors 
have been able to buy during the past era, fine 
enough as they are, are not the equal of those 
portraits which the descendants of the famous 
houses of nobility still possess as heirlooms. 

It cannot be denied that the air of distinguished 
respectability, when in evidence to such an extent 
as upon the walls of this show, grew to be just a 
trifle oppressive. Raeburn alone introduced some 
erratic, lively and amusing tones into this long 
sustained harmony of reserve and propriety. His 
strong card of imstrained naturalness in pose and 
unconventional coloration was particularly effec- 

tive here, where beauty seemed to be just a 
little linked with monotony. 

The large full-length representative portraits did 
not please the beholder the more he saw of them, 
and I believe the reason for this is not difficult to 
find. They all represent a special effort and are, 
in consequence, all just a bit forced. Besides, the 
almost chameleon-like brown and green-golden 
tones of the landscapes often serve as a very 
imperfect foil to the colour-composition of the 
main figure or group. Even so admirable a portrait 
group as Lady Betty Deliiie with her Two Children 
is badly set off on this background : the fine 
Valentine Green mezzotint of the picture awakens 
expectations that the original does not quite fulfil. 

This is generally the case with the mezzotints 
after the large, full-length portraits of ladies or 
groups, standing in landscapes. 

The case is entirely different with the smaller 
half-lengths. Here the background scarcely ever 
consists of a park or landscape, whose variety of 
tones presents a kaleidoscopic sea upon which the 
colours of the portrait itself seem as it were to 
dissolve : on the contrary, the background is some 
simple, succinct tone, the grey of a stormy skj', the 
full, vivid red of a plush curtain, or something 
similar,' which sets off the colour-composition of 
the main figure to best advantage. 

Finally, the brush-work of these masters was 
closely adapted to the bust or half-length portrait. 
It was interesting, at times even bewitching, when 
applied to work on this scale. But they did not 
alter it, when they worked upon the huge canvases: 
consequently a face, when it looms up there a 
couple of yards above us, appears too delicately^ 


Art in Germany 

softly handled. The energy of the small work has 
not been properly transplanted into the larger 

The Berlin 'connoisseur' has been somewhat 
perplexed by this wonderful exhibition. He cannot 
help being impressed, and yet it is by work so 
totally different from that which he has been 
slowly and indomitably trained to appreciate. 
There have been forces at work for years to 
educate the ' higher ' Berlin public up to Manet, 
Monet, Renoir, Sisley, to Israels and Liebermann. 
Bright coloration and the refusal of everything 
that smacks in the very least of ' composition ' 
and selection are the ' connoisseur's ' standbys, and 
his battle-cry is : Look forward 1 never backward I 

But here we have an art of tradition : a retro- 
spective art which has, at bottom, sought its 
inspirations in the Titianesque schools of the 
Renaissance ; which is brown and luscious, not 
grey, or silvery, or white. Yet it seems first-class 
art — and so the Berlin public is decidedly troubled, 
as every one naturally would be, who has gradually 
forgotten that there are more gods than one in 

The quite untutored, however, came there simply 
to enjoy what they saw, and they enjoyed with a 
vengeance, without any misgivmgs. 

A list of the principal contributors to the 
exhibition has already been given in a former 
issue. The continental contributions, with but 
two or three exceptions, were not first-class. It 
may be of interest as a record to note the principal 
pictures exhibited. 

The Bine Boy (Duke of Westminster) heads the 
list of the large Gainsboroughs. Viscountess 
Ligonicr (Ch. Wertheimer) and Anne Dnnconibe 
(do.) were excellent, but Jnlia Lady Petie (do.). 
Viscount Ligonicr (do.) and General Honeyivood 
(Messrs. Agnew) already somewhat less attractive. 
None seem quite to attain to the charm of the 
small Miss Linley (Ch. Wertheimer). The quaint, 
Chardin-like portrait of Gainsborough's two 
daughters (do.) and the piquante dancer Madame 
Bacelli (O. Beit) were the only two pictures in the 
exhibition which one would at all be inclined to 
call rococo art. 

The Romneys, although there was not a single 
Lady Hamilton among them, were, almost all of 
them, superb. Viscountess Clifden and Lady 
Elizabeth Spencer (' Beauty and the Arts,' Ch. 
Wertheimer) is perhaps a little strained in the 
composition, but nobody could find anything but 
words of admiration for the lovely Mrs. John 
Johnson (Ch. Wertheimer), the entrancing Mrs. 
Long (Ed. Simon), the Mrs. Buchanan (A. V. 
Goldschmidt-Rothschild), the fine Lady Poulett 
(A. de Rothschild), that fascinating picture of a 
little girl. Miss Holbeck (Ch. Wertheimer), and 
Thomas Fane (Lord Burton). The much-admired 
J. Walter Tempesi{k. Wertheimer) is magnificently 


drawn and conceived, but the coloration is not 
altogether pleasing. It, too, belongs to the class 
of pictures which reproduce so well in black-and- 
white that such a reproduction leads one to 
expect features which the original lacks. 

The inimitable Duchess of Devonshire with her 
little daughter (,Duke of Devonshire) was alone 
worth a journey to the exhibition. No other 
portrait painter in the world has ever surpassed 
Reynolds in the fertility with which he invented 
captivating and unrestrained poses, nor in the 
ability in catching a charming expression and 
making it appear to be the natural one of the 
sitter. This applies especially to the picture just 
named, to the Mrs. Payne Gallwey (J. P. Morgan) 
and ioiheLady Betty DcUne{]. P. Morgan). Among 
the other superfine Reynoldses to be seen here, I 
should note the Mrs. Fronde with a lute (Ch. 
Wertheimer), the marvellous Lady Caroline Price 
(Sir Julius Wernher), Cupid as Link Boy (J. P. 
Morgan), Mrs. J elf Pouys (C. Wertheimer), Lady 
Stanhope (ditto). The Babes in the Mood (J. P. 
Morgan), and a Corregiesque Sketch of a Girl (Ch. 

The Raeburns were all first-class : The Elphinstone 
Children (Ch. Werthsimer), Sir William Maxwell 
(Messrs. Agnew), Mrs. Mackenzie (ditto), Lady 
Raeburn (Sir Ernest Cassel), and Lady Maitland 
(J. P. Morgan). 

Hoppner could only with difficulty hold his 
own in this society, even with Mrs. Jerningham 
as Hebe (Ch. Wertheimer) and the Setting Sun 
(The Godsall Children, J. P. Morgan), and Shee and 
Beechey were scarcely in the race. Lawrence's 
Miss Farren (J. P. Morgan) was one of the clous of 
the exhibition, a marvellous feat for a youth to 
perform and a huge contrast to the mannered and 
insipid Childhood's Innocence (Julia, Countess of 
Jersey, Ch. Wertheimer) of his later years. 

A mere mention of some magnificent landscapes 
by Gainsborough and Constable (Lord Svvaythling, 
the Royal Academy) must close this imperfect list. 

The question of a new municipal museum for 
Frankfort-on-the-Main has now been definitely 
settled in the manner indicated in our February 
issue. The new museum is to contain four depart- 
ments : I. Modern paintings. 2. The work of 
local Frankfort artists. 3. Sculpture ; and 4. 
Collections subservient to the study of the history 
of art (books, magazines, photographs, casts, 
etc). The city councillors have voted half a 
million marks to begin purchases with. The 
director of the new museum — who, for the present, 
at least, is to be identical with the director of the 
Stiidel Museum — has already brought together a 
noteworthy collection of Gothic and Renaissance 
sculptures and car\'ings. For the second depart- 
ment the purchase of a large number of works by 
Boehle, paintings and etchings, is contemplated. 
The municipality have likewise purchased the 




Art in Germany 

entire collection of Graeco - Roman antiquities 
formed by the late Adolf Furtwaengler, Professor 
of Classical Archaeology, for its museum. 

The first meeting of the new Deutscher Verein 
fiir Kunstwissenschaft took place on March 7th, 
at Frankfort. The proposed constitution was 
submitted for adoption. It transpired at once 
that there are apparently two currents already in 
this early stage of the society's existence. To the 
one belong the specialists and art-historians 
proper, who aim at furthering the interests of 
their profession by the publication of the so-called 
' Monumenta Artis Germaniae,' by launching a 
serious magazine and publishing annuals and a 
bibliography. To the other there belong the con- 
noisseurs, art-enthusiasts and patrons, who take 
less interest in the purely scientific plans, but 
rather wish to direct attention to the various pro- 
posals for spreading a general interest and under- 
standing for art. Although these latter are the 
financial support of the new society, they do not 
seem to have succeeded in pushing their claims to 
the fore. One influential member openly confessed 
that he cared little for the ' Monumenta ' and a 
magazine, and that his support was secured on 
the strength of the proposed general cult of the 
fine arts. The provisions which section 6 of the 
submitted constitution made for this cult were 
justly deemed unsatisfactory and were all dropped. 
One gentleman, a university professor, very aptly 
remarked that to introduce the study of art-history 
as a compulsory feature in the curriculum of the 
lower schools and gymnasia would tend rather 
to put fine art in disfavour with the growing 

In the face of this chaos, a museum director 
suggested that the real foundation of the society 
be deferred until the initiators of the scheme. 
Bode and Althoff, with a few of their assistants, 
had grappled with the issues in question sufficiently 
to offer more definite proposals after the lapse of a 
year. Something very like this plan was finally 
adopted. A dircctorinm of twenty-five members 
and a general committee of one hundred are to 
be established, with power to call a second con- 
vention about this time next year, when, it is hoped, 
matters will have clarified sufficiently to make 
feasible the foundation of a society with definite 
and attainable ends in view. If the present 
meeting gives one a fair forecast of what we may 
expect, there is little chance of the society taking 
up the bibliography, or the annual reports ; nor 
will it publish a new magazine, though it possibly 
may support the ' Repertorium ' in such a way as 
to enable the publishers to make of it a monthly, 
purely scientific but liberally equipped. 

From the heirs of Menzel, the Bavarian Govern- 
ment has received the gift of sixty of the late 
master's works. There are nine oil sketches and 
half a dozen small water colours among them ; the 

rest is made up of drawings and pastels. The 
whole collection will probably be housed in the 
Munich Print Room, which institution Menzel is 
said to have specially favoured. 

At the Winter Secession Exhibition the Bavarian 
Government purchased four paintings by Albert 
von Keller, An AxuUcncc (iSji), Empress Fatistina 
in the Temple 0} Juno at Praeneste (1881), In the 
Gardens of the Villa Wolkonsky at Rome (1885), 
and Ten Time (1886), for the new Pinakothek at 
Munich, which already contains two excellent 
works by this master. Revisiting this gallery the 
other day, it struck me that the possibility of 
adapting the walls to the new acquisitions is by 
no means the greatest difficulty with which 
the director has to battle. It seems scarcely 
credible that the building is not heated during 
winter time, and, as far as I could make out, it is 
quite impossible to heat it at all. The halls are as 
cold and damp as cellars. A Sunday crowd, 
during this early spring season, naturally brings a 
good deal of warmth with it, and some of the 
pictures seemed to reek with moisture. There 
were several — bright day that it was — glistening 
with all the hues of the rainbow : it was impossible 
to find a point of view from which the whole 
painting could be taken in at a glance. There was 
always a reflection somewhere, apparently due to 
the moisture. Possibly some of the paintings are 
undergoing chemical changes, too, owing to the 
indifferent quality of the paints employed. There 
has been much complaint of this lately, and I 
have referred to Mr. Keim and his society for the 
improvement of pigments and vehicles before now. 
The invaluable collections in the old Pinakothek 
are better cared for ; this building is beatable and 
kept at an average temperature all the year round. 
It astonished me to find in an institution which 
does not shirk the responsibilities incumbent on 
elaborate restoration (the Diirer Adoration and 
Baumgiirtner altar wings ! ) some pictures sorely 
neglected. The wonderful Rubens Massacre of 
the Innocents threatens to crack seriously, and on 
the left hand side of the picture there is a triangle 
of paint and ground altogether gone, about half 
an inch across. Speaking of Diirer restorations, 
by the way, calls to mind the circumstance that 
Gliick of Vienna recently maintained, with much 
likelihood, that the Adoration of the Magi in the 
Uffizi has been repainted along the left hand side, 
behind the Virgin, where St. Joseph must 
originally have stood. Probably we shall soon see 
this Diirer too in its pristine state. 

This year will again see an important art 
exhibition at Darmstadt. Painters living in Hesse 
or connected therewith will be invited to exhibit. 
The principal feature, however, will be the show 
of applied art. Among other things five furnished 
labourers' cottages for one and for two families will 
be exhibited, l^he former are to cost, furnishing 


Art in Germany 

and all, 4,500 marks ; the latter, 8,000 marks — and 
the exhibitors are bound to supply any subsequent 
order for such a house at the prices affixed to the 
objects they exhibit. This is an excellent, novel 
idea. The cry of ' Art for the people ' has been 
much abused, and even such an artist as H. 
Vandevelde has shown himself utterly unable to 
carry his popularization of art into effect. He once 
proclaimed that his aim was to produce true art 
so cheaply as simply to crowd the sham and taste- 
less article out of the market. But he did not 
progress very far in the direction of this goal. His 
furniture and his silver -ware are about the most 
expensive one can find, and producing objects 
which only millionaires can buy does not seem a 
very effective way of spreading a love for art 
among the lowly. It remains to be seen what the 
men at Darmstadt will be able to put up for these 
small sums. The experiment, in any case, will be 
valuable and interesting. 

That lovely and unique Mecca for all students 
of historic black-and-white, the Albertina at 
Vienna, has a wonderful exhibition of portrait 
drawings on view. Few directors in the world, 
drawing solely upon the resources of their own 
establishment, are able to make the show Dr. 
Meder has brought together. Beginning with 
Gentile Bellini, a Lippi and other early Italians, 
the heads range via Diirer and the little masters, 
Rubens and Van Dyck, Vaillant, Silvestre, Nan- 
teuil, Watteau, to name but a few, down to the 
men of our own time, among whom I noted an 
interesting portrait of Keller by Bocklin, and 
William Strang's colour-craj'on drawing of his 
daughter Nancy. The Albertina need not curry 
favour with the public : the attendance is as large 
as can be accommodated, it being virtually a 
private collection. So there are only two or three 
exhibitions arranged every year. But every one of 
them is worth travelling miles to see. 

Probably no private art gallery has ever before 
collected so fine a show of Goyas as those to be 
seen at present in the Galerie Miethke, at V'ienna, 
with which we hope to deal next month. 

An alarming rumour is just spreading, to the 
effect that the director of the Berlin National Gal- 
lery, von Tschudi, is to leave his post in the course 
of a year. At the time of his entry into office, 
the National Gallery was by some styled the 
Catacombs of German nineteenth-century art. It 
fell to the lot of von Tschudi to turn it into a 
collection worthy of the German capital, and really 
representative of the art of the past and present 
century. In England, where the opposition 
between conservative and progressive art-enthu- 
siasts has never been driven to such a point as on 
the continent, the difficulties of the position will 
hardly be realized. The National Gallery at Berlin 
contained many specimens of the best masters, but 
more, of a larger circle, were entirely missing ; 


everything that savoured of modernity was rigidly 
excluded since the year 1880. The previous autho- 
rities did not seem to be aware of the art which 
descended from the school of Fontainebleau and 
of Manet. Nothing by foreigners found its way 
into the halls of the National Gallery. Half of 
them were occupied by battle pictures, which were 
but patriotic offerings at best, and by ephemeral 
historical or genre essays. The few years that 
von Tschudi has been at work have altogether 
changed the character of the gallery. Uninteresting 
work has been removed from the walls, and the 
most important lacunae, which prevented the 
collection from reflecting a true picture of 
German nineteenth-century art, have been filled 
up. The 'recent retrospective exhibition was a 
great help thereto. Finally, the show of foreign 
work is at least equal to that in the Luxem- 
bourg or the Tate Gallery. All this has been 
effected in constant strife. The director was 
hampered by such rules as, for example, that 
his acquisition of works by foreign masters must 
be restricted to one-tenth of the annual additions, 
and, that one-tenth once reached, he was not per- 
mitted to accept a further foreign painting, even 
as a gift. Reactionary views have gained the 
upper hand, and in the Prussian Diet, a member 
blandly proposed reinstating the National Gallery 
in the status quo in which von Tschudi found it. 
Rumour has even hinted that Dr. Bode is going to 
resign his position because of the lack of support 
on the part of the Government which von Tschudi 
has received. Probably there is no foundation 
whatever for this report, but it is an indication of the 
consternation with which the former has been 
received by all interested in the welfare of the 
National Gallery. 

The Kaiser Friedrich Museum at Berlin ac- 
quired some time ago the life-size portrait of 
Sir James Montgomery, Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, by Raeburn. The subject is seated in 
black robes and powdered wig, looking some- 
what wistfully at the spectator. It is rather quieter, 
not so buoyant with life as some of Raeburn's 
best work. 

The Kunstgewerbemuseum at Berlin has come 
into possession of some fine porcelain, bought at 
the recent Clenini sale, the principal articles being 
three sets of early Berlin ware. The first of these 
is a coffee service, sent on the 22nd of April, 1764, 
by Frederick the Great as a gift to General De la 
Motte Fouquet, to convince him that Berlin was 
producing as fine a quality of work as the Meissen 
factory. The porcelain shows the rosy tint com- 
mon to Berlin's early produce, and great delicacy 
in the painting. A triple tea service in Louis XVI 
style, dates from about 1780, and is reminiscent 
of antique vases in its shapes. The third set is 
an ' Empire' chocolate service, once a present from 
Prince Biron of Curland to Count VVassiliew, with 

,Mli(l\M.ll.IlT MARINK. BY AIJiKKT I'. RYDl-Ii. 
IX THK Clil.l.ECTluX ill' MK. X. [:. MdXTKuSJ 

Mi>iiXL1i;HT MAKIXE. liV AI.I'.KkT ]'. K>lill;. 








Art in Germ. 


portraits of Frederick the Great, Queen Louise of 
Prussia and her sister Friederike. Further acquisi- 
tions are a tine but incomplete Viennese coffee-set, 


While we blame the gods for denying us what 
we regard as our due proportion of creative talent, 
it is a tactical mistake to overlook a single one of 
those who have the authentic gift and who work 
scarcely regarded in our midst. The names of 
quite a number of American artists are known to 
most art lovers on this side of the Atlantic, but I 
believe comparatively few have ever heard of 
Ryder, and yet he appears to me to merit very 
serious attention. I do not know whether our 
European ignorance is our own fault or the fault 
of those American critics who ought to have made 
clear to us long ago what undeniable genius, 
what unmistakable inspiration, shine through the 
works of this artist. Nor is it worth while to con- 
sider whose the fault is. I believe that one has 
only to show his work — even in the accompanying 
reproductions — to convince those who have an open 
mind and a seeing eye of Ryder's definite achieve- 
ment. It is the kind of achievement by which 
landscape art can justify itself, and the art of 
pure landscape assuredly often stands in need 
of justification. Ryder's genius is essentially 
akin to that of the lyric poet : it might arise 
almost at any moment, and in any circumstances ; 
it does not belong particularly to its age or 
its place; one might almost say that it was in- 
dependent of the artistic tradition it inherited. 
Certainly, its effects depend upon no slowly built- 
up knowledge of technique and construction, no 
inherited craftsmanship handed on from one 
generation to another. What Ryder has to say is 
so entirely personal, so immediately the fruit of 
his own peculiar humours, that he was bound to 
find for it a mode of expression equally peculiar 
and individual. Ryder, of course, belongs quite 
definitely to his age, and, though not quite so 
obviously, to his country ; but it is partly by 
virtue of this very exaggeration of individualism 
in his art that he does so. So that it seems of 
little importance to explain, even if I were able to, 
his genesis and development. One accepts him 
merely as an isolated phenomenon, a delightful 
and unexpected freak of his stock. Still, it is impos- 
sible not to associate him almost immediately with 
one other American creator, namely, Edgar Allan 
Poe, nor to wonder whether similar circumstances, 
or a similar violence of reaction from them, have 
been at work in the formation of their kindred spirits. 
In any case, Ryder, though he is happily still in 
full possession of his powers, still a producer, 
belongs to the pre-Whistlerian age. He is the last 
gleaning of the harvest of 1830 ; his romanticism 

about 1735 ; some of Bottger's red earthenware ; 
and little figures of Berlin, Fulda, Nymphenburg 
and Viennese porcelain. H. W. S. 


has the fervour and heat of the earlier votaries of 
the movement, he has the unconsciousness and 
abandonment which one looks for in vain in 
contemporary art. One thinks first, as I said, of 
Poe, because something in their isolation has 
given a common quality to the work of the two, 
but after him one thinks of the earlier romanticists, 
of Shelley, of Coleridge, of Schubert. 

Take for instance his Constance (Plate i). It has 
the audacity of conviction, the sheer indifference 
to all ordinary plausibility, of an inspired vision. 
It might be dangerous to hazard a guess as to 
which way the boat is moving, or how it is 
constructed or can float at all ; but there can be 
no doubt that it is moving forward by some magic 
spell with the silent swiftness of Alastor's bark 
'As one that in a silver vision floats. Beneath the 
cold glare of the desolate night.' And all this, so 
comparatively easy to poetry, so difficult to painting 
with its more specialized vision, is given by a very 
peculiar method, by a most elaborate and hyper- 
subtle simplification. The actual forms are almost 
childishly simple, but they have a mass and content 
essential to the effect they produce. 

And this, I take it, is one of the crucial problems 
of the painter, especially the modern painter, 
namely, to give a sense of the complexity, infinity 
and richness of matter without involving his 
design with a corresponding complexity of form. 
Ryder has solved it by painting over and over 
again, loading his paint sometimes to a dangerous 
extent, and producing at last a wonderful enamelled 
surface overlying a broken and highly varied im- 
pasto. It may be that this peculiar technique, 
which he has worked out for himself, is also due 
to a certain tentativeness, almost a hesitation, in his 
manner, which leads him continually to refine on 
the idea, changing gradually every element in the 
design until each part becomes expressive. In 
any case, the result of this infinitely laborious pro- 
cess is one of great simplicity in the achieved 
result. The actual units of composition are few, 
and only by the subtlest perfection of their relation 
could such a rich content be given by such bare 
material. Here the placing and shape of the 
ungainly mass of the boat have clearly been refined 
upon endlessly, they could not have been arrived 
at an premier coup ; but surely the whole design 
would fall apart or lapse into dullness if it were 
not for the fine discovery and the exquisite adjust- 
ment of the diagonal masses of the nearer clouds 
giving a drift of motion opposed to the horizontal 
lines of the distant strata. 

As simple in its elements and yet as full of nicety 


Art in America 

is another Marine by him (Plate ii, No. 2). It too 
has movement, though of another kind — more 
buoyant, more exhilarating, less ghostly — for the 
mood is entirely different from the last. But here 
again the simplification of the forms, the willed 
awkwardness and ^(7»c/jt'm' of the ship's silhouette, 
gives I know not what of conviction to our sense of 
the infinite planes of wind-swept, moon-illumined 
air. And again as always in Ryder's works the cloud 
arabesque has the symbolism of high romance. 

For purest romanticism, it would indeed be 
hard to surpass the Forest of Arden (Plate iii, No.i). 
What invitation in the winding stream, what 
unrealized, oft-dreamt possibilities beyond those 
undulating hills, what seclusion and what delicious 
terrors in the brooding woods, and what happy 
augury in the sky ! One might perhaps wish the 
lovers away. Mr. Ryder has not quite the power 
to people his own landscape, and after all — for 
romanticism is the most egoistic effort of the ima- 
gination — we each want the Forest of Arden for 
our own loves. How he could have got his com- 
position without these figures I cannot tell, but 
that is Mr. Ryder's concern. 

In quite the opposite vein is the Death on the 
racecourse (Plate iii, No. 2). Here the planning 
of masses is less deliberate ; the whole effect is 
more elusive ; the technique, if I remember right, 
thinner — it approaches more to the feeling and the 
handling of Matthew Maris, with whom Ryder 
has much in common. But this shows, too, his 
likeness with Poe, for both have the quality of 
lyrical macabre, though Ryder's have not the 
perversity of Poe's inventions. This seems to me 
slighter than those I have hitherto discussed, both 
in motive and in execution. It is rather by way 
of a poetical conceit than a deeply-felt poetical 
truth to give us Death, the racer who has ridden 
down all rivals and now is condemned to ride 
round for ever, deprived of the dear companion- 
ship of his enemy and victim, man. I lay no stress 
on my interpretation, which as likely is not is 
wrong ; but some such ideas are prompted in my 
mind by the vague but not serious dread of the 
cloud arabesque and the admirably thought-out 
contour of the distant hill. 

Finally, let me speak of what, so far as I have 
seen his work, is Ryder's masterpiece, the Flying 
Dutchman (Plate ii. No. i). I am by no means 
sure that I have any right to give it this title, but 
somehow the ideas have got associated in my mind. 
It seems to possess the weird and legendary awe 
that befits that theme. Here the emotion is more 
serious, more profound, than in those we have 
discussed before. And in correspondence with 
that the design is more absolutely ascertained, the 
tone and colour harmonies more definite, and, 
finally, the quality of the paint has the perfection 
and the elusive hardness of some precious stone. 
I doubt whether the artist himself could to-day 


tell us by what unconscionable processes, by 
snatching at what felicitous accidents, by obedience 
to what half-guessed principles, he has wrought 
the slimy clay of oil pigment to this gem-like 
resistance and translucency. The whole effect is 
that of some uneven enamel, certainly of some- 
thing that has passed through fire to give it so 
unyielding a consistency. That this extraordinary 
quality has been reached only with infinite labour 
is evident from the dangers that this little panel 
has undergone of cracking up altogether owing 
to the incessant overloading of one coat of paint 
on another. Such a technique is for that very 
reason not in itself desirable ; and, could the result 
here attained have been reached by more controlled, 
more craftsmanlike methods, one would certainly 
have preferred it. But we accept it none the less 
as it is, as something unique in its method, but 
something in which the peculiar method is felt to 
be essentially bound up with the imaginative idea 
and to be justified by the perfection with which it 
renders that. 

I wish I could translate the ominous splendour 
of the colouring into words. I can only give a faint 
idea. The sky is of a suffused, intense luminosity, 
so intense that the straw-coloured moon and 
yellower edges of the clouds barely tell upon it. 
The clouds themselves (one may guess from them 
that Ryder has been a student of Blake), the 
clouds are of a terrible, forbidding, slatey grey, 
not opaque, but rather like the grey of polished 
agate, only darker, harder, more unyielding. These 
are so dark, and their silhouette on the sky is so 
fiercely emphasized, that the utter blackness of the 
sails can barely tell upon them. Almost equal in 
tone with the clouds is the mass of the sea itself, 
but in colour it contrasts with them, being of an 
intense malachite green, dark, inscrutable, and yet 
full of the hidden life of jewels and transparent 
things. This note is taken up again, if I remember 
rightly, in the sky at the top left hand side, but 
with a tendency to dull peacock. I need say 
nothing of the composition, of the effect of unend- 
ing, relentless movement given by the diagonals 
crossing, at such nicely discovered points and with 
such just inclinations, the barred horizontals — its 
rare quality is evident even in our reproduction. 
Here, then, is a vision recorded for us so absolutely 
that once seen it can never be forgotten. It has 
the authoritative, arresting power of genuine 

Sensations such as this little picture arouses are 
not so common that one can afford to pass them 
by without dedicating one's tribute of praise to 
their authors, or without desiring that a wider 
circle should enjoy so much of them as can be 
conveyed by a reproduction. I have to thank Sir 
William van Home and Mr. Montross for their 
courtesy in permitting me to make use of their 
examples of Ryder's work. Roger E. Fry. 



Jro //n- rof/eclUn. of., .^/r Siaud^. i^^^ i/Z'/^- 



'" ■ - by mutual l 

nne will hope , 
•'hanee of n* 

■i: la j::<iigiajia, vvnere 

, has been in operation 

.ic time, its objectionable fe^tvr(^< 
been considerably nHtijrateci 


HE picture -„uv 
London of the past '• 
or three months 
been of considerable i. 
tercst. A great v 

Vw«^ of works of art . 

^or iude:^ment, and, in spite of r 
>f trade, there ha^ 

y iU-advised 
apart from the 
one 1^1^ -• •■ 1 


v teit for 

work as 


t. ■'- 




'•f firs: , 

kind, jut 



e up to th 

No doubi 

:;arcity of n ;-,... ^ 

has somethi)' 

his discrimina- 

tion. For th' 

s there must 


always be a m- 
can wait till 

'ess good 
•tlook is 

If, T/te 
work of 

I'^rt (r>l »-,'■ )• T\ :* 

fnr in- 

rA>mc !• 

.'> ia.<iuJj<u7w;j U'' 

r.was apt to , 
artists whom he patron; 
e once made he was faiti; 

'*'■''■ picture after - 

, tnter or favouj . _ 
id schools seem to have 
vork of art be 



MONG those who have 
made any study of the pro- 
gress of public galleries 
'during the past few years 
there can be no two 
^opinions as to the report- 
ed retirement of Dr. Von Tschudi. It has 
been generally recognized that the great 
progress made by Germany and American 
art collections during the last decade has 
been due to the courage with which both 
nations have adopted the principle of 
choosing able directors and giving them 
a free hand. Even in England, where 
the contrary plan has been in operation 
for some time, its objectionable features 
have been considerably mitigated of recent 


years by mutual tact and good sense, and 
every one will hope that the report of this 
sudden change of attitude in Germany 
will prove to be unfounded. Whatever 
interest we may take in the friendly rivalry 
between the great collections of our own 
and other countries, that feeling in the case 
of Germany is tempered by so much ad- 
miration for the acumen and enterprise her 
great museum directors have shown, that 
we should be genuinely sorry if her appre- 
ciation of the fine arts was to be narrowed 
by ill-advised official interference, quite 
apart from the personal sympathy felt for 
one who has done such splendid work as 
Dr. Von Tschudi. 


HE picture sales in 
London of the past two 
or three months have 
been of considerable in- 
terest. A great variety 
of works of art have 
come up for judgment, and, in spite of the 
general depression of trade, there has been 
no disinclination to pay for the very finest 
things even larger prices than have ever 
been paid for them before. Things of 
average merit have, on the other hand, 
fallen considerably in value, and buyers 
have discriminated more sharply than 
ever between quite first-rate examples and 
pictures which, though good of their 
kind, just fail to come up to the highest 

No doubt the general scarcity of money 
has something to do with this discrimina- 
tion. For the very best things there must 
always be a market, but things less good 
can wait till the financial outlook is 
brighter. But with this reason for in- 

Thk Burungton Magazine, No. 63. Vol. XIII— May. 1908. 

equalities of price, others, hardly less 
potent, must be reckoned. 

There can be little doubt that, though 
the number of picture buyers may not have 
increased greatly, their critical faculty has 
been considerably augmented. In the past 
the collector was apt to pick and choose 
the artists whom he patronized, but the 
choice once made he was faithful to it, 
and bought picture after picture from his 
favourite painter or favourite school. Now, 
names and schools seem to have lost their 
glamour : the work of art becomes more 
and more, the painter less and less. 

Ten years ago any painting by Millais 
that came into the market would have 
fetched a high price on the mere strength 
of his reputation. Now it is generally 
recognized that his later pictures are hardly 
better than those of his academic contem- 
poraries, and so they share a similar fate. 
If The Huguenot or any other important 
work of Millais's wonderful youth were to 
come into the market, it would still fetch 


Modern Pictures in the Saleroom 

an enormous price, but that price would 
be of little or no assistance to the artist's 
feebler products. 

Even a name like that of Turner will 
not sustain any Turners that fall short of 
supreme excellence. A superb drawing 
like the Constance will fetch more than two 
thousand guineas ; a drawing of the same 
size but less perfect in conception and con- 
dition will hardly be worth a twentieth of 
that sum. Even the great masters of the 
Barbizon school, though they are supported 
by very strong cosmopolitan patronage, 
cannot escape these fluctuations entirely, 
though the oscillations of price are never 
so violent as in the case of men like 
Millais, whose reputation was for the 
most part a fashion of one country and 
one period. 

But if the great names of the auction-room 
are subjected to this fierce ordeal, can wc 
wonder that the minor men sometimes fall 
into utter disrepute ? Over the fate of such 
painters as Boughton and Calderon it is hard 
to feel much pity. They painted for popu- 
larity and achieved it, and the prices their 
pictures now fetch seem low only because 
the prices which they once asked and 
obtained were absurdly high. Hook and 
Henry Moore stand on a somewhat difi^erent 
footing. Both possessed a fresh and vigorous 
talent, and, though the taste of the public 
compelled them to work in a narrow groove, 
the work they did was, in its way, good. 

Yet facts seem to show that the obvious 
naturalism which their public compelled 
Hook and Henry Moore to practise is a field 
in which other men may (like Mr. Hemy) 
obtain similar competence, and they have 
lost the' affections of the market in some 
degree, quite apart from such actual weak- 
nesses as may exist in their work, because a 
number of other painters have produced and 
arc producing seascapes of the same char- 
acter and force. Able naturalism is com- 


mon in these days, and the expert collector 
needs something that is more than common. 

Yetamong the artists whose work answers 
that description, who have been more than 
capable painters of natural phenomena, we 
find considerable fluctuations in value. 

The great Preraphaelites, for example, 
have been looming larger and larger in 
the public eye, and receiving more gene- 
rally the appreciation which they have 
long deserved. In the past they were 
patronized chiefly by a small body of 
enthusiastic admirers and, possibly as a 
reaction from outside hostility, these 
admirers were w^ont to value both the 
weak and the strong works of the school 
at a level which, if not very high, was 
more or less uniform. Now that recog- 
nition of Preraphaelite work has become, 
as it w^ere, a part of the common stock of 
artistic knowledge, the market has begun 
to pick and choose between the best things 
and the things that are not quite so good. 

Rossetti, in consequence, is now taking 
his true place, and his early works, more 
especially those in water colour, in which 
is concentrated the essence of his great 
genius as an imaginative designer, are 
rising rapidly in value, while his larger, 
later oil paintings and studies, where his 
hold both on life and on design is relaxed, 
are somewhat less highly prized. 

The art of Burne-Jones is being subjected 
to a similar ordeal, and it would appear 
that in his case the public judgment is 
still unreliable. Otherwise it is difficult 
to understand why, on the very day when 
A Wood-Nymph quite deservedly fetched a 
high price, A Sea-Nymph, the companion 
picture, and in its way no less delightful, 
reached only a very moderate figure. 
Possibly the design was too boldly sym- 
bolic and decorative for the public com- 
prehension, and it may be noticed that 
another fine designer, Ford Madox Brown, 

Modern T^ictures in the Saleroom 

has never yet attained anything like the 
appreciation which must inevitably some 
day be his. We seem, in fact, to have got 
to a stage when we recognize the absence 
of good design, but are still not quite 
accustomed to its presence. 

The press has made much of the collapse 
which has taken place in the prices ob- 
tained for the work of well-known Acade- 
micians. We can now see pretty clearly 
what the causes of the collapse have been. 
It is generally recognized that the prices 
they once obtained were quite artificial, and 
had no relation to current market value. 
Had they sold their pictures originally 
for fifty or a hundred pounds apiece, and 
been content to live like artists, the prices 
their works fetch to-day would not be a 
matter of comment. They made the mis- 
take of wishing to live like merchant 
princes, and are paying for it in posthu- 
mous discredit. The only painter who can 
afford such luxurious ideals is the success- 
ful portrait painter, for his success is based 
on the everlasting foundation of human 
vanity. All other artists have to build 
upon the uncertain sands of contemporary 
taste and intelligence. 

It is, however, in the matter of colour 
and design that the Academicians as a 
group have failed most signally to satisfy 
a more critical age, and the chief cause of 

their unpopularity lies in the simple fact 
that their works, when hung on the wall 
at Christie's, fail to hold their own. The 
tender talent of such a painter as George 
Mason, for example, still charms us be- 
cause, though it may reflect the senti- 
mentality of a bygone epoch, it is expressed 
in pictures that are pleasantly coloured and 
rhythmically designed ; while the accom- 
plishment and minute observation of a 
Brett, the breezy naturalism of a Henry 
Moore, and the undeniable talent and skill 
of a Hook (not to mention the poor, futile 
anecdotists associated with them) are dis- 
played in vain, because the sense of design 
and colour is in abeyance or wholly 

The verdict of the market may have 
been severe, but it has not been entirely 
unjust. Nor is it without promise of a more 
speedy recognition in the future for the 
artists who are above all things good 
designers and good colourists, and for the 
collectors who have the judgment to 
patronize them in time. The weeding 
process that is now taking place is an un- 
pleasant but much-needed preUminary, if 
not to a millennium, at least to a state of 
things in which a good artist ought to be 
tolerably sure of a modest competence. If 
he is really a good artist, that prospect 
should content him. 



N the first part of this paper I 


spoke of the two main classes 
into which the enamelled porce- 
ain of late Ming times may be 
divided, and I gave some account 
of the group with prevalent iron- 
y^^'li^red decoration. The other and 
Jt^t^ larger group is of quite a differ- 

ent character. Under this division we must bring 

' For Part I see The Burlington Magazine, vol. xiii, r- 4. 
April igoS. 

together the earliest, or nearly the earliest, members 
of a large class of enamelled porcelain that is 
known to the Chinese .as the zvu-tsai from the five 
colours that occur in the decoration. These colours 
are, in the order of their importance, in Ming times 
at least, an under-glaze cobalt blue, a leafy green 
of two shades, an iron-red often of a rich orange 
hue, a poor purple and a yellow passing from straw- 
colour to full Naples yellow— the last two colours 
generally very sparingly applied. 

Now unlike the iron-red family lately described, 


Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

this five-colour group probably — but we have no 
definite proof of this — had its origin before the 
time of Wan-li. On the other hand, in the next 
dynasty we may regard an important contingent of 
the vast series of enamelled porcelain that we know 
as the faiiiille vcrte as a development or a revival of 
the Wan-li pentad.' From the predominance of 
the under-glaze blue in the earlier specimens, this 
Wan-li five-colour group may be perhaps held to 
be itself a development of the Ming 'blue and white.' 
There is in the British Museum a handsome plate 
with scenes from the Taoist heaven that well illus- 
trates this stage. On this plate the blue is only 
enlivened here and there by a few passages of other 
colours. Near to it, in the same case, is a pear- 
shaped vase with magnolia blossom and the fan- 
tastic figure of a cock ; on this vase the over-glaze 
colours play a more prominent part, although the 
under-glaze blue is still predominant. Both these 
are probably examples of Ming porcelain, perhaps 
from the beginning of Wan-li's reign, before the 
decadence had set in. 

We must now see what can be gleaned con- 
cerning the origin of these new enamel colours 
and the conditions under which they were applied. 
The potters of early Ming days were able to com- 
bine with their decoration of under-glaze blue a 
brilliant crimson derived from copper. This 
colour also was applied under the glaze. When in 
the sixteenth century the art was lost — the under- 
glaze copper was now at best of a russet tint — its 
place was taken by an iron-red, a kind of bole, 
applied over the glaze. There are many references 
to this new colour — it was evidently regarded as a 
makeshift — in the orders sent down to the potters 
at King-te-chen from Pekin by the palace officials 
of the later Ming emperors. Along with the iron- 
red other over-glaze colours make their appear- 
ance, completing the pentad — the wii-tsai. These 
are a manganese purple, a copper green and a 
yellow generally of a pale straw colour (this yellow 
enamel contains, in addition to iron sesqui-oxide, 
more or less antimony). Now — and this is a very 
significant point to bear in mind in connexion 
with the development of the enamel decoration of 
porcelain — these last are the three colours used in 
another important group of polychrome Chinese 
porcelain. They are the base of the san-isai or 
colour triad of what may be called the ' painted 
glazes,' a family that had its origin in early Ming 
times, and of which I shall shortly have something 
to say. For the present it will be enough to state 
that the san-tsai painted glazes are not properly 
enamel colours, but, as the name implies, glazes 
painted over the biscuit, which was then re-fired 
in the original kiln, but at a lower temperature. 

'^ There is, as we shall see, another large department of the 
fainillc veiic which is to be regarded as a development or rather 
as a representative of the early Ming ware with painted glazes 
that has yet to be described. 


They were revived in another form at the time of 
the great renaissance under Kang-he, but we are 
not concerned with them when treating of the 
Wan-li enamelled wares. What I want to 
accentuate is that the five colours that have played 
so important a part in the history of enamelled 
porcelain had their origin in a combination of the 
under-glaze blue, first with the iron-red that had 
replaced the under-glaze copper, and then with the 
three colours of the painted glazes (otherwise of 
the dcuii-grand fen) which were now employed as 
enamels over the glaze. 

Provided, then, with this pentad of colours, the 
potters of late Ming times began to decorate their 
enamelled porcelain with the same conventional 
designs that had long served for their blue and 
white ware ; indeed, as I have said, in the earlier 
specimens the underglaze blue is still dominant. A 
type was thus established which prevailed, it would 
seem, during the ensuing period of unrest that pre- 
ceded the revival under Kang-he. After the middle 
of the seventeenth century there arose some demand 
for enamelled porcelain in Europe, and it was ware 
of this type that was then first exported. Indeed it 
would appear that the exportation of this class of 
porcelain continued for some years after the intro- 
duction of a more artistic or, at least, of a more 
refined style at King-te-chen when, at the instigation 
of the great viceroys sent down by Kang-he, new 
life was thown into the kilns. Examples of this 
rather summarily decorated ware, classed sometimes 
as faniilleverte, ^t others as ' Ming enamels,' are 
often to be found in old houses in England. As a 
class it is nowhere better illustrated than at 
Hampton Court.^ The great and varied triumphs 
of polychrome decoration which we include under 
the name of famille verle were doubtless at first 
reserved for ' palace ' consumption, and examples 
only reached Europe at a much later date. So far 
as these belong to the five-colour group (we must 
remember that a part of the so-called famille verte 
belongs to the three-colour group and had, as we 
shall see, a quite different origin) they are distin- 
guished by the increased prevalence of a leafy 
green. On the other hand the under-glaze blue now 
takes a secondary position and is soon replaced by 
a cobalt enamel over the glaze. 

There is another ground for the recognition 
of the historical importance of the five-colour 
enamels of late Ming times. We must recognize 
in them the origin of the great group of enamelled 
porcelain of Imari, the 'Old Japan' of our an- 
cestors. Although as a distinct family the Imari 
ware — made for the most part for exportation 
— was not developed before the close of the 

^ For some notes on the oriental porcelain at Hampton Court, 
see my ' Porcelain,' p. 225 seq. Since account was written 
the china in the palace has been rearranged. It is now better 
seen, but one must regret the removal of some quaint old pieces 
from a cabinet in which they may very well have been placed 
by that enthusiastic collector. Queen Mary. 










seventeenth century, yet it would seem to be 
founded on a comparatively early stage of the 
late Ming enamels. The under-glaze blue, of 
peculiar tint, is here distinctly dominant, and is 
sometimes combined with little else than a skilfully 
distributed gilding and a few touches of iron-red. 
In attempting to unravel the obscure and com- 
plicated history of the origin and development of 
enamelled porcelain it is essential to bear in mind 
that, as a class, this ware had its origin during a 
time of decadence. To a Chinese mind the intro- 
duction of enamel decoration has come to be 
associated with that decadence and with the 
accompanying relaxation of manners— above all, 
with the inroad of foreign fashions that were part 
and parcel of the decay. We have evidence of 
this in the protest of the censors against the orders 
for polychrome ware sent down to the potteries 
by Wan-li himself. Now it so happened that it 
was precisely during the period of anarchy which 
set in after the death of that emperor, and which 
we have seen continued, in the southern provmces 
at least, up to nearly the end of the seventeenth 
century, that the great demand for Chinese porce- 
lain arose in India, in Persia, and somewhat later 
in Europe. We must not, then, be surprised to 
find that the wares exported at this time were of 
inferior quality, and that as a whole they have 
about them something exotic and what to a 
Chinese mind would appear barbarous. This 
would apply not only to the ' blue and white ' 
exported in such amazing quantities to India, to 
Persia' and to Holland, but still more, perhaps, to 
the coloured ware for which the demand, towards 
the end of this period, was arising in Europe 

We must not, then, be surprised that when a 
definite revival came some time after the accession 
of Kang-he, a sponge was, as it were, wiped over 
all this evil period. All that it produced was 
ignored, and an attempt was made to return to 
the wares of early Ming and even more remote 
times. This was a spirit that continued to in- 
fluence much of the work produced under the two 
succeeding emperors, Yung-ching and Kien-lung. 
The movement in favour of the old work was, 
however, carried out on the freest lines. To give 
but one example, an important class of Kien-lung 
porcelain {'famille rose egg-shell,' we should call 
it) was held to be a resurrection of the ' chicken 
cups' of Cheng-hua (1464-1487). What the 
original 'chicken cups' were like I confess myself 
quite unable to pronounce, but if they even re- 
motely resembled in technique the daintily painted 
I egg-shell ' of the middle eighteenth century, then 
in our attempt to identify the porcelain of early 
* In the ' Cross Cilleries ' at South Kensington may be seen 
what is doubtless the most important collection in Europe of 
Chniese porcelain brought from Persia, and here the curious 
mmghng of types in the shapes and decorations may be best 

Qhinese Knamelled Porcelain 

Ming times we are upon a hopelessly wrong tack. 
In many cases the eighteenth-century potter seems 
to have thought that he had made sufficient sacri- 
fice to the spirit of antiquity when he had placed 
the name of a Ming emperor on the base of his 
vase or plate — Cheng-hua or Cheng-te for prefer- 
ence. The name seems to have been for the most 
part selected quite at random, and with little or 
no relation to the class of ware known to have 
been produced at the earlier date. But note that 
the name of W^an-li is never thus employed, nor 
that of his immediate predecessor. Lung-king. It 
thus happens that, apart from Japanese wares, 
when one of these names is found on a piece of 
porcelain, we can safely pronounce the specimen 
to date from the late sixteenth or early seventeenth 
century. This at least is soinething gained. 

To return to our polychrome porcelain — ' poly- 
chrome ' is here a convenient expression, for it 
covers what I have called ' painted glazes ' as well 
as true enamels. I have so far ignored the existence 
of enamelled porcelain previous to the time of 
Wan-li. Now what do our authorities tell us as 
to the time and manner of origin of all such early 
wares ? To say the truth they all sound an uncer- 
tain note — I had almost said that they discover a 
tendency to trim or ' hedge ' on this point. Thus 
in the British Museum, on one of the cautiously 
worded notices that so carefully guide us through that 
most instructive of all collections of oriental porce- 
lain, we are informed that ' it is doubtful whether 
any porcelain was painted in colours over the glaze 
before Wan-li.' There is here, it is true, a reserve 
— but a very gentle one. On the other hand with 
regard to that most supremely interesting vase with 
both turquoise and green enamels over the glaze 
and cobalt blue under it (No. i of the coloured 
plate in the April number) the label attached allows 
it to be ' possibly of the date ' indicated by the 
inscription on the base. Now this elaborately 
enamelled vase bears the date mark of Cheng-hua, 
an emperor who flourished as far back as the 
fifteenth century. We are thus left in suspense on 
this burning question. Let us then turn to what 
we may regard as our safest and most trustworthy 
guide in all that relates to oriental porcelain — the 
introduction that Dr. Bushell has written for his 
catalogue of the Walters collection. Here, on 
p. 239, we find the statement : ' The rare pieces 
decorated in colour before this time \i.c., Wan-li 
(1572-1619)] were inlaid on it (the biscuit) with 
. . . coloured glazes ' — that is to say, they are all to 
be classed, not in any sense as enamelled wares, 
but as belonging to our group of ' painted glazes.' 
If, however, in the same work we now turn to the 
description of some of the pieces of early Ming 
porcelain that were in the collection of Tsu-ching, 
we have the clear indication of a ware elaborately 
decorated with designs in colour, of what in fact 
can be nothing else than enamelled porcelain. 


Qhinese Enamelled T*orcelain 

Tsu-ching drew up the illustrated catalogue of his 
collection, so freely quoted by Dr. Bushell, towards 
the end of the sixteenth century — tiiat is to say, in 
the reign of Wan-li.° Many of these decorated 
specimens are attributed by the Chinese connoisseur 
who describes and figures them to the time of 
Cheng-hua and even earlier reigns. Now Dr. 
Bushell appears to place implicit confidence in the 
competence and honesty of this old Ming collector. 
On the other hand I find that some of those who 
write with authority (in America especially) treat this 
Tsu-ching as a ' fascinating romancer ' and do not 
hesitate to declare that the illustrations in the 
original catalogue (now destroyed), when not 
evolved from his imagination, were copies of con- 
temporary objects — i.e., they were Wan-li enamels. 

So far then it would seem that both the evidence 
from extant examples as well as, on the whole, 
the opinion of our best authorities would point to 
the latter part of the sixteenth century as the date 
when coloured enamels were first applied to their 
porcelain by the Chinese potters. And yet it 
must be confessed that there are, on the one hand, 
individual examples of coloured enamels, some 
of them of archaic aspect, for which it would be 
difficult to find a place among the wares of Wan-li, 
and on the other hand there are references in the 
Chinese books to elaborately decorated examples of 
porcelain, described as characteristic ware of early 
Ming emperors, references that it is almost 
impossible to interpret as descriptions of ware of 
the ' painted glaze ' class. 

Of the examples of early enamelled ware for which 
it is difficult to find a place and a date, I will only 
mention — (i) A bowl of a distinctly archaic aspect 
in the Salting collection (Plate ii), on which, besides 
an under-glaze decoration of fishes in full copper- 
red (the presence of this colour would alone point 
to an early date), we find an over-glaze design of 
other fishes painted in iron-red, two shades of green, 
a brownish purple, and finally a cobalt blue of a 
poor lavender tint. This bowl bears the date-mark 
of Cheng-te (1505-152 1). There is nothing to 
lead one to think that the over-glaze colours 
were added at a later date than the under-glaze 
copper-red. The close resemblance of the design to 
that on the famous bowl in the possession of the 
Trenchard family should not be overlooked. This 
is the piece of Chinese blue and white porcelain 
which, it is claimed, was given to Sir Thomas 
Trenchard by Philip the father of Charles V, as 
long ago as 1506. (Figured in Gulland's 'Oriental 
China,' Vol. ii.) (2) The baluster-shaped vase in the 
British Museum (with the date-mark of Cheng-hua) 
to which I have already referred (see plate in last 
number). In this case the noticeable point, from a 
technical point of view, is the co-existence, over the 
glaze, of a turquoise blue and a leafy green, colours 

'I refer to the famous 'Bushell MS.' See 'Oriental Porcelain,' 


that in later days are rarely found in combination. 
(3) Certain remarkable pieces in the Grandidier 
collection now in the Louvre. Concerning these, 
I unfortunately have not at hand any definite notes, 
but of the same general type is a vase at South 
Kensington of which I give an illustration (Plate i). 
On this carefully potted vase the under-glaze blue 
is predominant in the floral decoration, which takes 
a form somewhat unusual in Chinese art. Among 
the other colours of the pentad, a pale lavender or 
lilac gives a cachet to the general effect. This colour 
is applied to the petals of a peculiar flower, with 
trailing stem, that is characteristic of this ware. 

No one of these pieces has apparently any relation 
to the definitely fixed types of Wan-li enamel that 
I have described above. Nor again are the 
examples related to one another to form a group 
by themselves. Unless it be in the case of Mr. 
Salting's bowP (Plate ii), which may indeed well 
be of the date indicated by the inscription, they 
do not fit in with any idea that we can form of the 
enamelled ware made before the middle of the 
sixteenth century. The style of the decoration and 
the comparative excellence of the potting have 
nothing in common with the well-known ware of 
Wan-li. Perhaps the most reasonable plan would 
be to attribute these exceptional examples of 
enamelled porcelain to the early years of Kang-he 
(say from 1680 to 1690') when Lang Ting-tso or 
another was making his famous s^/i^-^t'-^a';// vases. 
We may regard this as the earliest stage of the great 
revival, and it was doubtless a time of experiments. 
At any rate we have no other class of enamelled 
porcelain that can be definitely attributed to this 

I will now say a word as to the sources from 
which the Chinese derived their knowledge of 
polychrome decoration. Before the end of the 
fifteenth century the Chinese were masters of the 
use of cobalt-blue and copper-red applied upon 
the unbaked porcelain and subsequently covered 
with a refractory {i.e., non-plumbaginous) glaze. 
Now already by this time in the West complete 
command had been attained of processes of 
decoration which depended upon the tinting of 
a colourless, readily fusible silicate of lead by 
means of various metallic oxides. This decoration 
took two forms : (i) the lead flux was applied in 
various ways to the surface of metal to produce the 
cloisonne and champlevc enamels of the Greeks 
and the Western peoples ; (2) the flux was applied 
either as a bead-like decoration or painted over the 
surface of glass vessels on the enamelled lamps and 

« I have perhaps not given a place of sufficient importance in 
my argument to this remarkable bowl. It is the only example 
of enamelled porcelain I know of in English collections to which 
a date earlier th:in Wan-li can be positively assigned. Obviously 
of later date, at least in my opinion, is, on the other hand, the 
vase with llie Cheng-hua mark. 

' Possibly a few years earlier. See note i, in the first part of 
this paper. 

beakers of the Saracens. This last method of decora- 
tion is closely allied in technique to the application 
of enamels over the glaze of porcelain. Already 
before the end of the thirteenth century this 
process had been brought to great perfection ; 
indeed, it had by that time reached a stage of 
development equivalent to that of the enamels on 
the finest porcelain of the time of Kang-he. There 
is some evidence that examples of this enamelled 
glass had already in early Ming days found their 
way through to Western China, starting probably 
from Samarkand. Other specimens may have 
been brought to Chinese ports in the dhows of 
the Arab merchants. And yet, it must be con- 
fessed, it has so far been impossible to find any 
intermediate link connecting this Saracenic glass 
with the earliest enamelled porcelain of the Far 
East. Quite otherwise is it when we come to the 
other application of coloured lead fluxes. The 
Chinese themselves acknowledge the foreign origin 
of their cloisonne and chaniplcvc enamels. Every- 
thing points to their introduction towards the close 
of the Mongol dynasty, in the fourteenth century. 
But it was not probably until the middle of the 
next century that these enamels were generally 
known. It is the Ching-tai period (1450-56) that 
has given them their Chinese name. 

Now it was probably about this time — whether 
before or after the middle of the fifteenth century 
is uncertain — that the first attempts were made at 
the decoration of porcelain, not indeed yet with 
true enamels but with glazes of more than one 
colour. Again, it was at this period, it would 
seem, that lead was for the first time employed as 
an integral part of the glaze. Of this early type 
of polychrome Ming porcelain I have no space to 
speak at large. It takes many forms ; but what is 
above all characteristic of it is that the decoration 
is, as a rule, more or less in relief. In what appear 
to be the oldest examples the colours are applied 
to the recesses of what may be called countersunk 
cloisons with definite margins of greater or less 
projection. The ground is generally blue, either 
of a deep tint or turquoise, and the colours 
in the cloisons are confined to turquoise, pale 
yellow and manganese purple. We have here 
the earliest form of the san-tsai or triad of colours 
(PI. iii). The use of these colours and the 
presence of lead necessitated the employment of 
an entirely new process of manufacture. The 
flux-like glaze was painted on the surface of the 
already fired biscuit, and the subsequent firing was 
at a comparatively gentle heat. A distinctly 
Buddhist type prevails in the decoration. Indeed, 
there is some reason to believe that this polychrome 
ware was first employed for figures of Buddhist 
divinities, coloured in imitation of still earlier 
idols of lacquer or painted wood. In the case of 
some specimens of what are, apparently, decora- 
tions for the walls or railings behind or around 

Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

such images, the porcelain cloisons are nearly an 
inch in depth with steep ridges between. 

This biscuit-painted ware of early Ming times 
took also another form — one which, with various 
modifications, held an important place in the 
ensuing centuries. On the small objects — water- 
vessels, pen-rests, etc. — that find their place on the 
writing-table of a man of culture, the three colours 
were, in the first instance, painted side by side, 
without dividing lines or shading. At a later date 
we find, traced upon iJie glazed surface, accentuating 
the design, or filling the plain grounds, outlines 
and spiral scrolls. These lines are painted with a 
brush and are of a dark, opaque, purple brown ; 
their presence must have necessitated a third 
baking in some kind of muffle. In any case we 
have in this simple brush drawing what is probably 
the earliest form of a true enamel applied over the 
glaze. We may compare this use of an outlining 
in dark brown with the shading and definition 
with a similar material upon our stained glass 
windows ^ It is of this glaze-painted biscuit 
ware, pencilled with a manganese brown or, 
in the earlier specimens, quite plain, rather 
than of true enamelled porcelain, that we 
must probably think when we read descriptions 
of the various elaborately decorated objects that 
adorned the writing-table of a man of letters of 
Ming times.* When, early or late in the sixteenth 
century, probably under foreign influence, true 
enamelled wares came into vogue, this painted 
biscuit lost favour. Probably only coarsely exe- 
cuted examples, often not of a true porcelain, were 
turned out ; many such have lately been imported 
and are now classed as ' early Ming ware.' Some 
of these coarsely executed inagots, generally painted 
in various shades of blue and purple, with the 
uncovered biscuit showing in places, may well 
date from the ' intermediate period ' of the seven- 
teenth century ; others may be quite modern. 

When, however, at the end of the seventeenth 
century, at the instigation of the high-class super- 
intendents sent down by Kang-he, the great revival 
was brought about at King-te-chen, it was the 
earlier painted biscuit rather than the enamels of 
Wan-li that nominally served as models where 
decoration in colour was desired. But for all that, 
the advances that had in the interval been made 
in the application of enamel colours over the glaze 
could not be ignored, and the result was a kind of 
compromise. In this compromise we have, it 
would seem, the origin of what is upon the whole 
the most characteristic among the varied t}'pes of 

I* Indeed, this distinction between porcelain with painted 
glazes and that truly enamelled runs parallel with that between 
the stained glass of Gothic windows and the Swiss or South 
German enamelled ' qrarries ' of the sixteenth century. This 
holds good even lor the dates. 

''The two small water-vessels illustrated on Plate ii are 
examples of the san-tsai painted glazes : that representing the 
Chinese poet, Li Tai-po, is pencilled with black lines and scrolls ; 
the other, with the carp, is plain. 


Qhinese Enamelled Porcelain 

enamelled porcelain made during Kang-he's reign. 
In this glorious series nothing is more noticeable 
than the tendency to keep to the simple colours 
of the old triad. In the biscuit-painted ware, 
which now takes new developments, the colours 
are still restricted to manganese purple, to pale 
shades of yellow, and to copper blues or greens." 
These blues and greens are now, however, never 
found in combination. But even when enamelhng 
over the glaze is freely adopted, we find that on 
the examples of the highest class— those made for 
imperial use, no doubt— the iron-red characteristic 
of Wan-li times is sparingly used or altogether 
dispensed with. So of the under-glaze cobalt — we 
do not find it on the finest specimens. In this 
true enamelled ware practical considerations neces- 
sitated the replacement of the turquoise blue of 
the painted biscuit by a leafy green which now 
becomes the dominant colour. 

It is indeed with these three colours — copper 
green (or blue), manganese purple, and a yellow 
derived from antimony and iron— that many of the 
greatest triumphs of the arh dn fen have been 
attained, and this not in China only. It was with 
these that the ancient Egyptians coloured their little 
glass unguentaria. The decoration on the so-called 
mezza-majolica of the fifteenth century is practi- 
cally confined to these colours, and the same may 
be said of nearly the whole of the picturesque 
fayence of the Mediterranean basin. I have before 
me a roughly decorated jug of ' Dardanelles' pottery 
where on a ground of a pale straw yellow is 
painted a design of a leafy green, accentuated here 
and there with a few lines and patches of purple. 
In this rude ware the colours and the general 
scheme of decoration are identical with those 
employed upon some of the greatest triumphs of 
the potters of the time of Kang-he. Add to these 
simple colours a cobalt blue and reds of various 
shades, derived at first from iron and later from 
gold, and we have the whole gamut of colours by 
means of which such surprising effects have been 
attained by the Chinese. So of the other mis dn 
fen — enamelling on metal, for instance. In these 

1" The green variety of the copper silicate applied as a painted 
glaze had, no doubt, been known in Ming times. 

arts the use of the ' simple palette ' was, fortunately 
for those that practised them, a stern necessity. 

To return to the consideration with which this 
inquiry started. Can we find in the enamelled 
porcelain of the sixteenth century — what we gener- 
ally know as ' Ming ' — anything that we can recog- 
nize as of a stronger or ' fitter ' type than the well- 
known wares of Kang-he's time ? I am afraid that 
the answer must be a negative one. The fact is 
that this early enamelled porcelain has in it little 
that is characteristic of the art of the Ming period. 
It was only during a period of decadence that it was 
produced in any quantity, and much of it bears 
traces of Indian or Persian influence. Wan-li is not 
to be regarded as a representative emperor of the 
great Ming dynasty. The rich and deep colouring 
that is so often found on the paintings and on the 
enamelled metal ware of this period finds rather 
its equivalent in that other class of polychrome 
porcelain, what I have called the glaze-painted 
biscuit, with its recessed cloisons and full tints of 
turquoise and purple. 

It may perhaps be desirable briefly to recapitulate 
what seems to be the outcome of this, I am afraid, 
rather tedious inquiry. It was in the form of glazes 
painted over the biscuit that the coloured decora- 
tion of the flourishing days of the Ming period 
was applied. Of this nature must have been the 
elaborate decoration for which the Cheng-hua 
porcelain was noted. Not until the time of Cheng- 
te (early sixteenth century) were these enamels 
painted over the glaze of porcelain, at first rudely 
and experimentally. The further development of 
the process under Wan-li was never regarded with 
favour by the cultured classes, but during the 
unruly times of the seventeenth century the art of 
enamelling (chiefly for the foreign market) had 
made such progress that when the great reformers, 
under Kang-he, at the end of the century, wished 
to return to the earlier and to them more sym- 
pathetic methods of decoration they were fain to 
avail themseves of much that had been learned in 
the interval. A large division of the porcelain of 
Kang-he, including what are artistically the most 
beautiful specimens, may then be regarded as a 
compromise between the two systems. 


ERE is, as I believe, an entirely 

in his cenv 
give as to 


unknown portrait by Jacques 
Louis David, and one which, as I 
venture to assert,may not only be 
put down to him with something 
like certainty, but may even 
be, without undue temerity, 
placed, within a year or two, 
At present I have no indication to 

which was obtained by me at a public sale in 
London, the catalogue, so far as I can remember, 
making no statement as to the person represented, 
or as to the collection, or the house, whence the 
picture was thrown upon the troubled sea of the 
auction-room. Luckily, it carries with it its own 
credentials, its own birth-marks, and by no student 
of the master's portraiture will, I imagine, be 
questioned. The thin, delicate, firm, perhaps a 

the provenance of this Por/ra (7 o/rt Bo>', little over-finished painting of the face; the 


<' > i 


An Unknown Portrait by David 

beautiful drawing of the mouth, the nose, the 
eyes, the fine construction of the head ; the 
simple, decisive brush-work in the white linen 
pleats of the soft shirt and tie, in the white collar 
and rcvers, which so well set off the rose and grey 
tones of the youthful face — all these points of 
technique suggest the best period of David's prac- 
tice. This is covered by that momentous time in 
the Revolution which extends from about 1790 
to 1800, during which decade, passing with what 
must, on the whole, be deemed singular good for- 
tune through the tremendous vicissitudes of vol- 
canic years, he rose to an absolute dictatorship of 
the fine arts, and in his own domain enjoyed a 
supremacy less questioned than that of Napoleon 
himself. The great technical characteristic of 
this time of fresh and vigorous maturity — I refer 
to the portraits only — is the vibriste quality of the 
touch in the background, the hair, and some other 
passages. And with this go the simplicity, the 
brightness, the assurance without affectation of 
the presentment, the joie etc vivre that is still, in 
a sense, of the late eighteenth century — the time 
of La Tour and Peronneau, of Chardin and 
Fragonard, of Drouais, of Madame Vigee-Lebrun 
and Madame Labille-Guiard, But these qualities 
are present without its too evident desire to please 
quand uicme, its anxiety to express, above all, grace, 
amiability, sensibility. This peculiarity of tech- 
nique is very noticeable in the Porlrait of a Boy 
now made known, especially in the hair and back- 
ground, though it is not pushed to such excess as 
in the curious (seemingly unfinished) Madame 
Chalgrin of the Louvre, a painting which we shall 
not bj wrong in ascribing to the period which 
closes with the Madame Rkamici: David the 
portraitist — and it is with him alone that we are 
concerned on the present occasion — is through- 
out his career radiant with life and good humour. 
A paradoxical statement, it will be said, to make 
as to the alternately morose and hysterically 
passionate Jacobin, who afterwards became the 
dignified chef d'ecole, the dictator from whose 
word there was no appeal in any matter apper- 
taining to the theory and practice of art ! But 
none the less true. In such early pictures as 
those masterpieces of bourgeois portraiture, but 
not bourgeois art, the Madame Pccoiil and 
Monsieur Pcconl of the Louvre (1783), David 
shows indeed a bonhomie that not even such 
predecessors as Chardin and Fragonard ex- 
ceeded. Fully to appreciate his triumph one 
must know that this smiling, exuberant Madame 
Pecoul was the painter's bcllc-mcrc, a family role 
much more important and more ungrateful than 
its equivalent in English home-life. Learning 
this, one is left wondering whether ever before or 
since an artist has rendered with such evident 
gusto, nay, with such sympathy and love, a lady 
standing in this peculiar and difficult relation 

to him. The Lavoisier and his Wife (1787) is 
one of the most charming and in its simple 
grace, its unforced honucfete, one of the most 
moving eighteenth-century portraits in existence. 
On the other hand, the Madame Vigee-Lebrun 
in the Rouen Gallery is — an absolute exception in 
this respect— cold and mannered, exhibiting for 
once the side of eighteenth-century art which to 
us of the present day is the most unsympathetic. 
One can only surmise that ALadame Vig^e-Lebrun's 
frigid mannered elegance of style must, for once, 
have been adopted by the portraitist to express the 
not less frigid and self-conscious elegance of her 
person. Nothing could be more simple or more 
moving, more masterly in the unforced differen- 
tiation of character, more expressive of the joys 
and the burdens of paternity, than the portrait- 
group Michel Gerard et sa Famille in the museum 
of Le Mans. It is a perfect realization of 
David's conception ; that of I'homme de bicn who 
has shaken from his shoulders the oppressive 
burdens of the social hierarchy, and is free to show 
himself, and to believe himself, Rousseau's 
natural man, with whom the essential principle of 
good radiates unchecked from within. What 
Gerard was in reality I know not ; but this is 
what David most convincingly and pathetically 
conveys as to his individuality and his sur- 
roundings. And the Marquise d'Orvilliers (1790), 
so winning in the perfect insouciance of her pose, 
in the rondeur, both physical and spiritual, of her 
aspect, does she not stand at the parting of the 
ways, with just a touch — great lady as she is — of 
the Revolution in her characterization, in the 
sans-gcne of her demeanour, and the lack, or the 
suppression, of the conventional deportment ? 
It is just in the most palpitating moments of the 
Revolution — in the Reign of Terror, and in the 
periods which prepared and immediately followed 
it — that the peculiar vibriste technique, the vibrant 
touch in the backgrounds, becomes most 
noticeable : as, for instance, in the great Marat 
of the Brussels Gallery (1793), the unfinished 
Joseph Bara of the Avignon Museum {1794), 
the Madame Chalgrin, the Portrait of the Artist in 
the Louvre (1794). It is less noticeable in the 
radiantly fresh and youthful Madame Seriziat of 
the Louvre (1795) or the bright, optimistic 
Monsieur Seriziat (1795) which hangs as its pendant 
there, but most noticeable again in the unfinished 
Madame Rccamier, that famous and universally 
popular portrait which rescued David from 
oblivion even at a time when his greatest works, 
such as the Sacre, were forgotten, or wilfully 
ignored, and from his pseudo-classic histories, 
his pseudo-Roman tragedies in paint, the art-lover 
turned — as more respectfully but not less decidedly 
he does still — in sad and sick disdain, or at the best 
in weariness and regret. All the same, I must not 
be taken to suggest that this vibrant touch is to be 


An Unknown Tortrait by TDavid 

accounted for wholly, or even principally, by the 
passion of the moment, or the passion of the 
artist. As a fact it is to be noted chiefly in the 
simpler, the more intimate productions of the 
revolutionary period — the portraits just now men- 
tioned ; but also, as should not be forgotten, in the 
greatest and most deeply felt production of David's 
brain and brush, the Marat, as well as in the 
works which group most naturally with it. For 
once, and once only, the master, forgetting his 
pseudo-classicism, his Greeks and Romans — as 
unlike those of antiquity as even the Louis-Quator- 
zian Greeks and Romans were, but of a wholly 
different unlikeness — brought forth in the Marat 
a work truly classical in spirit, because it was the 
result of greatness of vision and greatness of emo- 
tion, because it was a generalized and thus the more 
deeply significant statement of the higher and 
more essential truth. Another memorial picture, 
the portrait after death of Lepelletier de Saint- 
Fargeau, who was assassinated a few months before 
the ' arch-patriot ' fell, was marked by a sculptural 
grandeur of conception and arrangement to which, 
in the Marat, David did not aspire in the same 
degree, but fell short of it in tragic force and 
poignancy of truth. The Lepelletier de Saiiit- 
Fargean has disappeared, and in all probability 
no longer exists; it is represented now only by 
Tardieu's engraving, of which a single example 
exists in the Cabinet des Estampes. It is thus 
seen that the vibriste technique in the back- 
ground—the frottis leger, as the French bio- 
graphers of David call it— is to be found chiefly, 
as might be expected, in the less laboriously 
finished works ; but that it marks also these painted- 
poems of republican ardour and devotion, of 
which a third, the Joseph Bara, of the Avignon 
Museum, is nowto be mentioned. Here we have, in 
a simplified and poetized form, the heroic action 
of the drummer-boy, Joseph Bara, who died, at 
the age of thirteen, a dauntless champion of the 
Republic, pressing to his heart the cockade with 
the national colours. This sketch— or rather 
cbauche, which is not quite the same thing— stands 
wholly apart from all else in the life-work of the 
master, not only by reason of the caressing touch, 
the exquisite purity of draughtsmanship with 
which the slender yet rounded nudity of childhood 
IS rendered, but in the infinite tenderness of the 
conception. The pseudo-classic rigidity of the 
austere Jacobin, who so vainly sought to revive 
antiquity, with its cardinal principles, those of 
life and truth, left out, here lets his heart— the 
heart of the patriot but also of the father— speak 
without phrase, without false-tragic emphasis. 
And this brings me back in somewhat roundabout 
fashion to the Portrait of a Boy which is the main 
subject of this note. For, with no special fact, 
pictorial or documentary, to support me, I venture 
upon the suggestion that we have here one of the sons 


of the painter, and that the Joseph Bara represents 
the same youth, or it may be his brother, in an 
earlier stage of adolescence. As we learn from the 
laborious compiled work 'Le Peintre Louis David: 
Souvenirs et Documents,' by the master's grandson, 
Jules David, he married in 1782, and had two sons, 
Charles-Louis-Jules, born on the 15th February, 
1783, and Francois-Eugene, born on the 15th 
April, 1784. The elder of these boys, and the 
more staid, became a bureaucrat of the most 
correct and serious type ; he rose to be soiis-prefet, 
and would have gone higher still but for the 
Restoration. The younger, the more impetuous 
and the less applique, enlisted in 1804, and valiantly 
climbing from one grade to another, as was the 
fashion in those days of passionate enthusiasm and 
swift advancement, was, at the moment of those 
calamitous Cf/z/yoz/rs which shattered the fortunes 
of the whole David family, chef d'escadron in the 

There is no record in Jules David's 'Souvenirs 
et Documents ' of any portrait of either of these 
sons, whether in youth or manhood, except the one 
entry in the catalogue (comprising both works 
extant and works indicated in the notes or corre 
spondence) — ' Jules David, son iils a I'age de 5 ans' 
(in the possession of Baron Jerome David). And 
this helps us not at all, since the handsome youth 
of my picture is at least fourteen or fifteen years of 
age. Two excellent biographies of the master 
have appeared lately : one that of M. Ltion 
Rosenthal in the series ' Les Maitres de I'Art,' the 
other that of M. Charles Saunier in the series 
' Les Grands Artistes.' But neither adds 
anything material to our scanty stock of facts as 
to missing portraits or other works. Indeed, the 
indications given in the earlier biography, 
compiled from family records, are the fuller in this 
respect, as giving several portraits incidentally 
mentioned in the notes of the painter but now no 
longer to be traced. 

There is so much assurance combined with so 
much modesty, so great a promise of vitality 
and of imaginative energy in the face of this 
boy, that I should be inclined to look upon 
the portrait as that of the second son, the 
future soldier, the valiant chef d'escadron to be. 
That this is Dichtung, in which there may or may 
not be the germs of Wahrheit, I know full well. 
And yet I send forth my conjecture for what it is 
worth : in these matters it is a case of nothing 
venture, nothing gain. Moreover — and this is more 
risky still — I should like to think that the beautiful 
adolescent nude in the Joseph Bara had been 
studied — and, after all, what is more probable? — 
from the one or the other son. The age of the 
drummer-boy at the time of his glorious martyrdom 
was, as I have already stated, thirteen years ; but 
the dead child in the picture — a broken lily lovelier 
still in death — looks younger by a year or two. 

An Unknown Tortrait by T>avid 

And tlie one son would have been eleven, the 
other ten, when the study in the Avignon Museum 
was painted to express the grief of a nation at 
this ruthless sweep of the scythe, cutting off the 
flower just as in fairest promise it Hfted its head 
from the earth. The second son, Frangois-Eugene, 
would have been exactly fifteen in 1799 — the year 
which preceded that to which the Madame Rccamier 
is assigned ; and this is exactly the moment to 
which, judging by the peculiar technique of the 
Portrait of a Boy, I should be inclined to assign 
it. The Madame Rc'camicr, if pushed a stage 
farther, would have been well-nigh identical, as 
regards execution, with my picture. Whether 
the world would have gained by such a transforma- 
tion of an incomparable cbauche, complete in its 
essentials, into a finished painting is a question 
which every man may safely be left to solve for 
himself. It will be seen that at any rate there are 
some strong points in favour of my conjecture ; 
that it is not altogether what the Germans call 
J caught out of the air.' Here then I must leave 
it for the present, content to have made known the 
existence of a charming picture and genuine David. 
The joic dc vivrc, the peculiar radiance of vitality 
in the portraits of this master, is akin to, and 
yet essentially different from, that of his pre- 
decessors in the eighteenth century. It is not 
the exuberant life-force that cries out aloud in 
Hogarth, and must have its ebb and flow like the 
sea ; it is not the momentariness, the rush and 
flutter of Reynolds, or the febrile passion, beneath 
modishness and the desire to please, of Gains- 
borough. Again, it is not the flashing brightness 
of La Tour, with its subtle touch of cynicism and 
disillusion beneath the smile ; nor the resolute 
optimism and serene courage of Chardin ; nor the 
weaker brightness of Drouais, that suggests no 
life below that which is lived for the gallery, when 

the lights are turned on to the full. David's 
joic dc vivrc, the vital force that emanates from his 
finest creations in portraiture, is a steadv, clear, 
evenly radiating light— a trifle cold, perhaps, in its 
brightness, yet, for all that, of singular and 
enduring power. What better instances could I 
desire in support of this attempt of mine to define 
it than the Madame Pcconl, the Marquise dVri- 
villicrs, the Madame Seriziat d.nd Monsieur Scriziat, 
the Madauie Recauner ; what better or more com- 
prehensive instance, indeed, than the whole great 
canvas of the Sacre dc I'lmperatrice Josephine, in 
which the modern master— for this once the 
emulator in realistic truth lifted half-way to the 
ideal, in composure and in grandeur, of Ghirlandajo 
himself— has produced his masterpiece both as 
portraitist and painter of national epics ? 

In the portrait-pieces where the child appears, 
still sheltering in the skirts of the mother, as in 
the Madame Scriziat ; or a little later as the boy, 
the youth to whom the father gives his whole 
being, as in the wonderfully pathetic Michel Gerard 
et sa Fantille ; or again when it appears alone, as 
in the Joseph Bara, or this Portrait of a Bo\—'m 
these, then, there is something more than a 
steady current of vital force. There is life- 
giving warmth, the pulsation of love — as there 
is the pulsation of patriotic passion in the Marat 
and the LepeUeticr de Saiut-Far^eau. And then 
it is that the austere republican, the supreme 
pontiff of the pseudo-classic, subdued, melted to 
warmth and passionate sympathy by the vivifying 
stream that will not be resisted, is at his greatest 
and best. It is then that he stands forth a master 
who, victorious once more, reoccupies and will 
maintain his commanding place, that no other fills 
in exactly the same way, at the point of junction 
of the eighteenth century with the nineteenth— at 
the meeting of the old world with the new. 


T is hardly too much to say that 
since the study of Renaissance 
art began to assume systematic 

orm in the early nineteenth 
century until the present day, 
nothing has been produced quite 
comparable to Mr. Home's new 
work." It has the monumental 
appearance and the dignity of style of a work of 
the Renaissance itself. It has the breadth of 
manner, the leisurely exposition, and, let us admit, 
demands from the reader the same quiet persistence 
of attention as some folio by Casaubon or Diodati. 
Its author has determined to combine with the 

> ' Alessandro ■ Filipepi, commonly c.illed Sandro Botticelli, 
lainter of 1-lorence.' By Herbert P, Home. London : G. Bell 
and Sons. 1908. ^10 los. 

utmost rigour of modern scientific methods in 
research, a manner which is no longer in vogue — 
the manner and style of the period on which he 
has so long brooded and in which he has 
imaginatively lived for many years. Hence he 
discards as modern toys all those methods of 
abbreviation and co-ordination of the material, 
which writers have gradually elaborated for the 
greater ease of exposition and as aids to appre- 

All that apparatus for emphasizing and grouping 
information which finds its fullest development 
in the halfpenny 'yellow' journal, but which 
permeates to some extent all our literature, is 
here cast aside. Either a thing is worth saying or 
it is not. If it is worth saying, it is in the book ; 
if it is not, it is excluded — but there is no inter- 


Air. Home's Book on Botticelli 

mediate class, everything is here on the same 
footing. There are no notes, no headings, no 
chapters, no index. All the knowledge about 
Botticelli that Mr. Home has accumulated in years 
of patient study is here poured out in one con- 
tinuous and equable stream. That such a method 
conduces immensely to the beauty of the book no 
one who opens this work can deny. Few books 
of any kind, certainly no works of art history, 
have been produced with such dignity and style. 
There is nothing, let us hasten to add, of the 
cdllion de luxe about this ; all is reasonable, 
moderate, well considered. It has indeed such a 
form as any serious and elaborate book on any 
subject might suitably display. Mr. Home is an 
expert in all that relates to the art of printing, so 
that the beauty and dignity of the book are not 
matter for surprise. It may seem, indeed, unne- 
cessary to insist at length on the externals of Mr, 
Home's book, but it is symptomatic of his whole 
attitude. And that is the attitude of pure science 
as regards the matter and pure art as regards the 
presentment. The art critic as a rule adopts 
neither of these attitudes altogether. Indeed, one 
scarcely recognizes the art critic in Mr. Home. 
He gives but little hint of any personal views on 
aesthetics in general ; his technical terms are such 
as Vasari himself might have used, or at least 
would have perfectly understood ; there is little, 
indeed, in his appreciation of Botticelli which is 
not taken from the criticism of Botticelli's own con- 
temporaries, most of all from a certain agent of 
the duke of Milan, who mentions the characteristic 
of Botticelli as the aria virile, the virile air of his 
figures. By insisting on that simple phrase as a 
counteraction to the modern idea of Botticelli as 
a languid sentimentalist Mr. Home endeavours to 
get his artist seen in true perspective, and is content 
to leave it there. That he has a fine sense of 
artistic quality is made evident in a hundred ways 
throughout the book, that he is nicely critical is 
seen by the relative values he gives to different 
works of art ; but he is not a critic in the modern 
sense at all. That is to say, he is either incapable 
or contemptuous of all that delicate analysis of 
the spiritual and temperamental components of a 
work of art, all that subtle exposition of the artist's 
intention, that illustration of the work of art by 
means of analogy and simile, which make up so 
large a part of the best modern critical literature, 
and which the French in particular have cultivated 
so brilliantly. Mr. Home confines himself in 
effect to an almost Vasarian simplicity of state- 
ment. ' It is, indeed, as well done as it is possible 
to miagine '—to phrases almost as simpleas this Mr. 
Home reduces all our elaborate modern apparatus. 
There is something bracing in this austerity, and 
much truth in the implied condemnation of a great 
deal of this criticism as too fine drawn, too theo- 
retical, and too liable to personal bias. 


But if Mr. Home stints us in this direction, he 
is generous to lavishness in another. ' What is it,' 
he says on p. 52, ' that we really know about 
Simonetta ? ' ' What is it that we really know ? ' 
is the question always in Mr. Home's mind, and 
no efforts are spared either in the task of sweeping 
away superincumbent guesswork or in finding out 
through documents what, in fact, we really know. 
And in that search no fact seems to Mr. Home too 
minute to merit our attention, too insignificant to 
help towards that complete reconstruction of the 
past of Florence of which he perpetually dreams. 
Indeed, so comprehensive and so minutely exact 
is his knowledge of that artist's life in fifteenth- 
century Florence that there is scarcely any fact 
but arouses in his mind some complementary 
detail, and so helps to fill out the ouUines of 
already accumulated knowledge. 

It would be idle to deny that such antiquarian 
and scientific fervour as Mr. Home displays leads 
him at times to dilate at length upon points which 
to one less steeped in the local records seem 
almost tedious. Mr. Home never abbreviates ; he 
seems always to have in view the future historian, 
whose gratitude he will earn by the fullness and 
accuracy of his descriptions, but whom he will 
assuredly puzzle by the strange incompatibility of 
the date on his title-page with some of the sayings 
in the book. Thus we find him in one passage 
anticipating Mr. Berenson's book on Florentine 
drawings, which has been given to the world now 
some years. In another passage we find him 
hoping that the clue to Signorelli's Pan may 
yet be discovered. This was published in the 
'Monthly Review' for December, 1901. Such 
slight inaccuracies as these are the penalties which 
Mr. Home pays for the deliberation and leisure 
with which he has carried through his great work. 
But who will venture to blame him for the imper- 
turbable serenity, the deliberate ponderation, which 
have gone to its composition, and which make 
it so remarkable, so distinguished among the 
cruder and more hasty efforts of contemporary 
criticism ? 

What, then, do we really know of Botticelli ? 
The answer is — Mr. Home's book, which may be 
regarded as, so far as such a thing is possible, 
definitive. Of entirely new matter there is not, 
indeed, very much that is of a startling or sensa- 
tional nature, but on an enormous number of 
points the new material effects a readjustment of 
our point of view which is of real importance. To 
begin with, Botticelli's birth is now fixed with 
some show of certainty in 1444 instead of 1447. 
A new complexion is given to the already recog- 
nized influence of Antonio Pollajuolo, a new con- 
ception of the influence on his art of the work of 
Castagno and of its curious and interesting cause, 
namely, Botticelli's finding himself obliged to rival 
Castagno in the rendering of the iiiipicciati. 

Mr. Hornets Book on 'Botticelli 

About the dates and history of particular pic- 
tures Mr. Home has accumulated a large mass of 
material. Perhaps the most striking result of this 
is the position which it gives to Lorenzo di Pier- 
francesco de' Medici. It turns out that he was, in 
fact, the chief patron and encourager of Botticelli's 
art. Indeed, what is of quite particular interest, 
it was for him that Botticelli executed those pic- 
tures like the Spring and the Birth of Vcims, in 
which we find the expression of what is rarest and 
most personal to Botticelli, just that side of his art 
which required the stimulus of some appreciative 
private patron, that side which, had the church 
and the republic been his only patrons, would 
never have come to light. It had always been 
assumed that these pictures and the kindred 
Allegory of Pan, by Signorelli, breathed the very 
spirit of Lorenzo il Magnifico's court. So that 
when we find them due to the other Lorenzo, 
Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco, and that they adorned 
his villa at Cestello, we have materially to readjust 
our opinions of the two members of the family, 
and almost in proportion as the latter gains in 
interest something of the Magnifico's unique 
position as a patron is lost. 

Of less importance is the discovery of another 
patron of Botticelli's — Giovanni Lami — for whom 
he executed the incomparable altarpiece with the 
Adoration of the Magi which once stood (Mr. 
Home, with infinite pains, has found exactly 
where) in Sta. Maria Novella. He has stopped 
here, by the way, to follow out the whole history 
of the changes in the arrangements of this church 
when the trauiezzo was removed. Such minutely 
precise work is characteristic of Mr. Home's 
method. He is never satisfied until he has been 
able to visualize each painting as it originally 
appeared amid the surroundings for which it was 
first designed. More than once such care leads to 
valuable suggestions about the picture itself, and 
it always gives a certain vividness and actuality to 
our knowledge. 

In discussing the portraits in this picture of the 
Adoration our author disposes of Dr. Uhlmann's 
ingenious discoveries of portraits of all the Medici 
and Tornabuoni families. Of the improbability of 
Lorenzo Tornabuoni being among the group 
there is no doubt, but, in view of'the fact that 
Cosinio Pater Patriae and Piero il Gottoso are 
certainly represented, it seems likely that among 
the other portrait-like heads we might expect the 
two chiefs of the younger generation, and it seems 
to me that Lorenzo's characteristic mouth is 
evident in the young man standing with folded 
hands to the left, and that Giuliano's profile is no 
less evident in one of the standing figures on 
the right. 

When we come to Botticelli's work in the Sistine 
Chapel we find a mass of misconception and mis- 
understanding, accumulated by Dr. Uhlmann and 

others, swept away with Mr. Home's unfailing 
thoroughness of method. What he has done here 
will certainly not need doing again, and no one 
would venture, we imagine, to revive the myths of 
Fra Diamante's and Filippino Lippi's assistance in 
the Sistine Chapel frescoes. We are glad to see, 
by the bye, that Mr. Home does not accept the 
attribution of the Passage of the Red Sea to Piero 
di Cosimo, and alludes to its essentially Ghirlan- 
dajesque character. 

Whether he is equally right in dismissing as 
unreal the historical allusions discovered by Dr. 
Steinmann in Botticelli's fresco of the Temptation 
I do not feel so certain. Some explanation 
is necessary, surely, of the extremely unsatis- 
factory composition of this fresco. There are, 
no doubt, beautiful passages, single groups of 
figures with beautifully interwoven linear design, 
but as a whole the composition is perfunctory 
and mechanical without any leading idea, with- 
out any inspiration. And this is the only one 
of Botticelli's works of which this can be said. He 
is indeed almost infallible alike in the originality 
and perfection of his general disposition of masses. 
Such a complete failure as this, where the nominal 
subject — that of the Temptation — was one to 
inspire Botticelli with supremely noble and original 
ideas, demands an explanation, and the dictation of 
a patron like Sixtus IV seems a highly probable 

We have hurried on to this important point of 
the Sistine frescoes, but must turn back to note the 
interesting discussion on La Bella Simonetta and 
the complete exposure of the elaborate legend 
which has gradually accumulated round the sup- 
posed romance of her relations with Giuliano. The 
idea that she is the original of Botticelli's ' type ' 
is finally disposed of thus : ' At the time of 
Simonetta's death none of the pictures which are 
said to contain her portrait were painted, or even 
invented ; and at the time of Giuliano's murder, 
in 1487, one only, the Spring, could possibly have 
been begun.' If the critic is inclined to carp at the 
comparatively small addition which Mr. Home's 
patient researches have added to our positive 
knowledge of Botticelli, he should remember that 
such thoroughly destructive criticism as he has 
given us on a large number of points is not only 
as valuable as new matter to the lover of historical 
truth, but requires as sure an historical sense, as 
deep a knowledge of original sources, and as 
calm a judgment as are needed for the happiest 
and most sensational discoveries. 

But let us pass to another piece of constructive 
criticism and research. Mr. Home has shown 
for the first time the importance in the art of the 
period which attached to the now destroyed frescoes 
executed for Lorenzo il Magnifico at the Spedaletto 
near Volterra. With his customary thorough- 
ness, he has examined the site of these once- 

Mr. Hornets Book on Botticelli 

splendid decorations executed by the same artists 
as had just completed the Sistine frescoes, and 
concludes that these frescoes 'formed a series of 
profane stories which, although less monumental 
in character than the stories of the Old and New 
Testaments in the Sistine Chapel, approached them 
in artistic interest.' 

Where everything bears the same stamp of 
scholarly thoroughness and patient research, it is 
difficult to select special examples for praise, but 
Mr. Home's discussion of the celebrated Magnificat 
tondo is a singularly good example of his cool, 
clear-sighted, well-balanced judgment and critical 
acumen. Nothing here is underlined, no new 
points are accented ; yet to the careful reader this 
passage will disclose many implied criticisms, both 
of other paintings and other critics which in his 
dry, austere manner Mr. Home sets once more in 
their proper place. And while we are on this 
point we must call attention to the wonderful use 
Mr. Home has made of the now somewhat 
neglected practice of the verbal description of 
pictures. Where the originals are so well known 
as most of these, and where, as here, they are 
accompanied by admirable photogravure illus- 
trations, this verbal description might almost 
appear superfluous ; and yet again and again in 
reading this book some small point is revealed 
which one had always overlooked, some readjust- 
ment of the relative importance of the parts has 
been suggested. Moreover, one can hardly praise 
enough the admirable literary quality, the directness 
and beauty of these descriptions. 

Proceeding once more with our consideration 
of the new material contained in the book, we note 
that the occasion of the Nasiagio clegli Oncsti panels 
is found to have been the marriage of Giannozzo 
Pucci with Lucrezia Bini in 1483. The nature 
and purpose of these and other decorative panels 
are for the first time clearly elucidated. Mr. Home 
has in his studies become so intimately acquainted 
with the appearance of Florentine interiors of the 
period that he is able to reconstruct them in 
imagination more exactly than any one heretofore. 
Of actually new material, of paintings for tiie 
first time attributed to Botticelli, there is, I think, 
only one, the damaged fresco of the Anmiticialion 
in the suppressed monastery of San Martino in 
the Via della Scala at Florence. It is, perhaps, 
asking too much, but we cannot repress the wish 
that this and other little-known works intimately 
connected with Botticelli's art, such as the tapestry 
of Pallas, the embroidery in the Poldi Pezzoli, 
and some of the less-known drawings, had found 
a place among the reproductions beside the well- 
known masterpieces. However, while upon this 
subject, let us express our gratitude for having 
the first accessible reproduction of the little-known 
and curious picture of The Magdalen at the Foot of 
the Cross from the collection of M. Aynard at 


Lyons. This damaged picture belongs to the 
latest phase of Botticelli's art, to the time when 
strained religious emotion and deep mystical 
yearnings occupied his once-happy spirit, and in 
the invention, at all events, it is such as only 
Botticelli could have conceived. The description 
of this strange Apocalyptic vision is not altogether 
convincing. Mr. Home says : 'In the sky a 
number of shields blazoned with the Cross are 
seen to fall from heaven, as if rained by the 
Almighty upon the earth. These shields, which 
are of the same form as those borne by the 
Dominations, in Botticelli's drawing of the 
Angelic Hierarchy in illustration to Canto XXVII 
of die " Paradiso," fall across the picture from left 
to right towards a bank of angry clouds, in which 
are a number of devils, who hurl burning brands 
upon the earth.' He adds : ' The falling shields, 
blazoned with the cross, apparently symbolical 
of that power of divine wrath which urges the evil 
spirits to hurl the burning brands upon the earth, 
recall the vision described by Savonarola in the 
" Coinpcnilio delle Rk'clazioni" o( the "Crux ime Dei" 
which he suddenly saw " trouble the heavens and 
drive clouds through the air, and cast winds and 
lightnings and thunderbolts, and rain down 
hail, fires and swords, and kill a great multitude 
of people, so that few remained upon the 
earth." ' Now it seems a perfectly natural expres- 
sion of such divine wrath to rain down swords — 
but not to rain down shields, which are weapons 
of defence. It may be that the photograph 
reveals something which is no longer dis- 
tinguishable in the much-damaged picture, 
but it seems to me quite clear that behind these 
shields there were once angelic warriors, sent 
down from heaven to fight the devils. The raised 
right arm and sword of one such are visible to the 
right of Christ's body. 

Meanwhile we have passed over the whole story 
of Botticelli's relations with Savonarola on the one 
hand and his old patron Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco 
de' Medici, here for the first time stated with all the 
knowledge which is at our disposal and without 
any of those vague speculations with which 
previous writers, from Vasari downwards, have 
filled in the meagre outlines. Mr. Home, here as 
elsewhere, shows himself as a model of clear un- 
biased historical judgment. As an example of 
his method I may call attention to his explanation 
of Botticelli's share in the mosaics of the chapel 
of S. Zenobio, in the cathedral at Florence. 
Nothing whatever is left of these mosaics, but that 
does not deter Mr. Home from an inquiry, which 
must have needed almost as must patience as skill, 
into what was exactly Botticelli's share in this work. 
Here, as in so many places, Mr. Home's experience 
as an architect stands him in good stead, and he 
is able to unravel the complicated documentary 
evidence, and present a clear and intelligible 

Mr. Home's Booh^ on Botticelli 

narrative of the whole sequence of events. The 
inquiry has its reward for the hght it throws on 
the relative position of the artists and artificers 
employed on the mosaics, and especially for the 
new prominence it gives to the figure of Ghcrardo, 
the miniaturist. 

And this leads us to the question of the promised 
second volume, wherein many new and interesting 
lines of inquiry, here seen only ' glimpse-wise,' 
will be treated at full length. If the promises here 
held out are fulfilled, there can be no doubt 
that the second volume will contain enough new 
material to satisfy the most eager curiosity of the 
student of art history, 

I must not omit to mention one other discovery 
which we owe to Mr. Home. That Scpoltiiario, or 
hook of sepultures, in manuscript byRoselli, which 
has been Mr. Home's trusty guide throughout his 

patient investigation, has done him a final service 
here, and one which engages alike our sentiment and 
curiosity, by revealing the exact spot in Ognissanti 
where once stood the gravestone of Sandro di 

I am conscipus that I have given an all too 
imperfect idea of a great and monumental work. 
It is one which exemplifies that union of the man 
of science and the artist which was so familiar to 
Botticelli's day and which seems so improbable to 
our own ideas of their respective functions. It is 
unlikely indeed that very much more will ever 
be known about Botticelli than is here set down ; 
for many years to come those who inquire what it 
is we know about this painter of Florence will 
have to refer to this book, which alike in the 
thoroughness of its scholarship and the gravity of 
its style has the air of a classic. 


^ BY C. J. 

S might be expected from its 
author, this gossiping record' 
of Sir Hubert von Herkomer's 
experiences as a teacher at 
Bushey is an entertaining 
volume. It traces the origin 
and rise of his school, the 
principles on which the teach- 
ing was conducted, and ends with an account 
of the dramatic performances held there, with 
special reference to the musical accompaniments 
and the novelties in stage management introduced. 
It is profusely illustrated both with the author's 
sketches and with reproductions of works by his 
most talented pupils, which make a goodly show. 
It will thus be seen that the book offers a variety 
of attractions ; and the notes on stage management 
by one of the pioneers of reform are particularly 
apposite at a time when so many efforts are on 
foot to improve theatrical presentation. 

With this interesting subject we cannot deal 
here ; we must restrict ourselves to considering the 
general principles underlying the teaching at 
Bushey. The notes on the theory and practice of 
the arts have special interest as coming from a 
skilful professional painter whose experiments 
have embraced an even wider area than that covered 
in a different field by the generous and versatile 
talent of Lord Leighton. No one in these days 
would question the author's judgment in breaking 
away from the cast-iron regulations of academic 
teaching by encouraging his students to develop 
their own individuality upon a sound basis of 
technical practice. The illustrations alone are 
enough to indicate that the method produced a 

"My School and my Gospel.' By Proressor Sir Hubert von 
Herkomer, C.V.O., K.A, D.C.L., .etc. London: Constable. 
2IS. net. 

HOLMES cik? 

number of well-trained professional artists of very 
varied tastes and styles. Yet in only one case, and 
there but faintly, do we discern any hint of a desire 
to be more than that. Many of the Bushey pupils 
have possessed skill ; hardly one seems to have had 
any loftier ideal. The author's remarkable pro- 
nouncement on imaginative landscape painting, 
and his criticism of Chill October, both of which 
we hold to be eminently wise and just, indicate 
that he himself recognizes mere representation to 
be a means, not an end. Yet his pupils seem to 
have been unable to follow him even thus far. 

One possible explanation will occur to the 
reader. The author mentions that, while teaching 
his students the elements of technical practice, he 
refrained from confusing their minds with theories 
of art. Theories were reserved for a later stage. 
He also states that study in galleries cannot be of 
much use to young students. 

Here, if anywhere, the chief defect in his system 
would seem to lie. Few of us can keep so fresh 
in spirit as not to regret in middle age that we 
have lost the enthusiasms of youth, and that while 
we possessed those enthusiasms we did not put 
them to better use. We have perhaps gained expe- 
rience, but in the process we have lost the flush of 
emotional vigour that might inspire experience 
to high purpose. A steady routine of technical 
practice, while it makes the young artist clever 
with his fingers, undoubtedly checks his imagina- 
tion. Working constantly from a model, he 
forgets to use his wits for any other purpose than 
accurate representation of what he sees, and by 
the time he has learned to work with certainty and 
accuracy he has probably forgotten that any larger 
ideals than these are required of him in the future. 

The regulation academic training accentuated 
this narrowness. The Bushey school gave more 


A T)efect of Modern Art Teaching 

scope to the individual, but it seems to have been 
scope in the matter of methodand treatment rather 
than in the matter of ideals. Now, the ideals of 
the young are tender plants, and it may be ques- 
tioned how far any method of teaching which 
tends in the least to their suppression can produce 
satisfactory results. A close acquaintance with 
the masterpieces that are found in a great gallery 
may have an influence that for the time bemg is 
not wholly good, and may lead from time to tune 
to foolish and mannered experiments in imitation. 
Yet these experiments will not generally do much 
harm. Indeed, in the end they will usually produce 
their own anti-toxin, and the student in after years 
will laugh at these childish endeavours which at 
the time were elaborated with so much thought 
and effort. Whatever their immediate effect upon 
his work, they will at least have kept his enthusiasm 
alive, and saved him from being absorbed by 
the routine of his school till he becomes oblivious 
of the fact that any art can possibly exist outside 
the system of study he is following there. 

To arouse an interest in the general theory of 
art is no less important. It is a second safeguard 
against the narrowness that comes of concentration 
upon technical practice. It puts professional skill 
in its proper place— as a necessary means to success 
in realizing artistic ideals, but not as an ideal in it- 
self. It shows the student that there are countless 
roads to pictorial expression, and that the one road 
along which he is travelling in his schooldays 
stretches merely to the point where his schooldays 
end and then comes to an end also. Afterwards 
he must choose a way for himself : the way that 
best fits his talents, his aspirations. Even as a 
student his ambition will be fired by the thought 
of the time when he will be a student no longer ; 
and the labour of his daily round of practice will be 
cheered by visions of future freedom, and, perhaps, 
now and then by experiments with new methods, 
new subjects and new materials— in anticipation 
of the great pictures he hopes to produce in a few 
years' time. 

If such dreams, such experiments, interrupt the 
training process a little, no great harm will be 

done in the end, provided the master is a man of 
sense, and prevents speculation from becoming 
idleness. If they lead to confusion the fault surely 
lies with the pupil, not with the method. As 
Professor von Herkomer forcibly points out, art is 
often considered a suitable profession for those 
whose wits are not strong enough to stand the 
strain of more mechanical forms of work. No 
fallacy could be more deplorable, both for the 
unfortunates who are trained for the profession 
and for the profession itself. The profession is 
overwhelmed with crowds of mediocre painters, 
and these painters themselves in ninety-nine cases 
out of a hundred fail to get even a bare pittance 
from it by the sale of their pictures. 

Were the process of training made more severe, 
were intelligence in the theory of art made as 
integral a part of it as skill in its manual practice, 
were teaching to impose a strain on the wits as well 
asonthe fingersanalogoustothe knowledge required 
to gain a good degree in surgery, the incompetent 
would soon recognize their incompetence and take 
the place they deserved, while the competent would 
have a clear field for their energies. We might 
then gradually free ourselves from the obsession of 
the vast horde of tolerably clever painters who 
have acquired a certain technical dexterity but 
have used up in the process such little character 
and originality as they ever possessed. This is the 
crying evil of the present day. The artist of real 
talent is overwhelmed by crowds of painters with 
imitation talent, and until that crowd is relegated 
to its proper place we shall never be free from 
confusion and injustice. The Bushey school was 
an improvement on the academic method of 
teaching, but its record shows that the improve- 
ment might with advantage be carried further. 

The statement made on p. 99 about the frescoes 
on the Sistine ceiling has not, we think, found 
its way into biographies of Michelangelo — but it 
raises a point of some interest. If nearly half the 
cracks in the ceiling are really cracks painted by 
Michelangelo himself, as Professor von Herkomer's 
friend records, it is curious that the fact should 
have escaped notice. 


^ BY A. VAN DE PUT h^p 

1 'The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain 
Three vols. London : Foulis, 15s, 


O write the history of the 
principal Spanish artistic 
crafts is no light task. The 
thirteen essays comprising the 
bulk of Mr. Williams's 
volume^ cover in scope the 
whole ground of art industry 
in Spain from the earliest 
By Leonard Williams. 

down to present times. Such a history was a 
desideratum. The book before us supervenes, 
after a very considerable lapse, upon the 
only general history of the kind we possess in 
English, the long-out-of-print South Kensington 
handbook by Riano (1879) ; and it has the crown- 
ing advantage of photography as a basis for illus- 
tration, which; of course, neither that nor Davillier's 
* Les Arts d(5coratifs en Espagne,' published in the 
same year, possessed. Mr. Williams's text is 

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain 

crowded with facts, and with a mass of encyclo- 
paedic information it needed great industry to put 
together. It has, on the other hand, the defects of 
its merits. Considerations of space (even in i,ooo 
pp. octavo) require it to be largely synthetical ; in 
so large a programme there is no room for the 
minute disquisitions which art historians and 
antiquaries find necessary to establish soundly 
the lines of artistic evolution, the descent of 
technique, and in order to ensure adequate treat- 
ment from the standpoints of ecclesiology, heraldry, 
etc. Yet synthesis is only trustworthy where previous 
exploration can claim to have been in some measure 
thorough and complete. Of such effective, co- 
ordinate description the history of the Spanish 
crafts is sorely in need ; much of the literature of 
the subject is valuable, but much requires revision. 
The difficulty of achieving a really adequate per- 
formance in each section of a general work of this 
kind is, therefore, great : it requires wide and 
intimate knowledge and a good deal of skill to 
compress, for instance, an account of the working 
of precious metals in Spain into loopp., when, for 
the most part, actual constructive art-history is 
required of the writer. 

Owing to this, we imagine that ' The Arts and 
Crafts of Older Spain ' will satisfy general readers 
rather than special students ; many of the essays 
are rather too dependent upon previous authorities 
— the corners that were dark to them are yet often 
unilluminated ; subdivision of material might have 
been carried further, for clearness' sake ; and greater 
attention might have been given to the nomencla- 
ture of common art objects : thuribles, not ' incen- 
sories ' (i, 50); patens, not ' patines ' (i, 37, 84); cope, 
not ' priest's robe ' (iii, pi. x, xi) ; croziers, not 
' baculi ' (ii, 105, 106) ; and the one word misericord 
would have done all the work of a nine line 
description (at Vol. ii, p. 72). Use of Spanish, for 
English terms, is carried to excess, e.g., custodia for 
' monstrance ' (the former is actually the only word 
of the two indexed !) ; and, what will the average 
reader make of the typical statement that, in a 
range of monastic cho'ir stalls, ' the higher stalls 
are for the profesos, and the lower for the novices 
and legos ' (ii, 72) ? 

The treatment of the ecclesiastical side of Spanish 
art is unsympathetic throughout, and reveals a want 
of appreciation of the logical objective of Christian 
art, or, apparently, of art dedicated to religious 
uses at all. Magnificence of this kind is censured 
in no uncertain terms (i, 74, 75) ; elsewhere we 
read of ' gold and silver objects that were merely 
destined to stagnate within her [i.e., Spain's] 
churches and cathedrals ' (i, 88), though the author 
is not slow to express disapprobation when objects 
are missing from ecclesiastical treasuries (i, 57, 

To review the different sections seriatim in 
these columns would be out of the question. Vol. i 

contains : gold, silver and jewel work ; iron 
work ; bronzes ; arms ; with 62 plates. The arts 
are studied each in its chronological progression 
more or less ; generally as a whole, occasionally 
the line of development of a class of object being 
described. Synthesis, or general principles, have 
as a rule to make way for descriptions, or for 
enumerations of objects by name without descrip- 
tions, such as the collections of chalices exhibited 
at Madrid in 1892 and at Lugo in 1896, not one of 
which is adequately described (i, 40, 41). The 
famous chalice at Valencia is still vaguely summed 
up, as regards date, d'apres Riaiio, ' of the Roman 
imperial epoch, and the mounts are of a later date.' 
Another chalice, we are told, 'which is greatly 
interesting because of the date inscribed on it [italics 
ours], is one which was presented to Lugo 
Cathedral by a bishop of that diocese, Don Garcia 
Martinez de Bahamonde (1441-1470). The work- 
manship, though prior to the sixteenth century, 
is partly Gothic' In the catalogue of the Madrid 
exhibition this object is attributed to the fifteenth 
century, and its inscription, as there given, contains 
no date ; the latter is to be inferred from the 
duration of Bahamonde's episcopate. 

Such an important point as that whether enam- 
elling was known to the Visigoths obtains no 
decisive answer here. The reader would not, 
perhaps, demur at being left between Lasteyrie's 
verdict that certain spaces on Swinthila's crown are 
filled with glass or paste, and that of Amador delos 
Rios ' who after protracted chemical experiments 
declared it to be layers of cornelian ' (i, 23), had 
he not already been informed (p. 22) that the sub- 
stance 'looks like red enamel.' A closer study of 
jewellery would have decided that such Visigothic 
work belongs to the inlay method of the so-called 
Barbaric jewellery, and this should preclude any 
reference to enamel proper. While Limoges 
champleve work is noticed, no mention is made of 
the interesting early mounts of probably native 
champleve enamel upon ivory caskets (one of which 
is, however, illustrated, V^ol. ii, pl.xxxix). Similarly 
the bare statement, ' Martin Minguez says that 
enamelling was done at Gerona in the fourteenth 
century' (i, 52), is practically to ignore one of the 
principal Catalan mediaeval crafts. Plate viii, an 
early xv. century statuette of French work, repre- 
senting St. James the Greater, and belonging to San- 
tiago cathedral, appears to be nowhere mentioned 
in tlie text. 

The sections devoted to iron-work, bronzes and 
arms are more genially conceived than the fore- 
going, and give a clearer idea of what Spain pro- 
duced in these fields ; though, as these and other 
essays start with the Iberians, it would have been 
well if Professor Paris's researches, in his ' Essaie 
sur I'Art et I'lndustrie de I'Espagne primitive' 
(1903-4) had been utilised for bronzes, jewellery, 
arms and ceramics. The armour section is mainly 

H 89 

The Arts and Crafts of Older Spain 

a commentary upon the Ro3'al Armoury at Madrid, 
which is becoming well known, but it contains also 
a suggestive sketch of the evolution of military 
equipment in Spain from early times. 

The second volume opens with an informing 
essay upon furniture (86 pp., with 36 plates). It 
embraces the most heterogeneous elements : fur- 
niture proper, decorative leather-work, inlaid doors 
and ceilings, choir stalls and carved altar-pieces. 
Literary sources are drawn upon for pen-pictures 
of interiors, so that an adequate idea of rooms and 
their fittings at most periods is obtained. But the 
treatment of Gothic furniture — chests, perhaps, 
excepted — is meagre, and as regards date, the most 
that can be expected, apparently, is the century ; 
the ' mediaeval ' chair (pi. i), bearing the arms of 
the Enriquez, admirals of Castile, not of ' Castile 
and Leon,' is as much laie ' fifteenth century ' as is 
pi. ii. The section upon ivories could have been 
spared for a lengthier treatment of leather (here 
8 pp.), which surely deserved a more copious and 
representative illustration than three chair-backs 
(pi. vii). The essay upon pottery (ii, pp. 11 1-220) 
is chiefly remarkable for an inadequate treatment 
of the products of Valencia, whether of the 
splendid blue and white tiles produced during 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, or of Instred 
pottery. As regards attributions, the difficulty 
of assigning dates and places of fabrication 
must strike any close student of the pottery as 
unduly insisted upon (pp. 167, 183). But this 
is not surprising when the distinction between 
the decorative motives of fifteenth-century 
Valencia and the pure Mussulman arabesque of 

ceramics associated with Granada or Malaga, as 
characteristics of separate groups, is unappre- 
hended. As regards date, few ceramic products 
carry the information so plainly upon them as do 
those of Valencia. Cock's recipe (pp. 175-6), it 
must be remarked, is in places already sufficiently 
ambiguous for it to be undesirable to translate with- 
out comment the inadvertence with which he 
closes the account of the application of the enamel 
bath and second firing of a piece of the ware, 
'and after being rebaked they keep their lustre' 
(p. 176) ('y entonces con este calor conservan su 
lustra'). 'The painting with lustre pigment is in 
fact the next operation. The volume closes with 
an essay upon glass, including the stained and 
painted window glazing of the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. 

Vol. iii. is devoted to the textile arts : it comprises 
essays upon Spanish silk, cloths and woollens, em- 
broidery, tapestry, and lace, with an interesting 
introduction in which the principal historical tissues 
and garments find their place. Rather more is now 
known concerning the early history of tapestry 
and Flemish intercourse with Aragon than is stated 
at pp. 139, 149 ; and eleven pages is not a great deal 
to devote to embroidery, even though the essay 
starts toiip. Ferdinand and Isabella. Many of these 
pages upon the mere technique of silk and woollen 
manufacture could have been spared for a more 
copious treatment of early needlework and weaving. 
The remainder of the volume is taken up with ap- 
pendices (we have but space to mention the lengthy 
one upon Spanish trade-guilds) and the biblio- 
graphy, which is by no means as full as it should be. 


presence of zeal. 

HE collector of the Renais- 
sance worked in many fields. 
Nothing, artistically speaking, 
was too large for his attention, 
nothing too small, and in 
matters of ancient art espe- 
cially the absence of know- 
ledge was atoned for by the 

Of nothing is this truer than of contorniates. 
The very name, a description of the circular de- 
pression (coiitoruo) round the outer edge of most 
specimens, is a confession of ignorance, and the 
light-hearted derivation from Crotona had to be 
given up even by the more serious antiquaries of 
the Renaissance. The intrinsic interest of some of 
the types has made them familiar to many who 
never heard the name ; but the subject as a whole 
has been curiously neglected of late years, and 
the invaluable 'Corpus' of types published by 

Sabatier in i860 is almost unknown to the general 
archaeologist. The most recent discussion of the 
question may be found in a paper by the present 
writer in the ' Numismatic Chronicle ' for 1906; 
here it must suffice to state the conclusion there 
reached that contorniates were not amulets, tickets 
for reserved seats at the games, official indications 
of the success of individual athletes, or lots to 
determine the place of competitors — to name only 
a few of the theories that have been held — but 
' men ' used in draughts and similar games, the 
incised circle and raised rim protecting the design 
from injury as the pieces were moved on the 
board. Coins are known to have been so used — 
the rich vulgarian Trimalchio in Petronius has a 
set of gold and silver denarii as draughtsmen — 
and there can be little doubt that contorniates, 
always analogous to and often copied from coins, 
were commonly used as pieces on tabulae lusoriae, 
just as in England Edward VI shillings were used 


On Qontorniates 

in the games of shovel-board and shove-groat : — 
' Falstaff. Pistol, did you pick Master Slender's 

purse ? 
'Slender. Ay, by these gloves, did he — or I would 
I might never come in mine own 
great chamber again else — of seven 
groats in mill sixpences and two 
Edward shovel-boards that cost me 
two shillings and twopence a piece 
of Yead Miller, by these gloves.' 
(' Merry Wives,' Act I, Sc. i. Cf. ' King Henry 
IV,' Part II, Act II : 'Quoit him down, Bardolph, 
like a shove-groat shilling.') 

Alany of the symbols found on contorniates, 
palms (figs. 3 and 4), the disputed monogram |, 
etc., occur on Roman draught-boards ; some even 
have incised circles indicating a position in the 
game and varying in size as the contorniate varies. 
The connexion between them is, therefore, certain. 
The favourite game, to judge from the very 
numerous examples that have come down to us, 
was played on a board divided into two equal 
parts by a central line, on either side of which, 
making a sentence of social, historical or moral 
import, are three words, each composed of six 
letters, the spelling of which is apt to suffer from 
the necessary uniformity. The game was, one 
may suggest, played with contorniates bearing 
corresponding types — e.g., on the only board in 
the British Museum, which bears the inscription : 


I A N V A E T E[C T A E ?] 

— i.e., ' full house, loud applause, doors [shut ?] ' 
— the pieces would be decorated with racing 
scenes. Again, the following inscription, found 
on a board which belonged to a company of 
venatores, or gladiators, whose profession it was 
to fight with beasts in the arena : — 



P E R N A M P I S C E M 

— i.e., ' let us go to supper, chicken, peacock, ham 
and fish ' — is presumably connected with the type 
of contorniate representing fish, a trussed bird and 
a ham. 

Some contorniates, very poor in design and 
execution, may have belonged to the lower classes, 
those of more careful workmanship, which are 
sometimes inlaid with gold or silver (e.g., ORATI VS, 
SALVSTIVS, figs. 2 and 3) to the wealthy. The 
inscriptionsare often blundered, and the occasional 
mixture of Greek and Latin (e.g. fig. 15) affords 
curious evidence of the mongrel state of the popu- 
lation of Rome in the fourth and fifth centuries 
A.D., but, as a whole, contorniates contrast favour- 
ably with contemporary coins and preserve a purer 
classical tradition. Their date has been a matter 

' The variations in spelling are highly significant of the 
change that was taking place in the colloquial language. 

of dispute, but there is really no doubt that they 
belong entirely to the Western Empire.- Early, in 
the sense of Augustan, they are not, but neither are 
all so late as is commonly supposed. It is impos- 
sible, for instance, to assign to a period later than 
Constantine such a portrait as that of Alexander in 
fig. I. The type, like its near analogy, a small Mace- 
donian bronze coin of 200-220 a.d., is related to, 
though not immediately derived from, the early 
portraits, the lettering resembles that of coins of 
the third century A.D., and the workmanship 
is of high excellence. It is not unreasonable to take 
it as a icniiiniis post qtiem for contorniates in gen- 
eral, taking as the tenitiiuis ante quein a unique 
specimen of debased style on which Valentinian III 
(425-455) and his favourite, the consul Petronius 
Maximus, appear together. As the emperor was 
assassinated by Petronius in revenge for a gross 
insult in 455, the piece must be anterior to that date, 
and it has thus the further interest of being 
the only contorniate to allude to contemporary 

Contorniates — like their prototypes, coins — 
almost always bear a head on the obverse, a deco- 
rative design on the reverse. The heads, not 
as a rule of great interest, may be classified as 
follows : 

(^7) Portraits of Alexander, of which the finest 
by far is that with the diadem represented in fig. i, 
already mentioned as the high-water mark of 
contorniate art. The reverse, also illustrated, 
represents Alexander slaying a Persian warrior, in- 
possibly — for there are several instances of the 
reproduction on contorniates of well-known works 
of art — part of the great group by Lysippus repre- 
senting the battle of the Granicus which had been 
carried off to Rome by Metellus and set up in the 
Portico of Octavia. 

{b) Portraits of imperial personages from Caesar 
to Valentinian, of no merit, being either careful 
copies of coin types — in which case they have no 
original value — or else perversions in a debased 
manner in which all likeness to the original has 
been lost. 

(c) Victorious grooms or charioteers, interesting 
only for the dress, and occasionally the names, of 
those represented. 

{d) Heads of divinities — Sarapis, Helios, Apollo, 
Roma, etc. — of small artistic merit. 

{e) Portraits of literary characters, familiar to 

many otherwise ignorant of the very name of 

contorniate from their reproduction, time out of 

mind, as authentic portraits. They have now 

dropped out of books of any serious archaeological 

'■^ This conclusion is based (a) on the character of the designs 
and the analogies they offer to mosaics and other dated works ; 
(b) on the places where they have been found in the rare cases 
where a record of the discovery has been kept ; (<) on the fact, 
alluded to later, that no emperor later than 470 a.d. is repre- 


On Qontorniates 

pretension, but may still be seen in text-books 
issued by publishers who should know better. 

The list of those thus popularly represented 
throws some light on the literary tastes of the 
Roman public, the more curious that, while some 
of the names are just what would be expected, 
others are far from obvious. Homer, Solon, 
Pythagoras,' Euripides, Demosthenes, Terence, 
Accius,' Horace, Sallust, Apollonius of Tyana and 
Apuleius make up a singular company ; but it need 
hardly be said that their value as portraits is ;;//. 
Horace, for instance— ORATIVS (fig. 2) — wears 
the consular robes of the fourth century, and has 
lost his H ; Sallust— SALVSTIVS AVTOR (fig. 3) 
— appears with and without a beard, and with hair 
worn as no one wore it before the days of Con- 
stantine ; while the head of Solon is taken from 
the famous gem commonly called a portrait of 
Maecenas, signed by the gem-cutter Solon, whose 
signature the artist of the contorniate has taken as 
a description of the portrait ! 

The head of Apuleius (fig. 4) looks as if the artist 
had been at some pains to get up his subject, 
though the result is not convincing. Apuleius in 
his ' Apology ' has left an account of his own 
appearance ; he was something of a dandy, grace- 
ful in person and conspicuous for his golden hair, 
which he wore long in its natural curls. The 
youthful appearance and long hair are duly repre- 
sented ; but one may be permitted to doubt if the 
elderly widow, Aemilia Pudentilla, would have 
fallen in love with such a doll as the artist has 
here made him. The ivy wreath in his hair may, 
it has been suggested, indicate the rank of Apuleius 
as an epopt, or one fully initiated into the 
Eleusinian mysteries. 

So much for the principal obverse types. Those 
on the reverse are of much greater variety and 
interest, and it is impossible to do more than select 
a few specimens of the more important classes in 
which they may be arranged. The largest and in 
many ways the least interesting class shall be dealt 
with first. 

This consists of types connected with the circus 
and amphitheatre. Chief among these come 
representations of victorious chariots or single 
horses, adorned with the palms they have won, 
and attended by their grooms or charioteers. 
Sometimes the names of these are given — Geron- 
tius, Polystefanos, Monimus (=Monimos, or 
steadfast). Records of the fierce factions of which 
Gibbon gives so vivid an account in their later 
development at Constantinople appear in the in- 
scriptions IN PRASINO, IN VENETO; the in- 
scriptions OLINPICVS [sic) or OLVMPI NIKA 
hint at still greater victories ; while the circus 
itself is shown on types such as fig. 5, in which 
four contending chariots race round the course, 

^ Reverse types, but treated, for convenience, among the other 


which is divided by the low wall or spina adorned 
with obelisk, shrines and statues (Cybele on her 
lion may be seen towards the left), and ending in 
the goals with their three conical pillars. Other 
contorniates represent gladiatorial combats or (as 
in that representing the Colosseum) tights of beast 
with beast. A scene in a box at the amphitheatre 
will be described among the scenes from daily 
life. Hunting scenes are a favourite subject, and 
other competitions are suggested in types repre- 
senting victorious organists with hand or hydraulic 
organs (fig. 3, rev. with the inscription PETRONI 
PLACEAS),* and figures of actresses in graceful 
poses occur more than once ; one only bears a 
name, MARGARITA. But as a whole this class 
is uninteresting. The subjects can be illustrated 
from other sources ; the types are usually common. 
It is, therefore, better to pass to the comparatively 
little known, only remarking that it is no insigni- 
ficant indication of popular taste that circus and 
similar types should outnumber the whole of the 
other subjects represented. 

Representations of daily life are far from com- 
mon, but the three specimens here given illustrate 
the principal features of Roman life — business, 
pleasure, and religion. 

Fig. 6 represents a scene at a banker's. Within 
the building, which is indicated by two columns 
spanned by a decorated arch, a man stands behind 
a counter heaped with coin ; on either side a 
customer (on a smaller scale) wrapped in a toga 
stretches out his hand towards the money. The 
banker appears to be deprecating their haste or 
the security they offer. 

Fig. 7 is the scene at the amphitheatre already 
alluded to. The field is divided into two parts ; 
in the upper, five spectators are leaning on the 
cushioned ledge of their box, while below in the 
arena a gladiator is fighting with a wild boar, 
holding a spear in one hand and in the other a 
movable turnstile with which to protect himself. 
In the background is another gladiator. Only a 
total ignorance of the subject of contorniates can 
have kept in the decent obscurity of a learned 
science a subject so adapted to the popular 

Fig. 8, the religious subject, is more complex. 
In the middle stands a laureated figure in tunic 
and long cloak holding a cock and turning his 
head to look at a small bird with flapping wings 
and a long bill which is perched on his outstretched 
hand ; on either side an attendant bends down to 
feed a long-necked bird. The dress and attributes 
of the principal personage proclaim him a 

* The popularity of the organ for its own sake greatly increased 
during the fourth century, though its earlier and baser use as 
an accompaniment to gladiatorial shows still continued. The 
musicians represented in fig. 3 with hand organ and flute 
suggest such a concert as is described by Martianus Capella^ 
tibuirinn iiitia et hyclnuilaniin hannoiiica //f;//7/((fi)— at the 
wedding of Mercury and Philology. 

On Qontorniates 

commander about to take the auspices before a 
battle from the flight of the one bird (probably a 
woodpecker) and the feeding of the other, one of 
the sacred cliickens, that convenient portable 
oracle which accompanied a Roman army on the 
march. The classical instance is, of course, an 
incident in the first Punic war, when P. Claudius 
Pulcher, hearing that the sacred chickens would 
not feed, ordered them to be drowned, and in 
defiance of the omen proceeded to give battle. 
Defeat was, of course, inevitable, and Cape Drepana 
proved a naval Cannae. The birds fed by the 
attendants on the contorniate are unmistakably 
geese, therefore the sacred geese of the Capitol. 
Their presence does not suit the action of the 
central figure, but, as I wrote elsewhere, 'the scene 
seems to be rather an assemlily of sacred birds, 
their interpreters and attendants, than a represen- 
tation of any single act.' Incidents more typical 
of Roman religion, more suggestive of familiar 
passages of Roman history, could scarcely have 
been chosen. 

The class of mythological subjects is much 
more numerous, Homeric subjects being particu- 
larly common. Fig. 9 represents Hephaestus and 
the armour of Achilles. The god, clad in short 
chiton and workman's cap, sits on an elaborately 
decorated seat, resting his lame foot upon a stool 
and looking at the completed shield which rests 
on a tripod before him. In place of the whole 
elaborate design, ' the earth, and the heavens, and 
the sea, and the unwearying sun, and the moon 
waxing to the full, and the signs every one where- 
with the heavens are crowned, Pleiads and Hyads 
and Orion's night, and the Bear that men call the 
Wain, her that turneth in her place and watcheth 
Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of 
Ocean,' ° the heads of the sun and moon occupy 
the centre of the shield, while around, in place of 
the constellations, are the twelve signs of the 
zodiac. Behind Hephaestus is the sword of 
Achilles, and above, in the background, perhaps as 
his patron goddess, is a figure of Athena leaning 
on her spear. 

Fig. 10 — Achilles supporting the dying Penthe- 
silea. The Amazon has fallen from her horse, and 
her lifeless body is supported by Achilles's arm. 
She wears a Phrygian cap and long chiton, and 
her crescent-shaped shield is slipping from her 

Fig. II — Odysseus escaping from the cav'e of 
Polyphemus. The hero, holding fast by the thick 
fleece, clings to the belly of the long-tailed ram, 
who, with the perversity of his kind, pauses to 
drink at a runlet of water flowing (from an in- 
visible source) into a trough, whose base is 
decorated with a figure of Hercules wielding his 
club. In the background is a tree. The name 
OLEXIVS inscribed round the design is a 
' I. Trans. E. Myers. 

blundered and apparently phonetic rendering of 

Fig. 12 — Odysseus and Circe. Odysseus stands 
in a threatening attitude over the enchantress, 
who, crowned and richly dressed, kneels at his 
feet imploring mercy. Behind her is a sty, built 
of great stones and iron bars, between which 
appear three beast-headed creatures turning their 
heads entreatingly towards their leader. It is not 
very long since this type was described as follows: 
' Une femrae a genoux, dont la tete est ornce d'une 
couronne, implore la pilie d'un gladiateur ou d'un 
employe de I'amphitheatre, debout et tourne ;i 
droite. Sur le second plan, a droite et au haut 
d'un mur, on voit trois animaux feroces debout 
dans les loges separees par des compartiments. 
L'artiste a voulu peut-etre representer une chre- 
tienne condamnee aux betes et portant deja la 
couronne du martyre.' This is no unusual example 
of the way in which the picturesque interpretation 
commended itself to the most learned when the 
'amphitheatre ticket' theory of contorniates was 
in vogue. 

On a unique but badly-preserved contorniate 
in Vienna the Sirens, a rare subject in ancient 
art, are represented, one seated on a rock playing 
the double flute, another standing and holding a 
lyre ; the outline of the third is almost obliterated, 
and the whole is very indistinct. 

There are several varieties of fig. 13, Scylla and 
Charybdis, and, though the main features are 
constant, the details vary considerably. In the 
first place, as usual in ancient art, Scylla has 
ceased to be the six-headed monster who could 
devour six men, the hardiest of their bands and 
the chief in might, as a fisher lets down his baits 
for a snare to the little fishes below and as he 
catches each flings it writhing ashore, and has 
become Virgil's 

pulchro pectore virgo 

Pube tenus, postrema immani corpore pistrix 

Delphinum caudas utero commissa luporum. 

In this form, her long tails curling out of the 
water to left and right, she seizes one of Odysseus's 
comrades by the hair, while a second prepares to 
attack her from the deck. In her left hand she 
holds a rudder. Other Greeks are struggling in 
the troubled waters, whom the wolves round her 
waist are striving to seize and devour. Above, 
and looking not unlike another tail, is the typical 
contorniate tree, here the fig tree that grew on 
the rocks above Charybdis. The tossing waters 
below, with their sudden swirl to the right, doubt- 
less represent the whirlpool itself 'which thrice a 
day sucked in black waters and thrice belched 
them forth.' 

Before passing on it is worth remarking tiiat 
the predominance of subjects taken from the 
' The circular marks at top and bottom arc due to piercing. 


On Qontorniates 

Odyssey is a marked feature of other works of art 
representing Homeric legends. Contorniates as 
objects essentially popular in character afford a 
decisive test of the relative popularity of Iliad and 
Odyssey, and it is thoroughly in keeping that the 
two subjects derived from the former should refer 
to the legend of Achilles. 

Several other types may be intended to illustrate 
famous literary descriptions— t'.rf., a Laocoon type 
which differs completely from the celebrated 
group, and can, perhaps, be regarded as an 
independent illustration to Virgil, just as a figure 
of Philoctetes nursing his wounded foot on the 
barren rock of Lemnos (an interpretation of the 
present writer) may be an attempt to realize the 
wounded hero of Sophocles ; but the only subject 
which can be said with certainty to illustrate a 
literary episode other than Homeric is fig. 14, a 
unique contorniate in the British Museum, which 
has given rise to much misinterpretation. In the 
centre stands a bearded figure with tall head-dress 
and high-girt robe, stretching out his right hand 
aimlessly : his left rests on the head of a child at his 
side. One remarkable feature of the design — the 
props on which the figures stand — appears to have 
escaped notice, though in them the writer was for- 
tunate enough to recognize the clue to the meaning 
of the whole. They are cotJniriii, and the high 
head-dress and flowing robe with deep bands of 
embroidery are the familiar properties of the tragic 
stage. The importance of gesture in ancient 
tragedy is well known ; the acting of the principal 
figure — the groping hand and the support given 
by the child — can only indicate blindness. The 
situation of a blind father leaning on his child is 
found in two famous plays, at the beginning of the 
' Oedipus Coloneus,' where the king addresses his 
daughter as 

Antigone, child of a blind old man, 
and in the ' Phoenissae,' ' where Teiresias appears 
leaning on his daughter Manto and saying, in the 
words of George Gascoigne's translation, or rather 
version, ' locasta' — the second blank verse play in 
English, by the way, and the first Greek play to 
be produced on the English stage : — 

Thou trustie guide of my so trustlesse steppes, 
Deer daughter mine, go we, lead thou the way, 
That since the day I first did leeve this light, 
Thou only art the light of these mine eyes ; 
And for thou knowst I am both old and weake 
And ever longing after lovely rest, 
Derect my steppes amyd the playnest pathes. 
That so my febled feete may feele less paine. 
Between these two there can be no hesitation. 
Representations of tragic drama other than 
Euripidean are of extreme rarity ; the plays of 

' The ' Phoenissae ' of Seneca is out of the question, as, apart 
{rom the extreme rarity of representations of scenes from his 
plays, Manto is in his version not a child but a woman, her 
father's counsellor as well as support. 


Sophocles in particular were almost unknown in 
Roman times, and it is therefore most improbable 
that on objects so essentially popular in character 
as contorniates a scene from an obsolete dramatist 
should be represented. The ' Phoenissae,' on the 
other hand, was one of the most popular tragedies 
of the always popular Euripides. There is, then, 
no reason to doubt that in fig. 14 we have an 
actual scene from a Euripidean play as represented 
on the later Roman stage. 

There is also a great variety of other mytho- 
logical types, including many of the most familiar 
legends : Hero and Leander, Bellerophon and the 
Chimaera, Diana and Endymion, the exploits of 
Theseus and Heracles, and single figures of gods 
and heroes ; in fact, popular taste in legend 
appears to have altered little in the last eighteen 
hundred years. 

Fig. 15, a unique contorniate in the British 
Museum, represents Heracles in the dress of 
Omphale, holding a distaff from which he draws 
the thread ; at his feet stands a little Cupid- 
allegory was dear to the Roman heart — and around 
is an inscription of the mongrel sort already 
referred to, VRANI NICA MVNIO— z.c, Uranius» 
may you win the prize.* 

Fig. 16, a vigorous and well-composed group, 
represents Jason, his short cloak fluttering from 
his shoulders, taming the brazen bulls of Aeetes to 
plough the Colchian field and sow the dragon's 
teeth. In the exergue, seen in profile, is the very 
primitive plough.' 

Fig. 17 represents Heracles struggling with the 
Cretan bull. The paws of his lion-skin float 
behind, its mask lies on his shoulders. This 
group, like the last, is admirably designed for its 
circular field. 

Fig. 18 is a legend familiar to all who have 
visited the Museum at Naples, under the name of 
the Farnese Bull or the Punishment of Dirce, a 
queen who was bound by her stepsons, Zethus 
and Amphion, to a wild bull, to revenge her 
cruelty towards their mother, Antiope. Several 
frescoes of the subject exist at Pompeii, but the 
composition of the contorniate, though omitting 
the accessories, is nearer the ' Farnese Bull ' in the 
action of the principal figures than any other 
representation, and there can be little doubt that 
it is immediately derived from the group, which 
was famous enough to be rhetorically described 
by Pliny." 

Yet other mythological groups represent Cybele 
and Attis, Bacchic processions, figures of Apollo, 
Hecate, Roma ; and several interesting subjects 
still await explanation. Purely Roman legends, 
on the other hand, are surprisingly few : Hercules 

' The interpretations of tigs. 15 and 16 are those of the present 

•It should be said that a second contorniate type exists which 
is much less close to the original group. 

1. 1. 2 2. 

3 3. 4. 5. 

6. 7 8 9. 

10, 12. 11. 13. 

4. 15. 16 17 


18. 19. 






On Contorniates 

and his wife Roma, daughter of Evander, the 
Wolf and Twins, the Rape of the Sabines, the 
inevitable Aeneas escaping from Troy (fig. 19), 
which might, but for its occurrence "on earh'er 
coins, be regarded as an illustration to Mirg'A—ct 
praderca nihil. The Aeneas group, however, has 
some real humour in the gesture of Ascanius, the 
fingers of his right hand open, as he is dragged along. 
After those centuries of undue reputation for the 
valueless portrait types and inexplicable neglect for 
the rest, the scientific study of contorniates is at 
last beginning. Something has already been done 
to elucidate the more interesting subjects, but 
much is still obscure. Moreover, so many of the 
rarer types are represented by a single specimen 

that others may well exist, hidden away perhaps 
since the palmy days of contorniate-collecting in 
forgotten cabinets. The national collection is 
chiefly derived from the cabinet of an eighteenth- 
century Earl of Exeter ; if other collectors would 
follow his example, or would communicate any 
unpublished types in their possession, our know- 
ledge might be substantially increased. It is with 
the hope of eliciting such aid that the present 
paper has been written." 

'° I wish to acknowledge the kindness of Mr. H. A. Grueber 
Keeper of Coins and Medals at the British Museum, for per- 
mission to reproduce the contorniates illustrated in this 
paper, with the exception of fig. ; 12, taken from a cast of the 
unique specimen in the Bibliolheque Nationale kindly furnished 
by M. Ernest Babelon. 



The exhibition of pictures by Goya now on view 
at the Miethke Gallery, Vienna, is probably one 
of the finest ever seen. 

Among the early pictures there is the portrait 
of the torero P. Romero, a replica of which, now 
in the Huntington collection', has already been 
discussed in The Burlington Magazine'. The 
picture, dating about 1780, is rather hard and 
stolid in the painting of the flesh tints, but the 
dress is exquisitely resolved info simple, flat tones 
painted with a remarkable eye for values The 
portrait of the wife of the art-historian, Cean 
Bermudez, must be ranked among the very finest 
work Goya ever produced. It was formerly in 
he collection of the Marquis Casa Torrez, once 
the biggest Goya collector in Spain. This mag- 
nihcent life-size portrait of the lady, seated, is 
painted piquantly and with a remarkable lightness 
of touch. It IS as if the brush had simply fluttered 
over the canvas, and, in spite of the smallness of 
tlie eftort, we gain an impression of the supreme 
htness of everything that has been done. Then 
there is a magnificent late portrait of an officer in 
mihtai-y uniform, one of the few works signed by 
Goya in full. The signature reads, ' Fluctibus 
Reipubhcae expulsis Pintado p' Goya 181 c ' It is 
what one would have called 'asphalty ' a decade 
or two ago ; but the blacks are wonderfully lumi- 
nous, and It IS probably one of the earliest instances 
ot the art of converting black into a colour, so to 
speak. In its magnificent deep coloration and 
the triad of black, red and gold it is prophetic of 
Daumier and Delacroix. A very late paintin^t 
representing the arrest of a Maml'a in the street Ts 
curious as being one of Goya's rare large-sized 
' A comparison of large scale photographs seems to indicate 

of ;^hiroKit^.LEr ""^'°"'^ ^'^ ''"" ■■= '^« "^"- -^^^ 

^ Vol. xii, pp. 232.233, January, 1908. 

genre subjects— it measures about 4 ft. by 7 ft. 

but it is not altogether pleasing. Of the figures 
seen to the knees, the woman is quite to the right, 
with the sergeant behind her, while his two 
attendants to the left seem to be ready to 
manacle the lady, and one of them turns a dark- 
lantern on her. The painting evidently was meant 
to be Rembrandtesque, but is not quite successful ; 
the technique is rather in the nature of a rough- 
and-ready sketch, except for the lace mantilla 
which the woman holds up to hide her face— this 
IS admirably painted. Among further important 
canvases, I note a full-length life-size portrait of 
General Don Tadeo Bravo de Rivero, signed 'Don 
Tadeo Bravo de Rivero por su am. Goya, 1806 ' ; 
a three-quarter length of the Marquesa de San 
Andres, formerly in the R. Garcia collection at 
Madrid, painted about 1780; one of Goya's many 
portraits of Queen Maria Louisa ; two small Don 
Quixote scenes ; and two gruesome subjects, one 
representing a man hanged by the neck, the other 
an execution by fusilade. 

Don Aureliano de Beruete, the well-known 
Velazquez specialist, has lent to the show thirty- 
eight splendid original drawings by Goya. Most 
of these are to be published in a new volume 
on Goya. Two Viennese collectors, Dr. Julius 
Hofmann— the author of the capital catalogue of 
the mivre of Goya— and Mr. G. Eissler, contri- 
buted first editions of all the four etched series ; 
from them and from other sources various further 
rare Goya prints were secured, including several 
unedited plates for the Dcsastrcs and the Provcrbios 
and some of the lithographs of the Toros de Bordeos 

The mere enumeration of the works which form 
this exhibition— the list I havegiven is by no means 
complete— suffices to prove that it is the most 
important show for Goya students ever arrant^ed 
outside Spain. It is to be hoped that it will^be 
made accessible to people elsewhere besides Vienna. 

Hans W. Singer, 


Notes on Various Works of Art 


About the year 1820 the English church in The 
Hague, situated in the Nordeiside, and formerly 
the'Chapel of the Oude Mannehuis— an ancient 
establishment for giving pensions and lodging to 
old men — was abolished in a somewhat arbitrary 
manner by royal decree of the king of Holland, 
after having been used as an English church since 
tlie time of Queen Elizabeth, when it was given 
for the use of Leicester's troops on their landing 
in Holland. 

A volume of the Register, of which the remain- 
ing volumes have long been in the possession of 
the British Legation, the church books and Sacra- 
mental Vessels' were handed over at this time to 
the care of the Dutch Church authorities, with 
the proviso that, should they at any time be 
required by the chaplain of the English Legation 
in The Hague, the authorities in question would 
be allowed to deliver them up. These Vessels 
were kept in a strong iron box in the Board room 
of an orphanage connected with the Groote (St. 
Jacob's) Kerk, when about the year 1904 I drew 
attention to them, being at that time Secretary of 
Legation in The Hague. The church authorities 
were at first unwilling to give up these Vessels and 
Books on the ground that the Anglican church of 
1904 did not represent the church abolished in 
1820, which they maintained (whether correctly 
or not is a matter of doubt) to have been a 
Presbyterian church. 

Sir Henry Howard, British Minister in The 
Hague, made a representation on the subject to 
the Dutch Foreign Office, with the result that a 
royal decree was eventually passed handing over 
the Register, Books and Plate, not to the English 

' Described and illustrated in the article by Mr. Alfred E, 
Jones : Burlington Magazine, Vol. xiii, pp. 28, 29, 33, 
April 190S. 



To the Editor of The Burlington Magazine. 

Dear Sir, — Yesterday I received the last ninriber 
of The Burlington Magazine, from which I 
learnt that the charming portrait of a little girl by 
Mabuse has entered the National Gallery, which 
must be highly congratulated on the purchase. 
The following historical notes will show that this 
portrait is even more valuable than was suspected 
hitherto. If I did not attract attention to them at 
tlie time of the Bruges exhibition, it was because 
I then lioped the picture might yet be acquired at 
the sale by a Belgian museum. 

Mr. Heseltine's remark about the child's mouth 
is quite right, but not his conclusion in favour of 
Isabeau, sister of Charles V and afterwards queen 
of Denmark, who liad an altogether different 

Church, but to the British Legation, where it is 
now in safe keeping. 

I also discovered the whereabouts of these cups 

during the time I was at the Legation in the Hague, 

knowing of their existence through Stevens's 

' History of the Scotch Church, Rotterdam,' 1832. 

Arthur F. G. Leveson Gower. 


In connexion with the recent action at Munich 
concerning the sale of forged pictures, the Press, 
both in Germany and abroad, have for some time 
been spreading reports which represent the scope 
of these operations as very important. Further, 
it has been stated that ' most of the forgeries ' 
have been sold to England and America, and 
also that amongst the suspects are several ' highly 
esteemed and famous Munich art dealers,' as well 
as Munich artists. In the interest of the reputa- 
tion of Munich, we, the undersigned, have taken 
the trouble to procure official information and 
are able to make the following statements : — 

1. As to forging pictures — one person only is 
suspected, and he has nothing at all to do profes- 
sionally with the fine arts. 

2. As to the sale of forged pictures — with the 
exception of two arrested dealers and a third, 
whose whereabouts are still unknown, no person 
is suspected, who has any professional connexion 
with the fine arts. 

3. Evidence that forged pictures have been sold 
to England or America is up till now entirely 
wanting ; still less is there any evidence that the 
figures published as to these forgeries and their 
prices are correct. 

Prof. Hans v. Petersen, D. Heinemann, 

Hugo Freiherr v. Habermann, A. Riegner, 
Prof. Fritz Baer, Wimmer & Co., 

E. A. Fleischmanns. 


The so-called Habsburg type is composed of 
two elements : the projecting jaw, which comes 
from the Habsburgs and belonged, for instance, 
to Maximilian ; and the peculiar form of the lips 
(without prognathism) which was inherited from 
the Burgundian side — viz., from Mary of Burgundy, 
Maximilian's wife. 

This later peculiarity is alone to be found in 
the child's face, as is often the case among the 
members of the collateral illegitimate branches of 
the Burgundy family. 

Jacqueline de Bourgogne was the youngest 
daughter of Adolfe de Bourgogne, lord of Beveren 
and Veere, and Anne de Bergnes. Adolfe himself 
was the son of Philippe, lord of Beveren, by Anne 
de Borssele, and grandson of Antoine, called ' le 
Grand Batard de Bourgogne,' by Jeanne de la 
Vidall. This celebrated warrior was one of the 
eldest natural sons of Philippe le Bon. In conse- 


THI-. AKl;l'Sl o|. A MAMiLA. I;Y i.uYA. I\ 




Letters to the Editor 

quence, Adolfe of Burgundy, the child's father, 
was a second-cousin of Charles V. 

Now the interesting fact is that this Adolfe, lord 
of Veere, was a well-known patron of Mabuse 
(see Carel van Mander), who is known to have 
painted the Virgin and Child after the lady of Veere 
and her young son. At present I have not made 
the necessary researches, but by the apparent age 
of the child it will be easy to assign a more exact 
date to the picture. It cannot be far from 1520, 
judging by the dress. 

The charming portrait, now in the National 
Gallery, when I first discovered it at Paris, imme- 
diately reminded me of another well-known 
portrait, that of a lady composed exactly in the 
same way on a clear coloured background, with a 
painted false-frame, formerly attributed to Scorel, 
but evidently by Mabuse, which Justi also erro- 
neously believed to represent Isabeau of Austria. 

This portrait now belongs to Mrs. Gardner at 
Boston. I am told another copy belongs to Lord 
Brownlow.' If this be the case, it would be inte- 
resting to compare them and ascertain which is 
the original. 

The lady is dressed in the French fashion, which 
at first misled me, but lately I discovered her 
identity. She is Anne de Bergnes, wife of Adolfe 
of Burgundy, and mother of the little girl, as is 
proved by the copy made by the presumed Jacques 
Le Bourg in the Recueil de portraits of the Arras 
library. These two portraits, manifestly painted 
at the same time, afford an important contribution 
to the history of Mabuse's art. 

Georges H. de Loo. 

To the Editor of The Burlington Magazine. 
Sir, — By the light of the two illustrations of 
the Flemish panels in the Hutchinson and 
Pourtales collections, given in the March 
Burlington Magazine, we can, I think, make 
out something in that obscure region of art 
known as Herri Met de Bles. Not, indeed, of a 
nature to lighten materially the obscurity, but still 
a fairly definite fact. An Adoration of the Kings, 
labelled ' Herri Met de Bles,' was lent by Messrs. 
Duveen to the Winter Exhibition at Burlington 
House. It is, in my opinion, clearly by the 
painter of the Hutchinson panels, concerning 
whose relation to the Pourtales couple Messrs. 
Hulin and Kenyon Cox completely differ. Their 
difference is interesting, but if the evidence here 
propounded be admissible, as to the identity of 
authorship in Messrs. Duveen's and Mr. Hutchin- 
son's examples, the acceptance of M. Hulin's view 
will come more easily. For there can be little doubt 
that this Adoration of the Kings is inferior in spirit 
and in craft to the simpler Pourtales work, and of 

' By the courtesy of Earl Hrownlow we are enabled to state 
that the size and composition of his portrait agree with those 
of Mrs. Gardner's version. — Ed. 

a later date. Reference to the costumes and 
architectural detail abundantly shows, in the 
former, the weaknesses of ornament elaborated for 
the sake of elaboration. The painter has solely 
been concerned with devising an oriental splendour 
that he had not studied and did not understand. 
His sense of linear form in the Hutchinson and 
the Duveen exarnples is, in the actual features, 
more correct than is that of the Pourtales panels. 
But in the latter the broader and more solid 
modelling is apparent. The drawing of the figure 
and of hands and feet in the two former is quite 
poor, especially in the Adoration. The perfunc- 
torily careless handling of the less important people 
is marked. 

The points of practically identical workmanship 
and idea in the Hutchinson (Chicago) panels and 
this Adoration triptych are briefly as follows : — 
The mannerism of drapery painting seen in the 
Queen of Sheba's dress is the same as that of the 
African king's and the king's in the dexter shutter 
of the triptych. In these the treatment is broader 
than in the Queen of Sheba of the Pourtales 
(Paris) work. In the background of the sinister 
shutter of the triptych a bronze armoured figure, 
as in the Chicago example, adorns a pillar's 
capital, which in both instances is supported 
by an ornament of a cupid's head. Both 
examples have an identical acanthus moulding 
above the pillars. The triptych displays its 
painter's liking for an ornament of a ram's 
head. He uses it in his architecture, on a 
warrior's breastplate, on a large shield in the centre 
panel, and as a design in the costly goblet the 
dexter king is bringing. This ram's head is 
employed in the Chicago piece as the decoration 
of a capital. A conspicuous presence in the 
Duveen Adoration is the investiture of the kings 
with almost mayoral chains ; it is present, too, in 
the Hutchinson example. None of these instances 
of ornateness occurs in the Paris panels. In them 
the base of the pillar stands solidly and structurally 
on the pavement. Round the foot a simple fluted 
pattern runs. The painter of the triptych — and 
this, I think, is eloquent of his degeneracy — splays 
out the base of his arch-supporting pillar, fashioning 
it like the foot of a chalice, and decorates it with 
a fluting which would only be in keeping with 
some such piece of thin metal work. In the 
Chicago panel of David receiving the Water from 
Bethlehem the pillar that should maintain his 
throne is thus splaj'ed and fluted. In the 
Pourtal6s illustration it stands cylindrically, of 
equal diameter with the shaft. 

Lastly, it is, I think, indisputable that the tassels 
and the slashed sleeves and ornate greaves which 
are so conspicuous in the Hutchinson shutters 
and the Duveen triptych are calculated additions 
to the simpler dress of the Pourtal(§s specimen. In 
that we see the ermined robe, unhung with tassels. 


Letters to the Editor 

In the Hutchinson work we see this robe tasseled, 
and in the triptych the kneehng king is Hberally 
hung and ermined. 

The comparison of these things, and others such 
as the habit of the sleeves and the rather boorish 
character, in the triptych and the Hutchinson 
shutters, of some of the heads, seems to justify M. 
Huhn's contention that the Paris panels inspired 
those now in Chicago. In the triptych the 
inclusion of an enormous straw hat, recalling 
Pisanello to our mind, is noteworthy. On the 
hem of a robe appearing from beneath a fold the 
characters MASO present a speculation. 

C. H. Collins Baker. 

To the Editor of The BURLINGTON Magazine. 
Sir,— While reading in your issue of last 
December ' an article by Mr. E. Alfred Jones upon 
the Old English Plate at the Church Congress held 
at Great Yarmouth last autumn, I made a note 
upon one passage which I intended to send to you. 
As fate would have it I laid the note aside with a 
mass of other papers, and then forgot all about it. 
Having now come upon it again I send it to you, 
albeit belated, believing that it will interest all 
those who are interested in the subject of Mr. Jones's 
article, and they must be many. 

Mr. Jones mentions among the exhibits in the 
Great Yarmouth collection a communion cup 
belonging to Middleton Church, near King's Lynn, 
which is inscribed with the date 1632, and which 
is marked with the town-mark of King's Lynn. 
Following hitherto published statistics, Mr. Jones 

» See The Burlington Magazine, Vol. xii, No. 57, p. 135. 
December, 1907. 

proceeds to say : ' This interesting example brings 
the total number of known pieces with the King's 
Lynn mark to three, the others being the two 
church vessels enumerated by Mr. Jackson' 
(' English Goldsmiths and their Marks'). 

The three examples thus referred to do not 
constitute the total number of known examples of 
plate bearing the King's Lynn mark. I know other 
examples among the church plate in Norfolk, and 
I dare say more still will come to light when all 
the deaneries of that county have been thoroughly 
explored. I suppose it is no secret that the Rev. 
E. C. Hopper, whose name is so well known in 
connexion with the cataloguing of the church plate 
of Suffolk, is now engaged upon similar work in 

The maker's mark — an H with a W below — 
upon the Middleton cup can scarcely be other 
than the mark of William Howlett, silversmith of 
King's Lynn, who was working there at the period 
indicated by the engraved date on the cup — viz., 
1632. This William was very possibly a brother 
of John Howlett, a contemporary silversmith in 
Norwich, who was working there up to 1635 or 
perhaps later. 

Upon one King's Lynn communion cup and its 
paten, belonging to a Norfolk parish and dated 1633, 
I found a maker's mark identically similar to the well- 
known mark of Timothy Scottowe (or Skottowe), 
silversmith of Norwich and working there at that 
period — viz., TS in monogram. 1 do not know of 
any King's Lynn silversmith whose name these 
initials will fit, but Kinjg's Lynn is not a very far 
cry from Norwich, and it is quite within the bounds 
of probability that Scottowe may have had a trade 
branch or partnership interests at King's Lynn. 

H. D, Ellis. 



Die Plastik Sienas im Quattrocento. Von 
Paul Schubring. 143 illustrations. Pp. 256. 
Berlin : Grote. 1907. 6 marks paper ; 10 marks 
In order to be properly appreciated, this book 
should be read at Siena. Sienese art is essentially 
local. The only sculptor of absolutely first rank 
that the city produced, Querela, was raised by his 
genius far above the limitations of his fellow- 
sculptors, who, remaining true to their traditions, 
were never able to profit by his example. They 
assimilated little but his mannerisms, which they 
speedily developed into caricature. Querela, for 
instance, in spite of his tendency to worry his 
drapery, never forgot that it should reveal the 
figure beneath. His successors at Siena, like the 
Germans of the sixteenth century, amused them- 
selves with the folds of their drapery, oblivious of 



the human form it concealed, and usually also 
careless of its texture. Federighi's saints at the 
Loggia di S. Paolo are good instances in point ; 
these creatures have no bodies at all, but are mere 
masses of drapery. Yet, in Siena, undisturbed by 
thoughts of Greek or Florentine sculpture, one 
feels the fascination of the intensely characteristic 
local spirit, and is grateful to a school which was 
reluctant to throw off the gothic tradition, and 
which, though it seldom, if ever, rose to the grand 
style, shows, like the local school of painting, 
peculiar elements of religious feeling and delicate 
sentiment. Occasionally, too, as in Federighi's 
Moses, it could produce a masterpiece of dramatic 
expression . 

Dr. Schubring's initial chaper on Querela is 
made very brief because of the existence of a 
satisfactory monograph by Cornelius. It can 
hardly be denied that if more space had been given 
to the great master the centre of gravity of the 

book would have been shifted, and his successors 
revealed in their true proportions. Short as the 
chapter is, it contains some excellent criticism. 
In the succeeding chapters the author deals with 
Giovanni Turini, Federighi, Vecchietta, Neroccio, 
Giovanni di Stefano, the ' Piccolomini Master,' 
Francesco di Giorgio, Giacomo Cozzarelli, Marrina, 
and of course incidentally with minor artists. A 
great mass of material is brought together, and it 
may therefore seem ungrateful to complain of the 
way in which it has been assigned ; but the book 
would have been none the less valuable for a little 
more restraint of the tendency to mark down 
everything with a definite attribution . The group 
of the Annunciation in the Santuccio di S. Galgano 
is given to Giov. Turini, with whose harshness of 
form and expression its prettiness is in strong 
contrast. Of the remarkable wooden figure of a 
seated woman, recently placed in the Bargello at 
Florence, the author says that the treatment of 
form points to about 1430, but that he knows of no 
Sienese sculpture related to it. Whatever the 
' Formensprache ' of this clever figure may indicate, 
in motive it seems to belong rather to the time of 
Giacomo Cozzarelli, and still greater reserve in 
dealing with it would surely not have been out of 
place. The artist Giovanni di Stefano receives 
what most readers will regard as excessive praise. 
His Tabernacle in S. Domenico, which offends in 
all its proportions and balancing of elements, his 
smugly complacent S. Ansano, his angels by the 
ciborium of the Duomo, with their drapery teased 
almost out of all recognition, are magnified beyond 
their due importance, and the climax is reached 
with the attribution to him of thesevereand noble 
bust of St. Catherine in the Palazzo Palmieri-Nuti ! 
It is quite in keeping that the famous Virgilian 
lines inscribed beside Giovanni's Cumaean Sibyl are 
attributed to Lactantius, and the branch (apparently 
of laurel) which she holds is called a palm. 
Evidently the passion for re-attribution is dom- 
inant even here. Francesco di Giorgio is the 
author's favourite. His restlessness, his lack of 
reserve and harmony, his tendency to sensation- 
alism, are ignored. To him is given the beautiful 
relief of the Madonna and Child now at 
Berlin (No. 154), which, in the massive dignity of 
its forms, is wholly alien to Francesco's art. He is 
also credited with the fine Pieta in the Osser\-anza, 
apparently because the author, by a somewhat naive 
petitio principii, considers it to be far superior to 
anything created by Cozzarelli, to whom it is 
traditionally assigned. Of course, all the author's 
attributions are not so arbitrary. One can, for 
instance, heartily accept his restoration to the 
Sienese school of the Berlin Annunciation assigned 
by Dr. Bode to the school of Ghibcrti. Attractive, 
too, is the attribution to Federighi of the Elci 
Bacchns, which in its ill-rendered classicizing 
forms (note the exaggerated iliac line !) recalls the 

Sculpture and Metalwork 

slaves on the holy-water basin in the Duomo. 
The most important and convincing of the attribu- 
tions in the book restores to Francesco di Giorgio 
from Leonardo da Vinci (to whom Dr. Bode had 
given them) a group of reliefs, including a pax with 
the Deposition at Venice, the Discoidia at S. Ken- 
sington, and the Sconrging of Christ at Perugia. It 
is clear from what has been said that Dr. Schubring's 
book, though it contains much that is disputable, 
and represents in some ways not the most favour- 
able aspects of recent German criticism, is of very 
considerable importance as bringing together a 
great amount of valuable material, as well as some 
less valuable, though highly suggestive, speculation. 
It also possesses the merits of being well printed, 
well illustrated, and eminently readable. G. F. H. 

DONATELLO. Des Meisters Werke in 277 Abbil- 
dungen. Herausgegeben von Paul Schubring. 
Deutsche Verlags Anstalt. Stuttgart and 
Leipzig. M. 8. 
The latest volume of the excellent ' Klassiker der 
Kunst' series is devoted to a master who is gradu- 
ally taking rank among the very greatest. Born in 
an age when Italian art was still in its infancy, 
he carries it at once to maturity, and then, as 
Dr. Schubring justly points out, passes on to the 
verge of the rococo. Michelangelo is his direct 
descendant, through Bertoldo, and was the imme- 
diate influence which led Italian sculpture to 
over-ripeness ; but it may be doubted whether 
even Michelangelo, with all the advantage of 
nearly a century of intense intellectual activity to 
help him, carried the art of sculpture quite to the 
point which Donalello reaches in such statues as 
the Madonna at Padua. Donatello's width of 
range is the more wonderful when we remembei 
that in the art of sculpture development as a rule 
comes slowly ; each artist adds but his little quota 
to the experience of his predecessors, and progress 
from the archaic to the over-ripe is a matter of 
two or more centuries. Donatello is the single 
sculptor who has succeeded in passing from 
extreme simplicity to extreme complexity within 
the short span of human life. 

For the study of this wonderful and powerful 
master the series of carefully annotated plates in 
Dr. Schubring's book will prove most useful. 
Only now and then, as in the case of the Annun- 
ciation in Santa Croce, do the engravings seem 
to be unsatisfactory or retouched ; the majority 
are excellent. The selection, too, is good, but the 
arrangement is somewhat puzzling. A section is 
devoted to doubtful and school works ; yet among 
the genuine pieces we find example after example 
(notably in the case of the detached reliefs) which 
cannot by any possibility be from the master's 
hand. Their inclusion among the authentic things 
can only be a source of confusion to the learner, 
and is the more surprising since in a number of 


Sculpture and Metalwork 

these cases Dr. Schubring admits in his notes that 
they can hardly be from Donatello's hand. It is 
never pleasant to have to throw doubt on a work 
of art, but in a book designed on scientific lines 
there should be no hesitation. So long, however, 
as Dr. Schubring's notes are studied in connexion 
with the pictures the reader need not often go far 

Franz Laurana. By Wilhelm Rolfs. Vol. I : 
pp. xvi. and 455. Vol. II: 82 Bilder-Tafeln. 
Berlin: R. Bong. 1907. Paper, M. 36; 
bound, M. 40. 
Of Francesco Laurana as a man nothing is known ; 
it is therefore the greater merit in the author of 
this monograph to have disentangled from the 
records and monuments, without undue exercise 
of his imagination, a distinctly engaging artistic 
individuality. No one is more conscious than the 
author that his hero is not a great artist. Laurana 
always anxiously shuns any excessive manifesta- 
tion of force ; he is reserved, cautious, discreet if 
ever any one was discreet, without creative power. 
Even his sculpture in the round shows an almost 
morbid anxiety not to pierce below the surface, 
and even in such work he sees man with the eye 
of a carver in low relief. His forms are observed 
from the outside ; he does not, like the great 
Florentines, know nature from withm. He reduces 
all his forms to the simplest planes and lines, re- 
produces them straightforwardly and truly, works 
them out with much pains and diligence. When 
he is one, even the head, of a large company of 
artists engaged on a great monument, he seems to 
lose all his power ; but in smaller tasks, when he 
is working by himself, the fineness of his taste 
finds quiet and unobtrusive expression. He may 
know nature only on the surface, yet he is familiar 
with the loveliness of woman in every detail. Such, 
as expressed in various places, is the author's ver- 
dict on Laurana, and it is eminently just. The 
centre of gravity of the book, and of Laurana's 
own work, lies in the connexion between the 
Sicilian Madonnas and the busts of the type of 
Beatrice of Aragon (of which the ' unknown lady ' 
of the Louvre is an example familiar to everyone). 
If anything can be proved by ' Stil-Kritik,' it is 
certain that these two groups belong to the same 
originator, although it is quite improbable that all 
the Madonnas described by tlie author, or all the 
Beatrice-busts, are from Laurana's own hand. 
The medals signed by him are also part of his 
undoubted work. In all these he is working 
alone, or under conditions which make his influ- 
ence paramount. But in monuments like the 
Arch at Naples or the Avignon Altar, when Laurana 
is in command of a number of workmen, we almost 
entirely lose sight of his individuality ; he was quite 
unable to impress his style on any of the minor 
artists in his employ. It is difficult to find a 


figure here and there betraying his hand. Even 
his architectural backgrounds are of the sort that a 
clever pupil could execute to perfection. In all this 
the contradiction is only on the surface. A little 
consideration shows that the very charm of the 
Sicilian Madonnas and the Beatrice-busts could 
only belong to a nature incapable of harmonizing 
the conflicting tendencies of various schools, such 
as were represented at Naples, or controlling the 
vulgarity of the Franco-Flemish artists whom he 
had to employ at Avignon. There is, however, 
another curious paradox, less easily explained. 
The author rightly insists that Laurana envisages 
forms as a relief-sculptor, not as a sculptor in the 
round. Why, then, are his best and most charac- 
teristic works sculptures in the round, like the 
Sicilian Madormas and the Beatrice-busts ? What- 
ever may be the answer to this problem, of the 
busts in question only one (in the Dreyfus collec- 
tion) is identified by its inscription. The contour 
of the face of Beatrice is here comparatively rect- 
angular ; the build of some of the other heads (as 
that in the Louvre, and still more that at Berlin) 
is different, the contour being a beautiful oval. 
The distressing black background of the illustra- 
tions in the book makes this undoubted fact 
difficult to realize. Rather than accept all the 
busts as portraits of Beatrice, we should regard 
several of them as slight modifications of a distinct 
type founded by Laurana. It was founded on a 
Tuscan basis, just as his medallic style, like that of 
Pietro da Milano, was inspired by the art of 
Pisanello. The work of both Francesco and 
Pietro shows that they did not understand casting ; 
had they done so, more good specimens would 
surely have come down to us. (The illustration of 
the medal in the Bargello throws doubt on the 
author's statement that it is a fine cast.) In all 
probability both these artists handed their models 
over to some one else to cast, and the similarity of 
fabric suggests that the same caster worked for 
them both. It is to be regretted that the author has 
reduced the medals in his plates to a uniform size ; 
this is more fatal to their effect than the method, 
which he condemns, of reproducing from plaster- 
casts. It may be noted in passing that (as any 
one familiar with the art would have guessed from 
its appearance in the photograph) the medal of 
Frederick of Vaudemont is of lead ; that the medal 
of Margaret of Anjou has long since passed from 
the Pichon to the Salting collection ; and that 
Alberti's design for S. Francesco occurs on Pasti's 
medal of Sigismondo Malatesta, not of Albert! 
himself. Pietro da Milano, whose claim to more 
than a minor share in the Arch of Naples is re- 
futed, is throughout the book called ' Peter Martin 
von Mailand.' He was really ' Peter son of 
Martin.' This misleading use of names is partly 
due to the author's desire — amounting to an 
eccentricity — to Germanize Italian words. Thus 

he writes ' Pickolomini,' 'Schacka' (for Sciacca) 
and ' Jotto.' Since the German reader (whose 
intelligence he seems to rate very low) would 
naturally pronounce the last word ' Yotto,' it is 
hard to see what purpose is served by the per- 
version. But we do not wish to end our account 
of this book, for which we are deeply grateful to 
the author, on a note of discontent. The immense 
labour and time expended on the subject, the 
judicious conduct of the argument, make the 
monograph one of the most notable of recent 
contributions to the history of Italian sculpture. 
It may not deal with any of the greatest monuments 
of that art, but it is a mine of information on 
its development in Genoa, Sicily, Naples and 
Southern France. A parallel to the author's 
elaborate survey of the Arch at Naples can hardly 
be found outside the literature of classical archae- 
ology. G. F. H. 


Niello. By Hofrath Dr. Marc Rosenberg. 

Darmstadt. 1907. 
This publication is really a chapter issued in 
advance from a book on the technical history of 
the goldsmith's craft by the author of that useful 
work ' Der Goldschmiede Merkzeichen.' 

Dr. Rosenberg follows the history of niello from 
its earliest appearance to modern times, and repro- 
duces in some forty illustrations typical examples 
of nielloed works of art. He accepts as niello on 
the authority of Von Bissing the inlay in the gold 
hawk's head in the Cairo jMuseum, found in the 
tomb of Queen Ah-hetep, the composition being 
evidently metallic, though with an unusually high 
proportion of copper. We thus obtain a far 
earlier date for the introduction of niello than was 
formerly admitted ; but some obscurity still pre- 
vails with regard to its use between the time of 
the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty and the Graeco- 
Roman period. As we approach the Christian 
era we are on firmer ground. With the Romans, 
as is well known, niello was very popular, especially 
for the decoration of silver plate. From Roman 
examples the author passes to those of Byzantine 
origin, and from these to the niello of the middle 
ages in the west, so well represented by the work 
of the twelfth century. Dr. Rosenberg discredits 
the theory first propounded by Ilg that the Rog- 
kerus of Helmershausen who made the Paderborn 
portable altar was the same person as the Theo- 
philus of the ' Schedula diversarum artium ' ; and 
it certainly appears that the evidence is incon- 
clusive. The Paderborn altar, the St. Trudpert 
cross and the Xanten casket are all well repro- 
duced, the illustrations of the altar usefully supple- 
menting those given by Von Falke in his monu- 
mental work ' Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten des 
Mittelalters.' An interesting point is raised with 

Sculpture and Metalwork 

regard to the connexion of Italy with niello in the 
middle ages by a criticism of a familiar passage in 
Theophilus. Tiiscia is there mentioned as a place 
in which niello-work was a favourite mode of 
ornament. But while there is no Tuscan niello 
which can be assigned to the eleventh or twelfth 
century, there does exist Russian work for which 
this antiquity is claimed. Dr. Rosenberg therefore 
suggests the emendation Riiscia for Tuscia, and 
submits it in its turn to criticism. 

Passing rapidly over the Italian examples of the 
fourteenth century, the author discusses at some 
length the relation between the nielli of the Re- 
naissance and the metal plates specially engraved 
for the multiplication of prints. He adopts the 
conclusion that there is no real connexion at all, 
and that existing impressions from nielli were 
probably made in the seventeenth century — not 
directly from the metal, but from sulphur moulds 
which had been preserved. Illustrations are given 
of the pax in the Bargello and the impression in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, as well as of 
the paxes at Bologna, and of the German standing- 
cup at Nuremberg. The chapter concludes with 
a mention of the modern Tula work of Russia. 

Although here and there we could have wished 
for a rather fuller treatment — the niello of the 
Anglo-Saxons is, for instance, ignored — this 
chapter in the history of a great industrial art 
should be widely welcomed, and it is to be hoped 
that the book of which it is destined to form an 
integral Dart will before long find a publisher. 
^ ' D. 

The Church Pl.^te of the City of Chester. 

By T. S. Ball. 1907. London : Sherratt and 

Hughes. I OS. 6d. net. 
This book is mainly a reprint of some articles 
which appeared in a local newspaper a few years 
ago. The earliest plate in the Chester churches is 
Elizabethan— three cups, a paten and a paten 
cover. They have only one mark, 'a sheep's 
head,' which the writer ascribes to a Chester silver- 
smith, William Mutton. Unhappily, no illustration 
of this mark is given. These are followed in date 
by a plain cup on baluster stem, with London 
mark for 1633, of which there is another example 
of 1 641 at one other Chester church. A tall cup, 
of 1635, at St. Michael's, presented in 1680, 
probably had a steeple-cover. We notice Mr. 
Ball's abandonment of his somewhat heatedly 
expressed contention in the newspaper that the 
'Sterling' mark on the paten of about 1683 at 
S. John the Baptist's was a Cork mark. He has 
now deemed it prudent to follow Mr. C. J. Jackson's 
advice and describe the mark ' Chester,' with the 
name of the maker, Ralph Walley, though without 
acknowledgment of the source of information. 
Except this paten and the plate wrought by the 
well-known Richardson family, who flourished at 


Sculpture and Metalwork 

Chester from the last quarter of the seventeenth 
century to about 1812, the only examples of local 
silversmiths' work in these churches is a paten of 
1683 by Nathaniel Bullen, at St. Mary-without- 
the- Walls, and a flagon stand of 1711 by Thomas 
Robinson, in the same church. The writer gives 
the name of four of the Richardsons, but omits 
the fifth, William. A double error occurs on 
page 108, where a cup is assigned to the year 1785, 
with a note adding that it may possibly be 1762. 
In the first place, the letter ' m ' on the cup would 
not be 1785-6, but 1787-8 ; and secondly, if it were 
this date, as the writer appears to contend, it would 
also have the king's head mark. The cathedral 
vessels, which chiefly date from the Restoration, 
are of conventional forms, and call for no special 
notice. We do, however, consider that the 
omission of illustrations of the cathedral maces 
(1662), the altar candlesticks (1662), and an old 
Augsburg cup — the latter a recent gift — from a 
small book such as this is unfortunate. One or 
two other rare pieces — for instance, the oval dish 
(1638) at St. Mary-without-the-Walls, which the 
writer describes as 'most unusual' — might well 
have been illustrated. Among several misprints 
is one on page 115, where the Sheffield date-letter 
should be 1839, not 1739. 


The Architecture of Greece and Rome. By 
William J. Anderson and R. Phene Spiers. 
Second edition. London : Batsford. 1907. 
The fact that this book has reached a second 
edition is evidence not only of its merits but of 
the existence of a demand which it has succeeded 
in satisfying. We may assume that it is intended 
for the use and information of architects. When 
we consider how large a place the study of ancient 
buildings took in the education of architects, and 
especially the greatest of them, from the rise of the 
Renaissance to the days of the Gothic revival, 
the importance of a clear exposition of the prin- 
ciples of Greek and Roman construction and 
design, joined to scientific descriptions of existing 
remains, becomes obvious. This book is based on 
lectures given by the late Mr. Anderson — a form 
which scarcely lends itself to any profundity of 
treatment — and its strength lies in its descriptive 
side. Plans and illustrations are numerous and 
generally excellent, and constant reference is made 
to the fragments, especially of Greek buildings, in 
which the British Museum is so rich. It would be 
possible to point to a number of statements to which 
exception might be taken on archaeological grounds; 
but we think that it would be a mistake to criticize 
too closely from that point of view a book with aims 
like those of the one before us. One of the features 
of the new edition is an account of the so-called 
Aegean art which has been revealed by modern 
research, and more particularly of the results of Dr. 


Arthur Evans's excavations in Crete. The account 
as a whole is a good one, taking into consideration 
the purpose of the volume ; and it appears to be 
unnecessary to draw attention to objections which 
might be made to parts of it, not only because these 
archaic remains have merely a subsidiary import- 
ance in the history of developed Greek architecture, 
but also because the stage of practical unanimity 
among professed archaeologists upon these subjects 
has been by no means yet reached. The part of the 
work relating to Greece takes the form of a sketch 
of the evolution of the Hellenic style, which 
practically means the history and description of the 
great temples. The remaining types of buildings : 
theatres, market places, palaces and houses, 
etc., are dealt with in a supplementary chapter. 
The Roman part, which appears to be the most 
satisfactory, as it is certainly the most important for 
a modern architect, mainly follows the lines of a 
description of the buildings classified under head- 
ings, such as Forums, Basilicas, Amphitheatres, 
Baths, Triumphal Arches, etc. Considering the 
abundance of the material and the limited space 
allowed in a volume of this kind, very little of 
importance has been omitted. The accounts too are 
generally written with sufficient information as to 
the more recent discoveries and points of view. It 
is therefore difficult to see why an antiquated and 
in any case largely conjectural plan of the Roman 
Forum should have been given, when the facts as 
to the buildings which surrounded it have been 
almost exhaustively settled by the latest excavations. 
The outlines, for instance, of the important Basilica 
Aemilia have been visible for the last few years, and 
are recorded in published plans, though the very 
cursory mention of it in the text suggests that the 
excavation is only taking place at the present time. 
Again, Deglane's elaborate plan of the Palace of the 
Caesars, though based to a considerable extent upon 
facts, will alniost certainly have to be modified in 
its conjectural parts now that the Villa Mills has 
been acquired by the Italian Government, and that 
there is a prospect of the whole site being excavated 
in the course of the next few years. However, 
we would not lay too much stress on these 
and other minor blemishes in a generally sound 
and useful work. We may add that the volume 
closes with maps showing the position of the chief 
architectural sites of Greece and Italy (an excellent 
idea which might well have been made more exten- 
sive), a glossary of architectural terms, and a list of 
the most important books relating to the subject. 

G. McN. R. 

Windsor. Painted by George M. Henton. 

Described by Sir Richard R. Holmes, K.C.V.O. 

London : Black, ys. 6d. net. 
Sir Richard Holmes's long and intimate 
acquaintance with Windsor Castle gives a value to 
his sketch of its history that is considerably in 


excess of its length. Indeed, it contains so much 
interesting evidence of minute observation of facts 
connected with the building as to deserve a 
different and a more scientific apparatus of 
illustration than that provided by l\Ir. Henton's 
drawings. Reproductions of old plans and old 
prints would have been a great help to those who 
do not know the building well ; and if something 
of the kind could be added to the ne.\t edition the 
practical usefulness of the volume would be greatly 
increased. Sir Richard Holmes confines his studies 
to the castle itself. Mr. Henton in his pictures 
includes the town and neighbourhood. His 
drawings are of very unequal merit. Wherever he 
has to deal with a distance or a wide expanse of 
country he gets into difficulties with tone and 
composition ; his street scenes, on the other hand, 
are almost always successful. 

Storia dell' Arte. Vol. 11°. Parte I. Arte 
Cristiana, neo-orientale ed Europea d'oltri Alpi. 
Dott. Giulio Carotti. Milano : Hoepli. L.6.50. 
This instalment of the latest of Messrs. Hoepli's 
manuals covers a very wide field — so wide, indeed, 
that Professor Carotti, with 360 illustrations and 
about the same number of pages of letterpress at 
his disposal, could not be expected to give more 
than a very general sketch of the subjects discussed. 
The first section deals with the period of the Cata- 
combs, the next with the art and architecture which 
had their origin in Byzantium. We then pass to 
Arab art in Asia, Africa and Spain, and from 
thence to India. The second section begins with 
Romanesque work, and traces the rise of the 
gothic spirit on the Continent and in England. 
Each section is supplemented by a bibliography, 
and there is an elaborate index. Altogether Pro- 
fessor Carotti has managed his compilation well. 
Here and there misprints in names will be noticed, 
and there are naturally many points on which the 
author's conclusions could be challenged ; but on 
the whole the little manual can be recommended 
to those who need a summary of the chief 
examples of mediaeval art, though they should 
be made aware that it deals only with architecture, 
painting and sculpture. Since the above note was 
written we see that the book is shortly to be pre- 
sented in an English dress, in which it should 
attract a considerable audience. 

The Practical Exemplar of Architecture. 
Edited by Merv7n E. Macartney. London : 
Technical Journals (1902), Ltd. 12s. 6d. net. 
This portfolio of plates, in a large measure 
reprinted from 'The Architectural Review,' 
embodies an excellent idea — namely, to provide art 
students, at a small cost, with measured drawings 
and photographs of good examples of architectural 
work and details. The usefulness of the scheme 
depends entirely upon the examples chosen, and 
in the case of this, the first portfolio, the choice is 

both varied and excellent. The hundred and 
twenty plates deal almost exclusively with 
FJenaissance work, and include not only cupolas, 
chimneys, doors and windows but an excellent 
series of gates and wall piers and some fine speci- 
mens of interior woodwork, among which is 
included the famous panelling in Lincoln College 
Chapel. The only suggestion we can make is that 
the name of the architect, where it is known, should 
be added to the lettering at the foot of each plate. 
Notes such as that given on the gate piers at 
Hampstead Marshall would perhaps be better still 
in the case of buildings that are little known. 


Petr.\rch and the Ancient World. By 
Pierre de Xolhac. Boston: D. B.Updike. §6. 
Serious students of Petrarch will naturally turn 
to M. de Nolhac's ' Petrarque et I'Humanisme,' 
but there is a wider public to whom these three 
charming essays should be acceptable. They 
deal with Petrarch as an initiator of the Renaissance, 
with his library, and with his attitude towards his 
best-beloved authors, Virgil and Cicero. They are 
couched in almost impeccable English, the name 
of the author is a sufficient guarantee for their 
quality, and they are presented in a dress worthy 
of their subject, for the type, the paper and the 
printing in red and black could not fail to delight 
as fastidious a lover of books as Petrarch himself. 

The Rhine : Its Valley and its History. 
By H. J. Mackinder, with illustrations in 
colour by Mrs. James Jardine. London : 
Chatto and Windus. 1908. 20s. net. 
Mr. Mackinder's learned yet vivacious and 
eminently readable text is far more than padding 
to eke out a set of pretty pictures, as the ' book ' 
portion of some ' colour books ' has been before 
now. He writes with thorough knowledge and 
keen interest of the physical surroundings of the 
Rhine and its tributaries, the causes that determined 
the course of the mighty river, and its influence 
upon the history of the peoples that live or have 
lived upon its banks from Switzerland to the North 
Sea. For the intelligent arm-chair traveller, who 
will think and use maps, the admirable maps sup- 
plied in the volume itself, ' The Rhine ' will provide 
a tour unrivalled in Europe. The illustrations are 
pretty, but somewhat irrelevant to the text ; the 
reader is left, for instance, helplessly wondering 
why there should be a statue of Sir Francis Drake, 
of all people, at Offenburg. It is not Mr. Mackinder, 
but Baedeker, that informs us that the statue 
commemorates ' the introducer of the potato into 
Europe, 1586.' Is Offenburg specially addicted 
to the grateful consumption of Kartoffehalat ? 
Mrs. Jardine has a ladylike tenderness for the Rhine 
of romantic legend, and paints the Lorelei with a 
rowing-boat drifting past oblivious of steamer or 

I 1 1 

Miscellaneous Books 

rail, while Mr. Mackinder ruthlessly calls it part 
of the Rhenish Schist. Her picture of Bregenz is 
ludicrously misleading, when one thinks of the 
actual lake front of that sadly disfigured town, 
and she shrinks too frequently from facing the 
realities of our prosaic and commercial century. 

C. D. 

Byways of Collecting. By Ethel Deane. 

Cassell and Co. 7s. 6d. net. 
In a small volume of some two hundred pages 
printed in large type, the author proceeds to tell 
us all about porcelain, from the earliest oriental to 
modern Staffordshire crockery. Engravings from 
Diirer and the Little Masters to what she is pleased 
to call ' the Art of Dots,' furniture from early oak 
to Sheraton, old silver, Sheffield plate and cut- 
glass also find a place. The author accepts the 
Chinese tradition that porcelain was made in 
prehistoric days, and boldly states ' that it is known 
that the Chinese made it centuries before Christ,' 
whereas that well-known authority Dr. Bushell, in 
his able work on the subject, is more cautious, and 
while admitting the possibility of its first having 
been produced during the T'ang dynasty, which 
commenced A.D. 618, informs us that no examples 
seem to have survived of earlier date than the 
Sung period, A.D. 960-1279. The subjects of 
engravings, silver, glass, etc., are treated in the 
same manner, so that the serious collector, who 
in common with the invalid of to-day usually 
prefers to consult a specialist on the subject of 
the greatest interest to himself, will hardly consider 
' Byways of Collecting' a necessary addition to his 
library. The illustrations, which for their size are 
good, do not show any example of particular 
interest. C. L. 

Sir William Temple upon the Gardens of 
Epicurus, with other seventeenth-century 
garden essays. Introduction by Albert Forbes 
Sieveking, F.S.A. The King's Classics. Chatto 
and Windus. is. 6d. net. 
The new volume of the ' King's Classics ' contains, 
besides Evelyn's essay, Abraham Cowley's poem, 
' The Garden ' ; parts of Sir Thomas Browne's 'The 
Garden of Cyrus,' and his ' Observations upon 
Several Plants mentioned in Scripture,' his letter 
to Evelyn on garlands, and his ' Observations on 
Grafting ' ; Marvell's poems, ' The Garden ' and 
' The Mower against Gardens ' ; and Evelyn's 
garden letters and garden cuttings from his diary. 
The whole makes a treasury, not only of garden 
lore, redolent of ' fine garden smells,' but of seven- 
teenth-century prose ; and the editor's learned and 
vivacious introduction and the appendices and 
notes are full of quaint information on gardening. 
On the literary side the introduction is, perhaps, 
less satisfactory. Mr. Sieveking has not the 
seventeenth-century spirit ; he is a little inclined 

to patronize our betters in the art of prose, and he 
rather misses the ' Sir Thomas Browne-ness ' (to 
use Coleridge's phrase) of Sir Thomas Browne. 
His good work, however, adds immensely to the 
attractions of the volume, which is one of the 
pleasantest and most scholarly in its always 
pleasant and scholarly series. 

The Mask. A monthly journal of the art of the 
theatre. Vol. I, No. i. March, 1908. is. net 
monthly. London agent : D. J. Rider, 36 St. 
Martin's Court, Charing Cross Road, W.C. 
All who are seriously interested in the art of the 
theatre have long desired to see a journal devoted 
to the subject. We may, therefore, give 'The 
Mask ' a warm welcome, more particularly as its 
first number shows very clearly that the art of the 
theatre with which it intends to concern itself is 
not the art of the theatre as usually practised in 
London. It contains several articles of interest, 
which serve to bring into prominence essential 
features of the art of the theatre which are too 
often overlooked. Mr. Edward Hutton describes 
the posture-dancing of Spain — a language which 
London is always loth to listen to, save in the case 
of one or two sophisticated and cosmopolitan 
representatives. Mr. John Balance has a paper on 
masks, which includes a wise word of praise for 
puppet-shows, while Mr. Gordon Craig himself 
addresses an inspiriting piece of counsel to young 
actors and stage-managers. Yet at the end of our 
perusal — in spite of the real if manicre beauty of 
type, paper and cuts — we are left rather doubtful 
of the efficacy of ' The Mask ' in its present form. 
Is it not a little archaistic ? Mr. Balance may 
claim that the mask is of the future as much as of 
the past ; but can we believe him ? Mr. Hutton 
deals with what he admits to be a dying art, and a 
phase of it which has been left far behind by 
the posture-dancers from the east, who, having 
absorbed, perhaps, something of the art of the 
Roman paiitoinirinis, offer one or two specimens 
of the same art in a much higher and more artistic 
form ; and Serlio's book, excerpts from which are 
given, some in English, some in Italian, is surely 
as unsuited to the needs of the moment as the 
archaisms of Mr. William Poel. We would implore 
the guiding spirits of ' The Mask ' to remember that 
the present state of things is in urgent need of 
reform, and that reforms are not carried out save 
by methods a little less remote and a little more 
brutal than those adopted in their beautiful but 
rather precious magazine. The art of the theatre 
is a popular one. It is the many, not the few, 
who must be convinced before the art of the 
theatre is to be raised from its present condition ; 
and 'The Mask' is not for the many. It is true 
that the magazine expressly disclaims any intention 
of reforming the modern stage. That is the 

I 12 

Miscellaneous Books 

ground of our complaint ; and we do not agree 
that it is now too hte for reform. 

The Winchester Charts of Florentine and 
Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. 
Compiled by M. J. Kendall. London : 
Mansell. Each 2s. 6d. net. 

These two charts present in a tabular form the 
artistic descent of the chief painters of the 
Renaissance, the Florentine chart including the 
schools of Umbria, Siena and Milan, while the 
Venetian one includes all the painters of North 
Italy. The charts are completed with chronological 
tables and notes on historical points, are mounted 
on linen to fold like maps, and are put up in 
handsome covers. Only on one or two points 
can we suggest improvements. Michelangelo's 
descent from Donatello is traced far more directly, 
and rightly, through Bertoldo than by the round- 
about route of Domenico Veneziano, Alesso 
Baldovinetti and Ghirlandajo ; the influences of 
the Pollaiuoli on Botticelli and of Castagno on 
his Florentine successors deserved notice — and 
other questions will suggest themselves to the 
critical mind. But on the whole the arrangement 
is so clear and so sensible that the charts should 
be most useful to those who wish to get a general 
view of the development of Renaissance painting. 

A Guide to the Paintings in the Churches 
AND Minor Museums of Florence. By 
Maud Cruttwell. London: Dent. 

This companion volume to Miss Cruttwell's 
guide to the paintings in the Florentine galleries 
is a most useful addition to the traveller's library. 
So far as we have checked it, it is up to date in 
point of scholarship, and includes a good many 
things that are not commonly known ; the author's 
notes are commendably brief, and are accompanied 
or replaced where possible by extracts from Vasari 
referring to the pictures. The book is arranged 
on a simple alphabetical plan and is diversified here 
and there by little engravings, while asterisks, 
single or double, mark the works to which Miss 
Cruttwell specially directs attention. Were the 
double asterisks replaced throughout by single ones 
the estimates as a whole would be more just, yet, 
as sensible people decide these things for them- 
selves, the point is unimportant compared with the 
general usefulness of the book. 

Blatter fur Gemaldekunde. Von Dr. Theodor 
v. Frimmel. Band IIL Wicn : Ceroid and 
The third volume of Dr. Von Friramel's well- 
printed publication includes the ten numbers 
issued between May 1906 and the summer of 
1907. As usual, the contents are varied and inte- 
resting. Special attention is devoted to works by 

the Dutch masters of the seventeenth century, on 
whom there are many valuable illustrated notes, 
made still more useful by the provision of a good 

Die Holzmobel der Sammlung Figdor. Von 
Dr. Hans Stegmann. Wien : Artaria and Co. 
This handsomely illustrated account of the furni- 
ture in the possession of the well-known Viennese 
collector Dr. Figdor is a reprint of matter that 
has appeared in ' Kunst und Kunsthandwerk.' It 
well deserves the honour of separate publication, 
both from the intrinsic importance, variety and 
beauty of the collection and from the fact that 
it is the work of the director of the German 
National Museum at Nuremberg. The collection 
is mainly domestic in character, but the examples 
of chests, coffers, presses, fald-stools, chairs, tables 
and frames which it includes represent the crafts 
of Italy and Northern Europe during the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries with some approach to 
completeness. It will thus appeal specially to 
collectors who are interested in the furniture made 
before the style of Italy was superseded by that 
of France. 

Art and Design in the Decoration of 

Bookbindings. Bumpus. 1907. 
A remarkable scheme is embodied in this 
sumptuous catalogue. Messrs. Bumpus have 
conceived the idea of reproducing in facsimile a 
series of the most notable bindings executed 
between the twelfth and eighteenth centuries, and 
the set of nearly 120 plates with which this cata- 
logue is embellished illustrates the result of their 
labours. As the preface not unjustly claims, the 
collection is an object-lesson in bookbinding, for 
the progress of design and decoration from the 
past to the present can be seen at a glance, almost 
every school of bookbinding being represented. 
Beginning with a Byzantine cover of the twelfth 
century in carved ivory, the series, after including 
one or two examples of oriental work, passes to 
the stamped calf bindings of Pynson and others 
of the time of Henry VIII. Then, after a number 
of fine Elizabethan examples, we come to the 
Stuart epoch, which, taken as a whole, perhaps 
represents the climax of the binder's art in Great 
Britain. It would be invidious to pick and choose 
among the admirable examples of the work of this 
time, but a word of special praise must be given to 
the unique binding by Samuel Mearne, illustrated 
in the plate facing page 44. After some tine speci- 
mens of the work of Roger Payne and of the 
Scotch bookbinders of the eighteenth century, we 
come to F^rench, Italian, Spanish, German and 
Dutch bindings, all of them excellent and repre- 
sentative, the examples of Le Gascon being 
specially notable. It would be difficult, in fact, to 
compile a more complete and instructive series. 


I I 


Miscellaneous Books 

The Washbourne Family. By James Daveiiport, 
M.A., vicar of Wichenford. With fifteen 
illustrations. Methuen and Co. 21s. net. 
The Washbournes, a Worcestershire family origin- 
ally of knightly rank, held the lands of Washbourne 
for some five centuries, although their chief seat 
during the greater part of that period was elsewhere. 
They have left their tombs and monuments in 
Worcestershire churches ; they married with 
gentle houses ; their younger branches spread 
abroad, one line having been in New England since 
Charles the First's days. Although no great man 
came of them they found sheriffs for their county 
— sheriff, we may tell our author, is the English for 
the ' vicecomes ' of his records — a cavalier to fight 
for the king and a minor poet to write some long- 
forgotten verse. 

But it cannot be said that Mr. Davenport has, 
to use his own phrase, ' occupied the leisure hours 
of some fifteen years ' to any good purpose. An 
opening paragraph giving as the 'earliest named 
member of the family ' a Domesday tenant named 
Sampson rests solely on a remark of honest 
Habingdon that he knew not whether there was 
any kinship between this man and later tenants of 
Washbourne. Following this we have a precious 
' Book of Family Crests ' cited for its opinion that 
'Washbourneisaname of ancient Norman descent.' 
How or in what sense the English name of an Eng- 
lish village may be said to be of ' Norman descent' 
is a difficulty which we leave Mr. Davenport to 
settle with the ' Book of Family Crests.' For the 
rest, Mr. Davenport has spent upon canvassing 
items from printed books of little value the space 
which should have been given to records. Even 
Domesday Book is cited at third hand, and when 
original records are quoted in Latin the many 
abbreviated words puzzle Mr. Davenport. 

But accuracy can hardly be looked for in an 
author whose full-page portrait of a Washbourne 
ancestor is described as ' Thomas Washbourne, 
D.D. and Poet.' This for the reason that the 
figure holds a book in its right hand, and 
in spite of the fact that a large shield of arms 

in the corner proclaims it the portrait of the poet's 

The copy of a mother's note on a seven-year- 
old child, dead in 1712, is the curious scrap we 
shall carry from this unsatisfactory book. He was 
a child 'worthy of remembrance, for God Almighty 
favoured his sickness with a signal honour of 
heavenly music to sound from him ... it was 
only heard at night.' O. B. 


Messrs. Seeley have just issued in their series of 
Miniature Portfolio Monographs {2s.) a reprint of 
Dr. Anderson's book on ' Japanese Wood Engrav- 
ings,' which will always have an interest as a 
pioneer among popular treatises on this fascinating 
subject. The second number of ' The Neolith ' 
(T. Kell and Sons) is well up to the standard of 
it predecessors, the illustrations to Mr. Lang's 
article and the script in which the magazine is 
written deserving special praise, although the 
standard of art and literature throughout is much 
above the average. Messrs. Jack have added to 
their little series of ' Masterpieces in Colour ' 
(is. 6d.) volumes on Titian by Mr. L. S. Bensusan, 
and on Holman Hunt by the late Miss Coleridge. 
Titian fares ill in the colour-printer's hands. Mr. 
Holman Hunt's more positive hues stand the 
ordeal better. Five Greek mirrors, a Muranese 
tabernacle and a bronze bust of Innocent X by 
Alessandro Algardi, in which the pontiff wears a 
much less formidable aspect than in the famous 
portrait by Velazquez, are the chief acquisitions 
illustrated in the April Bulletin of the Metropolitan 
Museum, New York. 

As we go to press we have received the fine illus- 
trated catalogue of the collection of the late M. O. 
Homberg, which is shortly (^L-ly 11-16) to be sold 
in Paris at the Georges Petit Gallery. Lack of time 
and space forbid us to dwell upon this splendid and 
varied assemblage of things Oriental and European, 
including faience, metalwork, ivories, manuscripts 
and sculpture. We can only recommend it to the 
attention of all collectors and students. 


HE complaint of the dealers 
in old prints — namely, that 
available material for sales is 
becoming ominously scarce 
— certainly is not without 
foundation. Comparing the 
catalogues of the three prin- 
cipal auction firms nowadays 
with those that were issued about fifteen years 
ago, it is easy to note a marked difference. To-day 
we find specimens by masters of secondary im- 
portance catalogued singly which were formerly 
relegated to 'job lots ' at the end of the sale. Even 


such things as the portraits by the Louis XIV 
engravers were only furtively introduced in a 
catalogue of first-rate standing, and names like 
Carmona, Collaert, Fruytiers, Mouzyn, Peeters, 
Pitau never figured as distinct features in the good 
old times, when work by the famous engravers 
and the 'little masters' was plentiful, and the 
collector scarcely deigned to consider men like 
those I have just named. In order to fill up a sale 
catalogue, the dealer to-day has to resort to the 
minor work, and is also compelled to connive at 
conditions of impression or preservation which 
would formerly have disqualified the print. 

Art in Germany 

This year there are only two important print 
sales on ; both Mr. Gutekunst, of Stuttgart, and 
Mr. Boerner, of Leipzig, have been fortunate in 
so far as they are able to offer fine old collections 
for sale, and are not limited to the dispersal of 
such stray material as they have been able to 
collect in the course of the year. 

Mr. Boerner sells at auction on May 5th and 
6th a part of the collection of original drawings 
by the late Ed. Cichorius, who had homes both ui 
Dresden and Leipzig. Mr. Cichorius collected 
Dutch and Flemish drawings of the seventeenth 
century, drawings by German artists of the former 
half of the nineteenth century, and drawings by 
Adrian Ludwig Richter. The seventeenth-century 
drawings are reserved for a later occasion. The 
majority of Cichorius's German nineteenth-century 
drawings have passed into the possession of the 
Dresden Royal Print Room. Boerner's catalogue, 
however, enumerates some two hundred specimens 
of excellent quality by such artists as Chodowiecki, 
Erhard, Genelli, Klein, J. A. Koch, G. Mind (the 
painter of cats), F. v. Olivier, Overbeck, Preller, 
Rethel, Rottmann, Schnorr, Schwind, Steinle, and 
a number of others who have risen out of an 
imdeserved obscurity in consequence of the 
attention which the Berlin centenary exhibition 
has called to their work. The Ludwig Richter 
collection is remarkable and truly unique. The 
Dresden Print Room has secured only a minor 
part of this, and what was left over for the Boerner 
sale consequently covers all the phases of Richter's 
art, and includes a large percentage of his best 
life work. Cichorius was an enthusiast and one 
of Richter's most intimate personal friends. 
Under these circumstances his collection of 
Richter drawings naturally grew to be excep- 

Mr. Boerner follows up this sale with one of old 
prints, which is not very large, yet contains some 
fine rarities — for example, Lutlicr as 'Junker J org' 
by Cranach (Sch. 179), a woodcut that has not 
figured in any sale for years, a fine copper-plate 
Passion, St. Jerome in his Cell, Melencolia, Dream, 
and Naiivity by Diirer, a very good 'petite toinbe ' 
by Rembrandt, the scarce Baldung Madonna 
(Pass. 65), some good Hirschvogel, Ostade, Rai- 
mondi, etc. 

Mr. Gutekunst sells, besides prints taken from 
his own stock, the Marsden J. Perry and the Fritz 
Rumpf collections on the i8th-23rd of May. 
The two pieces de resistance are a ' Meister des 
Hausbuchs,T2t'c> Wrestling Peasants (Lehrs 63), and 
a Master E.S., a Gothic monstrance (undescribed). 
This last was unearthed only a few months ago at 
Munich ; it is unique. Although a specialist of the 
order of Professor Lehrs has been hunting up and 
cataloguing the work of E. S. for twenty-five years, 
it has never been met with heretofore. I he Prisoner 
by an anonymous Italian of the fifteenth century 

(Pass, v, page 78, No. 25), once in Ottley's collec- 
tion, is likewise the only copy known of this print. 
Some further great rarities are Eve and Cain by 
Dirk Vellert (B. i), Tlie Daughter of Herod (Geis- 
berg 300), The Organ Player (G. 409) and The 
Knight (G. 405) by Israhel van Meckenem, The 
Dance of Putti by Marcantonio Raimondi, The 
Doge's Procession (Andresen 65) by Ammann and 
Christ upon the Cross (Lehrs 29) by Wenzel von 
(^hniitz. The catalogue further comprises excep- 
tional collections of Durer and Rembrandt prints 
and very fine ones of the work of Daulle, the 
Drevets, Van Dyck (a first state of the Jan de 
IVael), Edelinck, Goya (the line etchings after 
Velazquez), J. Grateloup, I^Lisson, Nanteutl, G. F. 
Schmidt, C. Visscher, VViUe and Woollett. There 
are also some Japanese colour-prints and a num- 
ber of etchings by Klinger. 

Klinger etchings were the principal attraction 
in Messrs. Amsler and Ruthardt's spring sale 
which is already past. It followed only a few 
months after the Mohrmann sale, but prices have 
risen again since then. Work by Klinger, which 
the artist sold — according to my notes — fifteen 
years ago for about ;^400, fetched no less than 
Ji3>-5° (including the auctioneer's 5 per cent, 
supercharges) at this sale. Occasionally people, 
cautious rather than sagacious, raise their voice 
against the purchase of the work of living men. 
Here is a signal proof of the fallacy of their 
reasoning. The Dresden Print Room'bought its 
magnificent Klinger collection many years ago for 
a trifle : it was sheer prudence. 

William Blumhardt, lately a citizen of Mann- 
heim, bequeathed £s,ooo to this town for the 
juu-chase of works of art. A once-famous statue of 
Sappho by Dannecker has come into the possession 
of the gallery at Stuttgart. The museum at Basle 
has purchased two important canvases by Albert 
von Keller, several of whose works were recently 
acquired by the Bavarian Government for its 
museums. Among the recent acquisitions of the 
Kaiser-Friedrich Museum at Berlin there figure 
a Female Portrait, by Roger van der Weyden, a 
Mater Dolorosa, by Paolo Caliari, a Latona, by Paul 
Bril, and a carved panel of the Bavarian school, 
sixteenth century, representing the Fountain of 
Love. The museum at Magdeburg has bought 
the marble Head of Si. John 'the Baptist by Rodin. 
;/,"5ooo has been placed at the disposal of the 
municipality of Winterthur by a citizen of that 
town for the erection of a new museum. 

Berlin's stock of genuine Rembrandts has just 
been increased by the hitherto unknown Portrait 
of a Young Man, which has come into the collec- 
tion of Mr. Koppel. It was bought by i\Ir. Hum- 
phry Ward at a London sale some time ago, and 
was then altogether unrecognizable because it had 
been quite repainted. The new coating of paint 
which had aimed at ' prettifying ' the original was 

I I 

Art in Germany 

carefully removed by the famous Munich picture 
restorer Hauser, and as it disappeared a fine 
portrait of a young man with blonde hair, turning 
his face back to the spectator, came to view. The 
young man wears a black hat ; his right hand is 

concealed by his cloak. Finely painted as they 
are, his features and expression are in no wise 
charming, and this probably accounts for the 
picture having been repainted, in order to give- 
better looks to the model. H. W. S. 


One of the favourite literary amusements of the 
last century was the depreciation of its great men ; 
remorse followed in the form of sycophantic 
adulation, which generally preceded contemptuous 
neglect. In our new century, with all its bright 
and uncertain prospects, its unexplored perspec- 
tives, we have changed all that ; we reverse the 
process. Then, after all, we are only children 
eight years old, and the toys of the intellectual 
grown-ups seem a little dusty and not a little 
damaged. We have licked off all the paint that 
was going to do us any harm ; there is a general 
feeling in the nursery that the things can fje sent 
to some charitable institution sucTi as the Tate 
Gallery. Whistler was the last Victorian rattle 
which gave us any pleasure or amusement ; les, 
jeiiitcs fcioces have already begun to find fault 
with the music of the Nocturnes. 

Rossetti was lucky enough to die so long ago as 
1882. His reputation survives even a most unfor- 
tunate series of biographies and monographs. Two 
or three only are serious tributes to his memory — 
notably Pater's well-known appreciation and 
Mr. Arthur Benson's brilliant essay ; while Mr. 
^H. C. Marillier's admirable and indispensable 
record of the painter's progress is, indeed, that of 
a Greatheart who has got lost on his arrival in 
Lthe Celestial City. But, oddly enough, though 
Mr. Swinburne and others have written with 
eloquence and conviction of the man and poet, 
there has been no satisfactory critical estimate of 
the artist who I think it no exaggeration to say 
was, with the exception of Turner, the greatest 
personality in the English school of the nineteenth 

It is the duty of every critic to explain his own 
jargon; and I must hasten to addthatwhen writingof 
pictures I distinguish between the great painter and 
the great artist. There have been many great painters 
in the world (not perhaps many in England), 
but the artists are few, either in England or else- 
where. A great painter is one who has learned 
to handle with unsurpassable skill the mediums at 
his disposal. In the middle ages those mediums 
were tempera and the materials of buoii fresco ; in 
modern times, oils and water colour. Giotto, 
Duccio, Van Eyck, Titian, Velazquez, Hals, 
Gainsborough, Chardin, for example, were great 
painters in the first instance ; that they were great 
artists as well is beside the point. It will be clearer 
if I mention the names of two artists (among the 


greatest the world has ever seen) whom I do not 
think we can call great painters — Diirer and 
Michelangelo. From their finest paintings, surely 
it would be affectation to pretend that we derive 
the same pleasure, the same satisfaction with 
technique, the same joy in paint, that we derive 
from Van Eyck or Titian. Diirer and Michel- 
angelo are terrific indestructible forces, but if 
all their pictures perished it would be a loss of 
less magnitude than the destruction of every 
Velazquez. The engravings of the one and the 
sculpture of the other would still continue like the 
art of Leonardo to act and react on the art of^ 
Europe. I do not attempt any comparison 
between Michelangelo and Diirer ; nor do I 
wish to compare either of them with Rossetti 
except in the intellectual influence they exercised, 
as artists and intellectuals, on their contemporaries 
and successors. An intelligent appreciation of] 
this aspect of the Englishman's genius will help to 
place Rossetti in the exalted niche which I venture 
to claim for him. 

In the opinion of his immediate hostile critics 
Rossetti could not draw, though a sense of colour 
was occasionally conceded hun. The difference 
between a good drawing and a correct drawing is 
only beginning to be understood ; and it is by a 
singular irony of circumstance that now, when 
our drawing is much more correct than it ever 
was in the last century, Rossetti's pen and pencil 
works should be so highly prized by modern 
draughtsmen some of whom find his exquisite 
colour too primitive and daring. 

No less uncritical than the habit of blaming a 
painter because he is not like another is that 
praise of an artist for what he does not possess. 
The eulogists of Rossetti have tried to patch up 
the weak places in his armour with the rags they 
have torn from his less capable contemporaries. 
The arid teaching of the Royal Academy did not 
extenuate his faults, which are obvious to any 
drawing master. From what we know of his 
character he would have chafed under the 
discipline of any school, however admirable ; 
whether that of Squarcione, the Carracci or 
Professor Tonks. We must remember his irritation 
at being asked to delineate galley-pots in the studio 
of Madox Brown. Let us realize and accept his 
limitations in order to appraise him. 

In the manipulation of oil he was never quite 
proficient— and that is why he is not a great 
painter. But who shall define the cockleshells, the 

Art in America 

staff and sandals of the Artist ? That component 
philosopher's stone, hke genius, lies somewhere 
hidden in the alembic of art criticism, and may 
possibly be found materialized in some wizard's 

[retort. At all events, only sheer genius will 
account for Rossetli's few oil pictures which are 
adequate expressions of that genius ; such are 
Moiiiia Vaiiua, The Beloved, and The Blue Boiver 

1^ — the finest of them all. 

The practice of tempera painting had not been 
revived when the Prcraphaelite movement was 
initiated ; it was never employed by Burne-Jones 
even, and Rossetti found in water colour a medium 
more suitable than oil for the expression of his art 
and its archaistic formulas. It is often a shock 
to see again some of Rossetti's oil paintings. 
Beautiful designs which in reproduction are 
still beautiful, on careful reinspection will be 
found to be badly painted ; there is something 
positively common in the quality of the paint — or 
let mesay in the absence of quality. Vou understand 
that it must have been something of the kind which 
induced Whistler to suggest the substitution of a 
sonnet for a picture in the frame, when invited by 
Rossetti to admire all three. It has been suggested 
in recent memoirs that Rossetti's Preraphael- 

jTlism was a very half-hearted affair. Arguments 
about the procession of that idea are like those on 
the Filioqite clause ; they are interminable and 

^terile. Rossetti's own painting, however, and his 
own written words prove how far he was removed 
in spirit and sympathy from the exact naturalism 
of Tlie Cnrpeiiter's SIiop by Millais or the brilliant 
Hireling Shepherd of Mr. Holman Hunt. The 
Ophelia of the former is, perhaps, a better and 
more typical picture, from which the divergence 
can be noted ; because there is no pietistic motive, 
and because the model being Miss Siddall there is 
a superficial resemblance to Rossettismus — but it 
is only superficial. Millais, v.-e know, repudiated 
in later life the possibility that he was ever 
influenced by the greater genius and lesser painter 
for whom he recorded a personal dislike. I think 
we may accept his assurance— along with the 
unfortunate circumstance, accidental maybe, that 
all his best pictures were painted during the years 
that he was in touch, if not with Rossetti, at least 
with Rossetti's art, through the, to him, more 
sympathetic account of it given doubtless by Mr. 
Holman Hunt from time to time. We have good 
authority for believing that things heard are 
greater than things seen. We know, too, that 
Ruskin conjured forth dogmas of which the 
Brotherhood was innocent, and that Rossetti must 
have been the furthest removed from the Ruskin 
ideal. But that wonderful critic, who was blind to 
thequahties of Whistler and Madox Brown, became 
magnetized by a marvellous personality and an 
art that was as 'contrairey' to his teaching as 
to a Mrs. Gummidge. It was, in fact, Rossetti 

who influenced Ruskin ; and he influenced his 
master Madox Brown a great deal more than 
Madox Brown influenced him. Madox Brown, 
like Millais, was a far better oil painter, and his 
execution is superior generally to Rossetti's. But 
in invention, beauty, design and colour-sense he 
was the lesser man, tliough he improved under the 
tutelage of his pupil. Critics have noted with sur- 
prise a certain Preraphaelitism in Whistler's early 
pictures ; but I think it will be found that it is 
Rossetti's impulse or inspiration — a Melusine or 
Lilith that crept for a moment into the impres- 
sionist's Eden. Be/ore thcMirrorand The Princess of 
the Porcelain Conntry are well-known examples. 
And I cannot think the obvious relationship must 
be attributed to the fair models having belonged to 
similar types ; or to having been the same person, 
as in the case of Millais's Ophelia. It is a momen- 
tary similarity of treatment, sentiment and 
feminism which impregnated Whistler. I make 
the observation with all proper reserve, since I do 
not wish to arouse any angry protests from those 
brave Horatios who guard Battersea Bridge ; 
and for whom there is nothing in heaven or 
earth except what was dreamt in the Butterfly's 
philosophy. But you could not know Rossetti, 
you cannot know his art, and remain Laodicean. 
You must hate it or adore it ; and you must feel, 
as Millais did, its sweetness and strength. . 

English painting, when it was neither landscape 
nor portraiture, had contributed nothing to the 
art of Europe until Rossetti — nothing tliat was 
not done better by some one else. But Rossetti is___/ 
unique and gives us something that is not to be 
found in any old or modern master. He visualizes"^ 
thoughts, motives, colours and designs in a way 
no other artist has attempted or contrived, unless 
an exception be made of Mr. Charles Conder, 
whose talent lies in another and narrower direc-;J 

The trend of future criticism will, I believe, be 
in the direction of detaching him from the purely 
local disturbance of Preraphaelitism — because his 
influence is much more important, more world- 
wide. Preraphaelitism as an archaistic revival, 
too, was not the revolution it was supposed 
to be ; it was a natural development of 
English painting, a fact which any one can 
attest by studying the earlier work of the 
nineteenth century, in the paintings of George 
Richmond and the pencil drawings of Alfred 
Stevens, for example. Rossetti's debt to the move- 
ment was far less than that of the movement to 
himself. From the days of Reynolds English 
painting always derived its nobler impulses from 
Italy ; and artists have from time to time always 
tried to release themselves from a Batavian bondage 
and provincialismby onejourncy to that intellectual 
Emmaus. In Rossetti by some divine or fortuitous 
avatar Italy came to England. And when the final 


Art in America 

essay on his art comes to be written (by Mr. Charles 

Ricketts, if I may hazard a hope) that should be the 

attitude we may expect of the critic. IVIoreover, 

when we remember the surprising admission of 

Bell-Scott that Preraphaelitism was due to the 

discovery of photography, we can better realize the 

gulf between Rossetti and his associates ; that 

the painter of Lady Lililli was a hybrid, without 

reference to his name. All great art is hybrid in 

its origin, if not in its manifestation. Then who can 

deny that there is a good deal of the daguerreotype 

in the BlacI; Bntiistvickcr a.nd{he Portrait cf Riisl;in 

byMillais ?— while some other well-known pictures 

of the school anticipated the triumph of chromo- 

lithography. They have at all events the actuality 

if nol the truth of process. Thus their popularity 

maybe accounted for, in a nation that always prefers 

reproductions to original painting. In the more 

actual landscapes of Rossetti's pictures, even where 

they can be identified — in the Boiccr Mcadozv, for 

instance — there is none of the real Preraphaelitism 

distinguishing the pictures of Mr. Holman Hunt, 

Dyce or Burton. Howell used to say that Ruskin 

never forgave Rossetti for inventing trees instead 

of copying some in Red Lion Square for one of 

his backgrounds. 

It is a facile and convenient theory to make 
Rossetti responsible for the disciples who have 
worn out the convention of Burne-Jones ; though 
W\Q Damsel of the Sa lie Gracl is a terrible piece dc 
conviction. And it will be some one's duty to rescue 
the master and pupil from the claws of their 
imitators. It is of course the archaistic elements 
common to Rossetti, Burne-Jones and to all the 
generic Preraphaelites which confuse the issues 
and involve a falsified grouping of names and 
i-epiitations. Alarmed by the brilliancy of their 
exhibitionsthroughoutthesixties, the Academicians 
banned every painter of excellence for a Pre- 
raphaelite — until Whistler's influence becoming 
a scandal, the excellents were dubbed impres- 
sionists. Poor Albert Moore was excluded on 
both counts — the frying-pan and the fire. But 
then the Academicians could always point to 
Millais as an example of how by determination, 
pains and hard work you could remain a success- 
ful Academician without being an artist. 

As earlyas 1876 Mr. Swinburne, whose admirable 
art criticism has been adumbrated by more brilliant 
powers, found it necessary to defend his friend for 
being lioth a poet and a painter. In that age of 
specialists it was hardly regarded as quite respect- 
able ; the admirers were told that something must 
be wrong with the poetry or the painting ; and 
Mr. Swinburne wittily observed that the possessor 
of a double talent was always open to a double 
kmd of attack. Later on, when there followed on 
the artist's death the reaction against the uncritical 
adulation of the eighties, and the very name 
'poet-painter' induced nausea, French aesthetics 


began to be preached in Chelsea. It was decided 
that Rossetti endeavoured to express in art what 
could only be expressed in literature — ' Literature 
straying into paint ' was the phrase used. Though 
he was never numbered among the anecdote- 
mongers, he was relegated to the rank of illustrators 
by the ' new criticism.' The late Mr. R. A. M. 
Stevenson, the prophet of that school of criticism 
(for it is rather a school of criticism than of art), 
paid however a tribute to Rossetti, for being a great 
innovator and inventor who might be included in 
the narrow paddock of ' paint for paint's sake ' ; it 
was the Blue Boicer which converted him. That 
picture is indeed a masterpiece in which beauty 
seems justified of all her children, caring nothing 
for explanations. For this exquisite work Mrs. 
Schott {iiee Miss Fanny Cornforth) was the inspir- 
ing model whose beauty is again immortalized in_ 
The Lad\ Lilith. The oil version of this subject 1 
belongs to 1864, and was entirely spoiled by 
the artist in 1872, the head being repainted from 
a different model. Fortunately two water-colour 
replicas had been executed in 1867 for Mr. Coltart 
of Liverpool and Mr. Stevenson of Tynemouth 
respectively. It is the former and the finer (here 
reproduced) which has been secured for the New 
York museum by Mr. Roger Fry. A connoisseur] 
who remembers the oil picture before it was ruinea 
informs me that Mr. Coltart's water colour was 
immeasurably superior in the opinion of Rossetti 
himself ; and the circumstance that he attempted 
to improve the oil painting corroborates this view. 
It would, indeed, be difficult to imagine a more 
radiant e.xample of Rossetti's art in that medium, 
in which his most characteristic work was achieved, _ 
with the few exceptions I have mentioned. For irij 
spite of his indignant letter to the ' Athena2um ' in 
1865 protesting against being called 'a water- 
colour painter who only occasionally used oils,' 
the criticism was true if the description was 

An exclamation of Ruskin is irresistibly recalled 
before Lady Lilith. ' You can cram,' he said, on 
being shown the wonderful design of The Weeping 
Queens for Moxon's Tennyson. Every available 
space in Lady Lilith is furnished with the acces- 
sories the artist loved ; but they are not mere^ 
accessories. In the colour-scheme they all have 
significance and unity of purpose. The picture 
illustrates Rossetti's preferences in colour quoted 
by Mr. Marillier a propos of the Blue Boicer, to 
which they scarcely fit with the same nicety. ' The 
order in which Tlove colours,' writes Rossetti, 
'are : No. i, pure, light, warm green ; No. 2, deep 
gold colour ; No. 3, certain tints of grey ; No. 4, 
shadowy steel blue ; No. 5, brown with crimson 
tinge; No. 6, scarlet.' The reflection in the 
mirror of the garden outside (No. i), Lady 
Z,;7;7/;'i- hair (No. 2), portions of the dress (No. 3), 
the eyes (No. 4), the foxgloves (No. 5), the coral 


Till L M i"i I II I 1 II, I. , , ' \ \ I I (, \l;l.'ll 1 I," i-^l M I. l;l I, liXTI.V 
ACol INEl) l;y Till-, Ml-.TUdlMLLTAN Ml SEl M, XIAV YdlJK 

aI;t in ameUica 




,_ o 
c y. 

Art in America 

on the wrist with the poppy in the glass 
(No. 6) are painted testamenls of Rossetti's 
naive confidences. A breadth in the painting, in 
spite of the elaborate detail, differentiates the work 

Lirom others by the artist's associates and friends. 
Not only by the title does Rossetti lift an entirely 
genre subject into a higher and harder field of paint- 
ing : it is by the grandeur of treatment, the imagina- 
tive splendour of the colour, the invention of design. 
You can hardly help suspecting that the name was 
an afterthought, because he refers simply to the 
'Toilette Picture' in writing of it to his mother. 
Nevertheless the haunting fascination of the Lilith 
legend may have been the direct source of inspira- 
tion. On the back of the frame in his own hand- 
writing is a translation from the passage in Goethe 
where Lilith must have first attracted his attention. 
All the biographers have dwelt on the subtlety of 
presenting her as a seductive modern lady rather 
than Eve's predecessor, the mother of the 
glittering sons who move in the woods and 
waters. It is undeniably typical of Rossetti's 
personal and peculiar Preraphaelitism, this 
Talmudic or progenetic idea of womanhood, and 
recalls the amusing story of the lady who asked 
Mr. Leathart of Newcastle ' if he did not find it 
very difficult to obtain pre-Adamite pictures.' At 
the same time it is harmful to Rossetti's reputa- 
tion if the literary motives in his pictures are 
dwelt upon rather than their significance as 
paintings and drawings. We must not be lured 
by his exquisite poetry into overlooking the 
perfections and imperfections of his delicate and 
peccant art. The reflex action of his poetry and 
his painting belongs to the history of the man, 
not the artist. Poetry does not palliate faulty 

I execution. 

^ After 1872, whether on account of chloral, or an 
unfortunate communion with literary parasites, or 
popularity, involving too much dependence on his 
assistant Treffy Dunn, his paintings and drawings 
are of doubtful value in the artistic or commercial 
sense. The inarticulate drawing is monotonous, 
the types are affected and monstrous, the colour 
jis positively unpleasant. When Longfellow visited 
Tile artist before returning to America, he is 
supposed to have said, ' Tell your brother that one 
of my greatest disappointments has been my 
failure to meet the author of that marvellous poem 
"The Blessed Damozel.'" If the dates would 
only fit, the story might be told as an instance 
of Longfellow's humorous artistic perception : 
perhaps, after all, it was an invention of Whistler ; 
and it would be still better if the paintino of the 
Blessed Damozel (1876) had been in the studio at the 
time. I have often wondered why Mr. Leyland 
only possessed a single first-rate Rossetti ; this 
was the superb little Love's Greeting which he 
acquired from Mr. Graham. Yet it is by the 
Leyland works that Rossetti was one time chiefly 

known to the public, and to a generation of 
younger artists who are naturally appalled until 
they have seen the wonderful collections of Mr. 
Fairfax Murray now at Birmingham and other 
pictures in old master exhibitions. The real 
tragedy of genius is the applause generated 
by its errors, not the neglect of its imperishable 

To realize Rossetti's significance we must study 
his art prior to 1872 ; and to appreciate his influ- 
ence we must not begin by depreciating, in the 
modern fashion, Burne-Jones, or admiring the 
Sislers Van-Bork. We must look for his sweetness 
and his strength among contemporary artists — for 
instance, Mr. William Rothenstein, who by a 
gracious coincidence emphasized, in a domestic 
sense, an artistic debt already acknowledged in 
many charming drawings. And at a recent exhi- 
bition in London where Rossetti was inadequately 
represented (at least as the delineator of fair 
women), Mr. Charles Shannon's exquisite por- 
trait of Mrs. Campbell enabled myself and many 
others to overlook the alisence of Monna Vanna, 
the Blue Boiver and the enchantress Ladv Lilitli, 
whose influence on New York will not, I trust,' 
result in any moral debacle. 

Robert Ross. 


The great majority of pictures of the Catalan school 
are to be found in the museums of Barcelona and 
Yich, and in the churches of the surrounding 
country, but a few have found their way to other 
countries. In the Musee des Arts Decoratifs at 
Paris there is the important retable of St. John 
tlie Baptist by Luis Borassa, and a similar one 
representing St. Aiidre'u' from the church at 
Perpignan is now in the Metropolitan Museum of 
New York. The altarpiece published is also in 
New York, in the collection of Mr. Wm. Laft'an, 
by whose courtesy it is here reproduced. It is 
certainly a striking and important work of this 
curiously interesting school. The form is unusual, 
being long and low instead of upright. The 
subjects are all taken from the Passion. In the first 
panel is represented the Agony injlie Garden. The 
garden is here symbolized by hurdles, a convention 
which is constantly met with also in Italian art. The 
composition is unusually crowded owing to the 
introduction of the eight Apostles supposed to be in 
another part of the garden. In spite of this crowding, 
however, the artist has found place for a very 
original dramatic invention, that of Judas indicating 
Christ to the soldiers who are about to enter. The 
next panel represents the Capture of Christ. With 
the object of telling the story as fully as possible, 
Christ is represented as healing Malchus's ear at the 



Art in America 

same moment that Peter has raised his sword to 
strike it off. The next scene is Chvisl brought before 
Caiaphas, an overcrowded but vigorous compo- 
sition. Then follows the Croiviiiitg icilh Thorns and 
Mockery, then the Scourging, and finally Pilate 
Washing his Hands. Below each panel is the 
head of an Apostle with a scroll on which are 
words from the Creed. The framework is of 
late gothic design, with richly tooled and punched 

The compositions show an artist who has liut 
little idea of essentially pictorial composition, but 
who understands well how to express the essentials 
of the situation in the gothic tradition of craftsman- 
ship. Such compositions are the lineal descendants 
of the work of ivory and woodcarvers of the 
fourteenth century. But, although a purely gothic 
designer, he has clearly seen, either in drawings or 
prints, specimens of Italian Renaissance architec- 
ture, and he has seized on the concave shell design 
with a strange avidity, repeating it with reckless 
frequency and often without the least idea of its 
structural import. The effect isalmost more Moorish 
than classical, but one cannot doubt the origin. 
It is, indeed, probably one of the earliest examples 
of the Plateresque style, because, as Seiior Sanpere 
y Miquel has pointed out, classical forms were 
first adopted by the painters of the Catalan school, 
and from them passed on to the architects and 
designers of the peninsula. 

I have here assumed what perhaps demands some 
proof, that this is in fact a work of a Catalan artist 
of the latter part of the fifteenth century. Its points 
of contact with various works of that school are, 
however, many. In the last panel we find that 
Pilate's wife has a head-dress which is almost 
identical with that worn by Sta. Engracia in the 
picture by Bartolome Vermejo in Mrs. Gardner's 
collection. The servant pouring out the water has 
almostasstrongaresemblanceto the kneeling donor 
in Sir Julius Wernher's picture by the same artist. 
Again, Pilate's head-dress both in the Sfo;/;;i^/';(^and 
the Washing oj Hands— -^ high peaked cap with 
ermine revers— is precisely that of the judge in 
the four panels of the Martyrdom of St. George, now 
in the Louvre, which are in all probability works 
by an unknown' master of this school. 

Again, we find the faces throughout to be well 
drawn and highly expressive when compared with 
the quite childish ignorance and incapacity revealed 
in the figures. The faces are also unduly large and 
separated in modelling from their surroundings in 
a curious manner which is typical of much 
Catalan painting. The type of face too, flat, 
expansive, large-featured, with long upper lip and 
wide partly-opened mouth, is typical of the school 
in the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

' Senor Sanpere y Miquel gives them to Jaime Huguet, but I 
believe this was an earlier painter with much more dramatic 
power than is shown by Huguet. 


As Seiior Sanpere y Miquel (to whom we are 
indebted for almost all our knowledge of this 
school) has shown, painting in Barcelona in the 
latter part of the century centred round the atelier 
of the Vergos family. Of the founder, Jaime 
Vergos I, we know nothing ; he is succeeded by 
his son Jaime Vergos II, who is known to have 
worked on the altarpieceof S. Esteban at Granollers 
in company with his two sons, Pablo and Rafael. 
It is from the manner in which we name the three 
hands in this altarpiece that we derive our ideas of 
the three masters. Seiior Sanpere y Miquel thinks 
that Pablo was the greatest of the three, and assigns 
to him all the most striking works, from the 
Condestable altarpiece of 1464 till his death in 1495. 
Certainly the paintings by this hand have great 
merit; in the modelling of his vividly expressive 
faces, in the strange grey colouring of his flesh, 
and to some extent in his sentiment he reseinbles 
Borgognone. Rafael appears as mainly a feebler 
echo of Pablo, while to the father, Jaime Vergos II, 
who outlived both sons and died about 1503, Seiior 
Sanpere y Miquel gives works of such totally 
different character and of dates and styles so 
divergent that it is hard to form any clear idea of 
his personality. In some he seems to be as advanced 
as Pablo, in others he is crudely archaic. Thus in 
the Retablo of San Vicente in the museum at 
Barcelona the St. Vincent at the Stake contains faces 
full of character and subtly expressive drawing 
which is almost indistinguishable from Pablo's 
finest work. This is given to Jaime II, his father, 
but he is also credited with a very crude and 
decidedly earlier, almost barbaric work, the Angels 
Comforting St. Vincent, which is part of the same 
altarpiece. This shows how difficult it has been, 
even with so prolonged a study as Senor Sanpere 
y Miquel has devoted to the subject, satisfactorily 
to isolate the different masters of the Vergos work- 

I mention this because, while Mr. Laffan's pic- 
ture has the general characteristics of the Vergos 
atelier (note in particular the peculiar halos), it is 
very difficult to give it any definite name. The 
heads of the apostles in the rounds below the 
panels are extremely near to those in the Pentecost 
panel of the Condestable retable in the Museo des 
Antiguedades of Barcelona. This is given to Pablo 
Vergos, but it appears to lack {he finesse of the panel 
of the Adoration of the Magi, which is also given to 
him. If, as seems possible, the Pentecost is by 
the same hand as the Resurrection panel in the 
same retable and this hand be indeed Jaime Vergos 
II's, the older and less accomplished master, I 
should be inclined to suppose that Mr. Laffan's 
picture is by him. The colouring, like the com- 
position, refers to an earlier, more purely gothic 
tradition than Pablo's delicate harmonies, and it 
lacks his skilful modelling. 

Roger E. Fry. 


??/^e^i?* gTc 

•^ FY D. S. M ■ COLL rx» 



Win tin : 

'•nirersof theportn"'' ^"^enny- 

-~ may challenge tl; :nent, 

pute the living character so 

lis's canvas. Nor 

-■ '* the poft 

thc^c in 

- ^,...;....;.i, ;ur the 

/lyson, and has ob- 

the executors ot Sir James 

. fFer of the picture for a 

The energy and good 

'^ the Vela?.quez in 

i to si: 


ned from 
the Fine Art Society, who 
puoiiineu an engraving after it, and was 
shown at the Society's gallery in 1881, 
when the first Millais exhibition was 
brought together. It has since then been 
seen at the Gr Gallery (1886) and 

in the memoriai v. ^ii:i)ition at the Academy 
(1898). It was purchased, when first 
xhibited, by Sir James Knowles, who 
secured the copyright also about ten years 

' "'-'ng dissatisfied with the existing 

* nhotogravure of the head 
Tmission in the Life of 

the executors 


■~' '- r 

ricture ^~^ - 

1 ^ 

I ^ t 

T. "' 1 

^ BY D. S. MacCOLL c*^ 

Y the death of Sir James 
Knowles a friendly Hnk 
with the art and letters of 
the nineteenth century has 
been broken, and the col- 

^ lection of works of art 

that he had formed has been dispersed. 
Among these was a relic of one of his 
friendships, the famous portrait of Tenny- 
son. It will be very generally felt, on 
more grounds than one, that this picture 
ought, if possible, to be secured for the 
nation, and the National Art-Collections 
Fund, we are glad to learn, has organized 
an effort to that end. The Fund was 
only the other day set free from the liabili- 
ties of its last memorable gift ; it has used 
its recovered liberty to issue an appeal to 
members and the public generally for the 
purchase of the Tennyson, and has ob- 
tained from the executors ot Sir James 
Knowles an offer of the picture for a 
limited time. The energy and good 
fortune that saved the Velazquez in 
face of such heavy odds ought to suc- 
ceed in the case of a more generally 
popular picture and a comparatively 
trifling cost. 

The portrait belongs to the maturity of 
Millais's later manner. It was painted in 
March of 1881, a year of vigorous and 
happy production, when he was fifty-two 
years of age, and his subject twenty years 
older. A group of portraits of famous 
men belongs to the same year, including 
the unfinished Lord Bcaconsfield, Cardinal 
NflVman, Principal Caird (in the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow), and Sir Henry Thotnpson 
(now in the National Gallery). The Tenny- 
son is a first-rate example of this period, 
and in Millais's own judgment was the 
finest portrait he had painted, and 'with- 
out immodesty, I am sure is the best of 

him.'' Admirers of the portraits of Tenny- 
son by Watts may challenge this judgment, 
but will not dispute the living character so 
absolutely fixed upon Millais's canvas. Nor 
are the presence and dignity of the poet 
wanting, for Tennyson brought these in 
his head and bearing. The abstract of 
Watts will be the better understood by 
reference to a rendering so closely moulded 
upon life, as is the case with portraits by 
the same two painters of Thomas Carlyle, 
now in the National Portrait Gallery. The 
philosopher of Watts is supplemented 
there by the angry Scottish peasant-body 
out of whom the prophet was carved. 

The Tennyson was commissioned from 
Millais by the Fine Art Society, who 
published an engraving after it, and was 
shown at the Society's gallery in 1881, 
when the first Millais exhibition was 
brought together. It has since then been 
seen at the Grosvenor Gallery (1886) and 
in the memorial exhibition at the Academy 
(1898). It was purchased, when first 
exhibited, by Sir James Knowles, who 
secured the copyright also about ten years 
later, being dissatisfied with the existing 
engraving. A photogravure of the head 
appeared by his permission in the Life of 

The price fixed by the executors of Sir 
James Knowles, if the picture should be 
purchased for the nation, is ^^3,000, a 
moderate sum when authorship and subject 
are considered. 

The picture, indeed, may be described 
as a national monument, and would enrich 
a collection that is poor at present in 
modern portraiture. The limit of time is 
short — till the end of the present month ; 
but it is hoped that the numberless 

' See letter to C.ilderon (1892) in ' Life .-incl Letters of Millais ■ 
ii, p.143. 

The Bl'rlington Magazine, Xn. 63. Vol Xlll-June, n 


I 27 

Millais*s Tortrait of Tennyson 

admirers of poet and artist will, within 
that time, by subscriptions large or small, 
find the necessary amount. They should 

address themselves to the Honorary Secre- 
tariesof theNational Art-Collections Fund, 
47 Victoria Street, Westminster. 



HE present exhibition will 
count, we believe, as of un- 
usual importance, even among 
those for which this club is 
known all over the world. As 
Mr. Sydney Cockerell, the 
author of the catalogue, says 
_ with justifiable pride, 'it may 
confidently 'be Asserted that so many splendid 
examples of the illuminator's art, and so various in 
their excellence, have never before been shown in a 
single room.' Perhaps the exhibition in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale in 1905 brought forth as 
many works of superlative excellence, but they 
were confined to one school and covered only a 
Hmited period. Here we have works of many 
schools extending from the ninth to the six- 
teenth century. The work of collecting, classifying 
and cataloguing these 270 exhibits has been a 
heavy one. The mere description of an illuminated 
manuscript requires a great deal more research 
than is needed for the description of any other 
object of art, since it implies a study of the essential 
characteristics of the whole book, and when we 
come to the deductions as to the place of origin 
and early ownership which it is possible to make, 
the amount of research necessitated and the wide 
range of authorities to be consulted become 
formidable. It would obviously be impossible at 
this early stage to estimate the exact value for our 
knowledge of mediaeval art of the work undertaken 
by Mr. Cockerell and those who have assisted him, 
but, so far as it is possible to judge from first 
impressions, the catalogue appears to be extremely 
rich in interesting details which have been brought 
to light now for the first time. With regard to 
one school of miniature painting, the English, it 
is hoped that we shall be able to give, in a future 
article, the results arrived at ; for the present I 
shall confine myself to a general survey and to 
recording some of the impressions made upon one 
by the vast range of early European art which the 
visitor has here displayed before him in a single 

One's first impression is of the extraordinary 
beauty, the inviting warmth and richness and yet 
surprising lightness of the whole effect. It turns 
out that these vellum leaves, prepared, gilded and 
coloured with such minute precision, in order to 


gratify a closely scrutinizing eye, and aiming only 
at detailed perfection — it turns out that many of 
them have also the dignity and weight, the large 
co-ordinationof elements of products of the major 

Then one is struck by the extraordinary changes 
in the artist's point of view which these manuscripts 
record in the passage of five or six centuries. 

To the European eye oriental art sometimes 
seems regularly uniform, so that we can scarcely 
see on a first acquaintance the difference between 
paintings of say the eighth and sixteenth centuries. 
But what is really more surprising is the divergence 
of European art. In this exhibition we can see 
that from 1000 to about 1400 the methods are 
similar : thereare variation, progress and declineand 
revival, and there are racial and local dialects, but 
the language is the same. Jean Pucelle (No 130) 
in 1340 uses, it is true, a different symbol to the 
Anglo-Saxon artist of the Benedictional of St. 
^•Ethelwold (No. 10), who worked about 970, but 
the difference is only such as corresponds to a 
different attitude to life — the two artists are near 
enough in the relation of their painted images to 
actual appearances. They are infinitely nearer to 
one another than either is to Fouquet, only a hun- 
dred years later than Pucelle, or still more to Simon 
Benning, less than a couple of centuries away. This 
difference is immense and its effects incalculable ; 
it implies a total change in the language of art, the 
change from the expressive symbol to the complete 
realization of actual appearances. Whatever 
triumphs this change implied for other arts — for 
painting in oils or for sculpture — one cannot look 
round the walls of the exhibition without feeling 
that it spelt ruin for the illustrator's art. That 
subtle balance between the different elements of 
his design, between the purely decorative and the 
expressive, was destroyed; and while he could pro- 
duce more and more wonderful pictures, could 
recall to the devout possessor of his breviaries 
with more and more verisimilitude all the incidents 
of actual life, he lost the power of direct symbolical 
appeal and of noble decoration. To be quite 
frank, the purely decorative work, the borders and 
riufcanx of nearly all the manuscripts after 1400, 
are almost entirely devoid of serious artistic merit. 
Some of the Flemish ones of the sixteenth century 
are as bad in taste, as deliberately vulgar and as 

Exhibition of Illuminated Manuscripts 

idly pretentious as anything the mid-Victorian 
epoch discovered in its antimacassars and Berlin 
woolwork. The pictures within these chromo- 
lithographic borders often show consummate skill, 
but almost always of a purely mechanical kind, and 
their appeal is to a childish love of mere bright- 
ness of colour and minuteness of delineation. 
This need not imply the condemnation of a whole 
epoch ; it merely means that for certain epochs, 
the centre of artistic endeavour, the intenser 
artistic life, had shifted to other arts, and left illu- 
mination to commercial craftsmen. The illumina- 
tor's art had, as we see here, varying adventures, 
varying fortunes, in different countries and 
ages. The Winchester Vulgate (No. io6) shows 
us English illuminators of the twelfth century 
doing work which has never been surpassed in any 
age and which was unequalled elsewhere, yet at 
that time the English were decidedly inferior to 
the French both in architecture and sculpture. 
Then later on, in the thirteenth century, we find 
the French illuminators working in the spirit of 
great independent and original artists with an 
intellectual ardour, a dignity^uid logical perfection 
of taste which are beyond praise, while in Italy the 
illuminator remains throughout a minor artist 
imitating afar the great works of the fresco painter 
and never originating for himself principles of 
design and handling proper to his art. 

Finally with the late fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries it is clear that the fruitful intellects have 
deserted illumination in favour of the arts connected 
with printing, and the illuminated prayer-book 
is a commercial product got up for the delight of 
the vulgar rich with that peculiar shop-finish which 
under such circumstances is always called in to do 
duty for art. 

The illuminator's art is one in which colour is of 
supreme importance, and yet, working with what 
answers to our gouache, the artist was confronted 
with the difficulty of its tendency to coldness and 
opacity. Looking round the room we can almost 
estimate the relative general excellence of the art 
of various periods by the success with which they 
have avoided this error. Above all, the case devoted 
to French thirteenth-century MSS. amazes one by 
the sober intensity and solidity of its colour, its 
subdued and vibrating splendour. 

The history of the illuminator's colour schemes 
as revealed here is full of interest. In the earliest 
work, such as St. ^thelwold's Benedictional 
(No. ii) or the Latin Gospels (12), the colouring 
is subtle and refined ; the harmonies are strange 
— dull puce, dull blue greens of various shades pre- 
dominate. It is as far removed from anything 
primitive or barbaric as can be imagined, and like 
the style of drawing must be considered as a diiect 
inheritance from the last refinements of classical 
civilization. Already in the Miracles of St. 

Edmund, No. 18, another idea of colour has arisen. 
This is the essentially childish one of mere delight 
in sensation of bright primaries, so the artist puts 
together pure blues, reds and greens without any 
preconceived notion of harmony. This primitive 
barbaric feeling is expressed also in the extravagant 
and as yet somewhat absurd dramatic intensity. 
All through the early period we can trace the 
conflict of these two forces, the old traditional 
classicism and the new barbaric love of strong 
colour and life. Already in the great Winchester 
Vulgate (106) a fusion has been effected, and we 
get intense colour controlled by a great synthetic 
idea, drawing full of dramatic force but controlled 
by a noble sentiment for style, so that one may 
wonder whether in the perfect adaptation of all 
the means to the end of great imaginative book 
decoration this effort has ever been surpassed. 
Then with the thirteenth century the refining 
influences prevail. The colours are gradually 
reduced, blues of various shades predominate : 
these are broken with an incredible subtlety of 
method so as to avoid coldness, and married with 
the gold by almost invisible notes of degraded reds 
and greens. Here we find, indeed, that consum- 
mate science of pure colour which created the 
stained glass decorations of Chartres Cathedral, 
and we find the effects arrived at by identical 
methods, the subtlety and perfection of which 
almost defy analysis. 

With the fourteenth century there intervened a 
desire for greater gaiety, more blondness, for a less 
austere splendour. This is seen to perfection in 
the St. Omer Psalter (68) and the Psalter of 
Humphrey de Bohun (73), but it implies generally 
a relaxation of the purely artistic sense of colour 
harmony — a return, as in No. 153, to mere bright- 
ness and intensity of colour. In two very beauti- 
ful manuscripts of the early fifteenth century (204 
and 205), however, some quite original and as yet 
unknown artist has carried the ideas of blondness 
and delicate gaiety of colour to their utmost point 
of refinement, and created works of rare and 
strange beauty in which for the first and, I believe, 
only time the slight contrast of white upon the 
toned warmth of the vellum is used throughout as 
the key to the colour scheme. But in the main, 
in spite of the Limbourgs and Fouquets, the fif- 
teenth century shows only a steady loss of the 
artistic control of colour, and now for the first time 
in Bourdichon and the contemporary Italians the 
old red lead and vermilion tints give place to an 
excruciating crimson lake, against which the 
golds, greens and violet produce their utmost 
effect of discordant vehemence. We return 
once more in the sixteenth century to a purely 
barbaric conception of colour ; but the barbarism 
is, alas ! no longer naive— it is sophisticated and 





'N March 17th, 1908, the 
Minister of Public Instruction 
in Italy, acting with the Minister 
I of the Treasury, laid before the 
' Senate a project for the new 
law concerning antiquities and 
)the fine arts, which had 
I already been passed by the 
Chamber of Deputies. In view of the difficulties of 
explaining and enforcing the laws which previously 
existed, it is not surprising that the Italian Govern- 
ment, which has lately shown a most praiseworthy 
interest in the preservation of the treasures, 
historical, archaeological and artistic, the bcllczza 
artisfica, which form so large an asset in the pros- 
perity of their country, should seek to co-ordinate 
all existing laws into one law which shall be 
applicable to the whole of Italy, and not applied 
in different ways and in different circumstances as 
local feeling and local interest seem to demand. 

The law is now before us, and cannot be said to 
fall short in any way of comprehensiveness, of 
drastic intentions, and, it may also be said, of 

Article i states that all things immovable and 
movable, which have historical, archaeological and 
artistic interest, are subject to the new law, with 
the exception of buildings and objects of art 
executed by living artists or not more than 
fifty years previously. Immovable objects include 
gardens, forests, landscapes, waters, and all places 
and objects in nature which have interest as 
stated above. Movable objects include manu- 
scripts, incunabula, early engravings and printed 
matter, and numismatic collections. 

Article 2 states that all objects under Article i 
are inalienable, when they belong to the State, to 
communes or provinces, to manufactories, to 
confraternities and religious bodies of every per- 
suasion. They may, however, be transferred from 
one of these bodies to another under certain 

Article 3 provides for a statement by the head 
official of every body under Article 2, including 
parish priests, of the objects which come under 
Article i. 

Article 4 empowers the Ministry of Public 
Instruction to provide for the safety of such objects 
by removal or restoration. 

Article 5 lays down that no owner of an object 
under Article i which has been noted by the 
public authority can transfer or part with that 
property without informing the Minister of Public 

Article 6 gives the government the right of 
acquiring any such object under Article 5 at the 
same price as may have been already agreed upon 
by contract within three months from the receipt of 

, M.V.O., F.S.A. rj^ 

information, or within six months if the government 
is not in a position to consider the immediate acqui- 
sition. During these periods the object in question 
cannot be disposed of. 

Article 7 empowers the Minister of Public In- 
struction to take forcible possession of any object 
under Article i which is in need of care or in 
dangerof perishingshould the necessary work not be 
carried out by the proprietor within a given time. 
Article 8 forbids the exportation from the king- 
dom of any object of historical, archaeological or 
artistic interest the loss of which would be of 
importance to the nation. Any object under Article i 
which it may be wished to export must be submitted 
to a board of three officials appointed for the pur- 
pose with an appeal to the Superior Council of Fine 

Article 9 provides for the price to be paid by the 
government for the acquisition of objects other- 
wise intended for exportation, and gives the 
government power to return the object to the 
proprietor and forbid him to export it. 

Article 10 imposes a tax on the exportation of 
any object under Article i, but Article 11 relieves 
from this tax any object imported from foreign 
countries within a period of five years, which 
period may be increased by additional periods of 
five years at the wish and on the application of the 
parties concerned. 

Articles 12 and 13 provide against any change, 
modification or restoration of objects under 
Articles i and 2 without the authority of the 
Minister of Public Instruction. 

Article 14 extends this restriction to plans for 
new buildings and other works which may damage 
natural objects or other monuments under 
Article 2. 

Articles 15-19 contain the regulations for exca- 
vations and for the ownership of the objects 
thereby revealed. Generally speaking, the govern- 
ment assumes the right to control all excavations 
for archaeological purposes, and the proprietorship 
of all objects discovered in such excavations. The 
proprietor of the site is to be compensated either 
in money or by a share in the objects discovered ; 
but the government has the right to appropriate 
the property altogether and award suitable com- 
pensation. Societies and private people can obtain 
a licence to excavate under the supervision of the 
government, and may receive half the objects dis- 
covered or their value in money, according to the 
choice of the Minister of Public Instruction. Any 
chance discovery of antiquities or other monuments 
in need of excavation has to be reported to the said 
minister, who must decide within thirty days how 
to act in the matter. A foreigner or foreign societies 
can obtain a licence to excavate under similar 
conditions, but the objects awarded to them cannot 


The Neva Italian Layo 

be exported from Italy, even under the conditions 
allowed by Article 8. 

Article 20 includes in the law objects of palaeon- 

Article 21 regulates the photographing and 
publication of photographs of objects belonging 
to the State imder Article i. 

Article 22 regulates the use of the sums arising 
from the admission fees to the museums and 
galleries belonging to the State. 

Articles 23-28 provide funds for the acquisition 
of objects which come under the law. 

Articles 29-36 state the pains and penalties for 
evasion of this law. 

Article 37 enables any citizen, enjoying full 
civil rights, or any body of people, legally recog- 
nized as such, to take action against transgressors 
of this law. 

Article 41 fixes the taxes on exportation of works 
of art at 

5 p.c. on the first 5000 francs. 
7 p.c. on the second „ ,, 

9 p.c. on the third ,, „ 

II p.c. on the fourth „ „ 

increasing up to a final tax of 20 p.c. according to 
the value of the pictures. 

The above is a very inadequate rcstmic of this 
important law, which embodies the law of June, 
1902, formerly in force, and the law of June, 1907, 
which regulated the administration of the museums 
and salleries of ancient, mediaeval and modern 
art throughout Italy. A comparison of the new 
law with that of 1902 shows some interesting 
divergences. Notable at first is the inclusion under 
the law of places of natural beauty and interest, 
other than buildings, such as landscapes, gardens, 
waterfalls and trees. It is very satisfactory to 
learn from the speech of Senatore Rava, Minister 
of Public Instruction, how much influence has 
been exercised by examples from our own country 
in The National Trust for the Preservation of 
Places of Historic Interest, The National Society 
for Checking the Abuses of Advertising, and the 
Act for the Protection of Ancient Monuments. 
With this attempt to preserve the beauties of Italy 
untouched by the hand of the destroyer or the 
botcher all lovers of Italy and the arts must sym- 
pathize. The proposed inventory of works of art, 
intended to be not merely a list but a catalogue 
raisoniic, has been under discussion for some time. 
So much care seems to have been taken in drawing 
up this law with a view of giving a iiiiiiimiim of 
annoyance to private individuals or societies, while 
insisting on the execution of the law, that it is to be 
hoped that with reference to property owned by the 
Church the French model will not be followed, 
and that there will arise no excuse for the pain- 
ful scenes which have shocked so many friends 
of France. The new law is careful to treat tiie 
Church in no way differenUy from the State or 

other public bodies. Here the human element must 
intervene sometimes, and unfortunately the rela- 
tions between Church and State in Italy are not 
everywhere of the best. Good work has been done 
in Germany, Belgium and elsewhere in this line. 
The new law in Italy trends towards conserva- 
tion, not confiscation, and should be interpreted 

The laws about excavation and archaeological 
research have been amended with greater, if not 
excessive, consideration for the claims of foreign 
archaeologists. The foreign schools at Rome 
would be the first to recognize that the soil of Italy 
belongs to the Italian nation. The history of 
ancient Rome, as of ancient Greece, is, however, 
the property of the human race, and to deny to an 
archaeologist, because he may not be an Italian 
subject, a share in the revelation and interpretation 
of this history would be an act of exclusion which 
could only damage Italy itself. Great Britain is 
no longer a predatory country, even if it were ever 
truly liable to this charge. Now that Italy has 
aroused itself to protect and maintain its own 
treasures, it is far better for students and historians 
that the remains of ancient Rome should remain 
in Rome itself. The baths of Diocletian never 
served a better purpose than they do at the present 
day as a museum of ancient sculpture. Here in 
the Museo delle Terme, and elsewhere in the 
Forum, on the Palatine, and wherever the exi- 
gencies of a busy city permit, the chaos of antique 
rubbish is being sifted and classified into shape 
under the competent direction of such leaders as 
Commendatore Boni and Commendatore Corrado 
Ricci. By a sympathetic system of exchange 
between museums in different countries fragments 
could be reunited to fragments, until something 
like a whole might be reconstituted, as in the case 
of the ' Ara Pacis ' of Augustus. It is useless to talk 
of restoring the Parthenon or the Colosseum, but 
monuments which can and should be preserved 
in museums are in some such cases capable of re- 
construction. Already schemes are afloat for inves- 
tigating the site of Herculaneum, and the scheme, 
advocated so warmly by Professor Waldstein, may 
still bear fruit of some sort. 

In considering this new law in Italy, it is worth 
while to inquire in what way such a law could be 
adapted for use in our own country. If the law 
seem to our minds somewhat rigid and exclusive, 
it must be remembered that the circumstances in 
the two countries are very different. Italy has 
been despoiled by the foreigner for centuries ; 
England is only beginning to share this fate, and 
is hardly conscious even now of the injury which 
is being inflicted upon it. Italy has need to defend 
itself, and so lias England. The attempts to 
preserve ancient monuments and natural scenery, 
although quoted with approval as an authority 
by the Italian statesmen, have been grudgingly 


The New Italian LaVi> 

recognized by the government of Great Britain. 
Tiie destruction of monuments, the ruin and dis- 
figurement of natural scenery, the exportation 
of valuable works of art, go on unchecked year by 
year, neglected deliberately by governments of all 
parties, or relegated to the unimportant duties of 
some already overburdened office of the State. 

If Italy has the courage and the common sense 
to raise a revenue for the preservation of her art 
treasures by taxing those objects, the loss of which 
Italy cannot prevent, why should England not 
follow this example ? The property which would 
come under the tax is mainly shared by plutocrat 
owners with plutocrat dealers, by whom the tax 
would scarcely be felt. 

The drawback to the new Italian law and that of 
June, 1907, is the multiplication of the petty official 
in the service of the State. Many of the troubles and 
irregularities of petty official life are due to the in- 
adequate remuneration of such officials from the 
public purse. If Italy wishes to preserve its art 
treasures, it should see that the appointed 
guardians are properly rewarded for the trusts 
placed in their hands. To take the inventories 
alone will require the services of a squadron of 
officials who possess the requisite knowledge and 
perception, who are tactful and sympathetic, and 

who, above all, can be relied upon for their honesty 
and integrity. One of the pleasing signs of Italian 
prosperity is the improvement in the personnel 
attached to the principal museums and galleries, 
with a corresponding improvement in the work 
done within those institutions. The supply is 
probably limited, though by bringing the local 
museums under the control of the State the 
Italian Government is able to offer to the younger 
members of its staff a better chance of progressing 
in learning and knowledge than that offered in 
this country, where a young man is tied to the 
same post, say in the British Museum, for the full 
term of his Civil Service existence, and has little or 
no opportunity for becoming acquainted with the 
contents of other museums or galleries in his own 
country or abroad, and of thus fitting himself by 
degrees for more important duties of administra- 
tion in after life. 

It will be seen, therefore, that there is much to 
learn from this new law in Italy. The success of the 
law itself will depend upon the spirit in which it 
is worked. If a spirit of good feeling be adopted 
towards the foreigner, and if the rewards go to the 
honest and successful worker, and not to the skilled 
wire-puller, the new law may be of lasting benefit 
to Italy. 



HE following short contri- 
bution to the analysis and 
synthesis of decorative art is 
only suggestive of a line of 
inquiry which is nearly un- 
touched. It is based on 
materials which have been 
easily accessible to me. My 
interest in the question arose from my liking for 
two groups or developments of what is called 
applied art which I studied separately, not in the 
first instance having any suspicion that they were 
even remotely connected with each other. These 
two groups are Irish MS. illumination and metal- 
work which, roughly speaking, fall between 400 
and iioo A.D., not excluding other 'Celtic 'art, 
and early hieratic Chinese art as known to us — 
almost solely in bronze vessels and vases of various 
early dates — a few known and many hypothetical. 
Irish art possesses characteristics which, I should 
say, quite definitely distinguish it, taken as a 
whole, from all other art developments, though 
there are individual objects which might be 
thought to h.ave a more eastern, northern, or 
southern origin. It has especially the quality of 
a sort of tenuity, or even of attenuation, coupled 

with an unusual quality of life, energy and shape — 
variability — just what we find in the art of the Far 
East, and quite another thing from the dainty 
graciousness and sweet or gay colouring of 
mediaeval illumination proper. If in motives it 
does not boast Cleopatra's infinite variety, this is 
atoned for by an endless rearrangement and multi- 
plication of parts within an enclosing framework 
of bold and simple design which allows the mind 
and eye to survey the complexity and receive 
impressions of infinity without too much be- 

The essential patterns or motives from which 
this richness has been evolved are not very many, 
and most of them may be traced back ultimately 
to the original common stock which we usually 
now call Mycenaean. Any few that still remain 
unfathered can be found in what we generally call 
Eastern art, or in the art of the still further east of 
the far side of Asia. 

It is not new to link Celtic spirals with the 
spiral period of Mycenaean art, taking this term 
to mean the primitive pre-Hellenic art surround- 
ing the east end of the Mediterranean. The climax 
of this ' culture ' is usually placed at about 1200 B.C., 
with a much earlier commencement, and no term 


can be put at the otlier end, for the lotus and 
spirals may be moribund, but they are not dead. 
I believe that the facile desij^n of Algerian copper 
and brass workers — elaborate patterns of geomet- 
rical strap-work, filled with complex tracery of a 
sort of wreathing stalk with tiny leaves — is 'lotus' 
in origin, and not so very far removed from that 
of the pages of the Books of Kells, Lindisfarne, 
or Durrow. 

Mr. George Coffey drew attention to the kinship 
of Irish and Mycenaean spirals in Vols, iv and v 
of the ' Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland,' but he does not seem to have per- 
ceived the other numerous links, which I had al- 
ready found before I noticed the identity of the 
spirals. Mr. Romilly Allen finds a certain cousin- 
ship with Byzantine art, and the affinities of Celtic 
art are not at all fully traced even in the big group 
of works by Oscar Monlelius on Scandinavian, 
Eastern and primitive Italian archaeology. The 
Byzantine resemblances are very far from being 
the closest that can be found. Worsaae has 
written a good deal on the eastern sun symbolism 
which penetrated into Europe in the Viking Age. 

The following illustrations give a notion of the 
likeness between Irish spirals in MSS. and 
Mycenaean spirals on vases — that is to say, 
some pages of Irish illuminated books are, 
barring the exaggerated feeling for com- 
plexity and repetition and attenuation, 
practically Mycenaean work. Canterbury 
MSS. of about the same or a somewhat later 
period serve to show what Romanesque 

The Sna/^ Pattern 

(c. 700 A.D.) in the British Museum. V\g. 2 is 
surely a near relative of its central motive from a 
[apanese colour print (J~-t in the art library at 
South Kensington. This is also the Korean national 


emblem. Fig. 3 is another Irish bit much en- 
larged, which may be compared with fig. 4, taken 

work was. They 
acanthus patterns w 
Celtic work. 

Fig. I, which in 
over an inch m leng 
of Irish penmanshi 
colour added in the 
and brown ink and 
the Matthew page 

have, for instance, decadent 
hich are entirely absent from 

the original measures barely 
th, is a "thoroughly typical bit 
p (having, of course, a little 
original, which is delicate pen 
not coarse line block !) from 
cf the Lindisfarne Gospels 

from a Rhodian vase, and fig. 5, from a vase of 
Thera. Compare also 6a and 6r3, rudimentary 
lotus with spiral scrolls (the latter a scarab, in 
Leyden); 7A, Egyptian tomb spiral ; 8, Melian spiral 
scroll, which seem to account for the little pointed 
leaflets in the Irish work (these are taken from 
Goodyear's 'Grammar of the Lotus.') Compare 
also fig. 9, taken from a shield in the Plate of 
Combat of Hector and Menelaos (British Museum, 
Greek vases, seventh century B.C.) with No. i, and 
with No. 10, taken from the Book of Kells. 

Fig. 7A, together with 7B and 7c, from Cypriote 

The Snake Tattern 

vases in tlic British Museum, seems to indicate a 
possible mode of development for so-called Irish 
trumpet patterns. 

In the outburst of art in Ireland under the 
impulse which seems to have been given by 
Christianity we are reminded of the composite 
character of Phoenician art. The crafts- 
man possessed certain decorative items 
as his stock-in-trade, one might almost 
say picked up where he could get them, 
migratory art travelling with such trad- 
ing and religious wanderers as managed 
to reach the far away island. It is like 
patchwork or like country folks' talk in 
proverb and wise saws. The general 
feeling is of a later loitering of the early 
spiral motives of the Eastern Mediterra- 
nean, especially of some of the islands, 
than can be found anywhere else in 
Europe, together with a new arrival of 
Arab, or Saracenic or Moorish influence, 
but whether direct from Spain or via 
Byzantium I am not competent to con- 
jecture. And that, of course, was only 
another stream from the same fountain 
head. The Chinese feeling in Irish 
work is quite likely to have been caused 
by both arts having been affected by that of 
Mycenae, though the numerous porcelain seals — 
of a sort quite unknown now, having a script 
which could go back to even before 600 B.C. 
and has, I understand, been in use ever since 
for seals — make it seem just possible that 
Chinese trade reached Ireland at some remote 
period.^ There is a bronze bell in the British 
Museum which has a distinctly Chinese look, 
both in patina and form. And it seems con- 
ceivable that some motives of design came 
from Asiatic textiles. But this is a rather wild 
assumption, and a Mediterranean, Arab or 
Coptic origin seems more reasonable to account 
for anything that is not Scandinavian. If 
Ireland traded with South France and Spain 
independently of Britain — in support of which 
hypothesis Mr. G. Coffey adduces some distinctly 
valid evidence — the differentiation of her art is 
intelligible. He alludes to the frequent references 
to Spain in the ancient literature of Ireland, the 
mention in the ' Tract on the Fair of Carman ' of 
a market of the foreign Greeks, and to a passage 
in the ' Agricola ' of Tacitus where, speaking of 
Ireland, he says: 'The soil and chmate, the 
character and manner of the inhabitants are not 
much different from Britain : in a higher degree 
the approaches and harbours are known by com- 
merce and merchants.' 

There is no naturalism in Irish art : it is stylistic 
and diagrammatic. The origin of the patterns 
being unknown, the forms are frequently mis- 

' I am indebted for this opinion to Professor H. A. Giles. 

understood. The repertory of the artist consisted 
of interlacings of lines or bands, various rectan- 
gular and diagonal key patterns, bird patterns 
derived from peacocks or geese, animal terminals, 
animal patterns, spirals, swastika and other sym- 
bols, mosaic patterns and archivolt and pilaster 

arrangements. Related types can be found for 
all these items in the art of other countries ; but 
the zoomorphs offer scope for a more definite 
investigation than the geometric patterns, though 
these are not really vague or uninteresting. 

There is a sort of Midgard serpent page in the 
Book of Durrow (eighth century) covered with 
attenuated creatures biting their own tails (fig. 11). 
They make a pattern very much like the patterns 
which the Japanese evolve from the frequent 
repetition of an identical bird or animal. From 
Ulltuna, central Sweden, on an iron umbo (boss 
of shield), partly covered with bronze plates, we 
get fig. 1 2, of the date probably of about 700 or 
800 A.D. 

Fig. 13 is taken from an ancient Chinese bronze 
vase, which, judging by analogy of design and 
metal and patina, should belong to the Han period 
of Chinese art, about 200 B.C. to 200 A.D. 

Fig. 14 is taken from a bronze in my possession, 
which I bought with other bronzes as ancient 
Chinese ; but it is more recent than 13. F"ig. 18 
shows the vase in outline, and fig. 19 the design 
of the lid. Fig. 14 has curious resemblances to 
fig 15, which is seemingly a lotus design (from 
Knossos), and it does not seem very far removed 
from fig. 16, a rune stone of the Vikings, this 
example being from Ska-ring, Soderland, Sweden 
(a bit of the bodv is left out, being too long in the 
oval). If this snake were biting his tail the Durrow 
book pattern would be accounted for. It is true 
the creatures of fig. 11 have legs of a sort and tails, 
those thin winding lines which seem to tie them 


The Snake Pattern 

together, hut, although Mr. Romilly Allen says all 
'morphs' have their remote origin in the lion, I 
am inclined to think that in this particular case 

the Irish artist had no actual knowledge of serpents 
or of any creature without legs, so he added them 
to the pattern which had come into his stock, 
somehow, from beyond the seas. The Book of 
Kells (eighth century) has snaky ' morphs ' inter- 
woven on a waving pattern not in rings. I was a 
little diffident about my explanation, though I could 
recall no real snakes in Irish art, so I asked Dr. 
Norman Moore if he knew of any and received 
the following answer. The bell shrine snake he 
mentions has also a leg. 

' Natrix, a serpent, is in Irish Nathair (in older 
Irish written Nathir). 

' The word occurs in the famous manuscript of 
Priscian, the grammarian, at St. Gall. The 
manuscript is full of glosses, and the Latin word 
natrix is glossed (f. 69A) " ind nathir sin " — that 
serpent. The manuscript is not later than the 
ninth century. 

'St. Broccan lived in the seventh century, and 
there is no reason to doubt the authenticity of his 
hymn in praise of St. Brigit, though the MS. 
belongs to the eleventh century. 

' In the third stanza of his hymn the third line 
is " ni bu naithir bemnech brecc " — she was not a 
serpent, blow-giving, speckled. 

' In a manuscript at Turin (where I saw it before 
the fire), the glosses of which have been printed, 
occurs the note : — 

' ind naithir humaithe thai. 
' the serpent brazen there. 

'The manuscript is probably of the ninth 

'These passages will convince you that the 
ancient Irish knew snakes in literature. They 
never saw them in their own island, for in early 
times, as at the present day, snakes formed no part 
of the Irish fauna. 

' In a manuscript of the fourteenth century (in 
its oldest part), now in the Bodleian (Rawlinson, 

B. 512), there is a note comparing Ireland to 
Paradise : — 

'Inis hErenn, tra, ro suidigad isin 
' Isle of Erin, moreover, is situate in the 
fuined. Amal ata Pardas Adaim ic an 
west. As is the Paradise of Adam at the 
turcbail is amlaid ata hErin ocan fuiniud. Ocus 
sunrise, so likewise is Erin at the sunset. And 
atat cosmaile o aicmud uire amal ata 
they are similar from quality of earth : as is 
Pardas cen biasta, cen nathraigh, 

Paradise without monsters, without snakes, 

cen leomam, cen dracoin, etc. Is amlaid ata 
without lions, without dragons, so likewise is 
Eirin fon innus cetna, cen nach nanmanna 
Erin in manner like, without any animal 
nerchoitech acht mic-tire nama 
noxious but the wolf alone. 

'St. Patrick is related to have fought with evil 
spirits on Croagh Patrick, and to have driven 
those there present out of Ireland, and this 
incident seems in very late times to have led to 
the notion that he expelled snakes from Ireland. 
This is not be found in any ancient account. 

' I agree w-ith you as to the rarity or perhaps 
absence of well drawn snakes in early illuminated 
Irish writings and designs, and it may easily be 
imagined that since the Irish never met with 
snakes on their mountains or plains they therefore 
did not draw them. 

'The nearest approach I remember is on the 
top part of the left side of the cover of the bell of 
St. Patrick's will, a work of art of which you 
probably have a drawing. There is a copy of it 
in this house. 

' The passage in English literature of which 
your husband was thinking refers to Iceland, not 
Ireland. It is in Boswell's Life of Johnson. 

' Johnson had said that he could repeat a 
complete chapter of " The Natural History of 
Iceland" from the Danish of Horrebow, the whole 
of which was exactly thus: "Chap. LXXII. 
Concerning Snakes. There are no snakes to be 
met with throughout the whole island." 

' It is, of course, true of Ireland. The modern 
Irish expression for snake is Nathair nimhe, often 
pronounced -n Athair nimhe, whence a false 
etymology " father of poison " (neinh, poison, 
genitive nimhe). Of course, the true rendering 
of Nathair (gen. Nathrach) nimhe, is Natrix 
venenifera, a genitive being often thus used with 
adjectival sense.' 

We will now go a stage further. The Chinese 
vase, fig. 18, from which pattern fig. 14 is taken, 
seems to me to be a connecting link or to be the 
great-grandciiild of a connecting link between 
the snake (?) patterns which have been figured 
above, and a very interesting series of bronze 



The Snake Pattern 

vessels, supposed to be hinging Limps, discovered 
in Scandinavian and Danish graves. The 

supremely interesting point is that although they 
have a definite characterization of their own we 
are compelled to connect them with the Mycenaean 
period in the Greek islands, and with Etruscan 
work in Central and Southern Italy, and with 
designs on gold discs found by Dr. Schliemann at 
Mycenae. Fig. 20 shows the bottom of a hanging 
bronze vase found at Senate in Vestergdttland 
and described by Oscar Montelius in his ' Swedish 

cover, also found in a bog at Senate, and described 
by Du Chaillu in his 'Viking Age.' Fig. 22 is 
another described by Oscar Montelius. 
Fig. 23, another found in Sweden. Mon- 
^"^^^^^^V telius assigns vases of this class to all three 
V5^=*:fc^ \ periods of the bronze age, the beginning 
iU(' of which he puts as far back as, at any rate, 
r 1500 B.C. Some vases which have four 
holes instead of two handles he allots 
to the ' interesting period between the 
bronze and the iron age ' — that is, about 
500 B.C. 

With regard to correspondences with 
other ancient art, for general shape we 
may refer to Central and Southern Italian 
pottery of what is usually called the 
Etruscan period, figured by Oscar 
Montelius in his various works on primi- 
tive civilization (see figs. 24-28), also to 
fig. 29 (pottery), and No. 30 (bronze from 
Bologna graves of the later iron age). 

In the matter of design fig. 23, part 

of a Scandinavian hanging vessel, may 

be compared with fig. 31, a vase pattern 

from the case of pottery of the Mycenaean period 

in lalysos and Rhodes. 


13 may be compared 

with 32, 33, 34, from the same case. Fig. 22, Scan- 
dinavian, suggests some affinity with fig. 35, a 
primitive Italian bronze (Montelius) ; and fig. 36, 
which is from the middle of the bottom of a Swedish 
hanging vessel of bronze, has a cousinship with fig. 
37, from an Etruscan pottery vase. 

The little snakes round the centre of fig. 23 
(Northern) are to be found on various Southern 
vases. See for example figs. 25, 29 and the 
grotesque Etruscan head, fig. 38. 

Antiquities.' Tliis should be compared with 

fig- 19- , ■ , 

Fig. 21 is another similar vase, complete with a 


The gold discs found at xMycenae offer the 
most remarkable resemblance that I have found 
y where to the peculiar meander patterns ot 


The Snake Pattern 

these vases. I have sketched two (figs. 39 and 40) 
out of several showing this close likeness. 

are primitive Bolognese — they speak for them- 
selves. Fig. 48 is the ordinary Greek snake of the 
best period vases. 

Similar chains of resemblance can be traced in 

from the tombs of Cabiri in Boeotia, 600-500 B.C. ; 
figs. 42-45 are Scandinavian patterns ; 46 and 47 

respect of bird forms, with the universal lion, with 
key or meander patterns and interlaced work, with 
terminal heads on handles and weapons, and with 
regard to certain other details. 



HE Sacramental Plate in use 
at S. Peter's Church, Vere 
Street, is of considerable in- 
terest. It was given to the 
church by Edward Lord 
Harley and his wife Hen- 
rietta, only daughter and 
heiress of John Cavendish 
Holies, Duke of Newcastle, at the opening on 
Easter Day, 1724. The church, which was 
founded by Lord and Lady Harley (afterwards 

Earl and Countess of Oxford) for the use of the 
inhabitants of the new houses in Marylebone 
Fields, was first called Marylebone Chapel, and 
then successively O.xford Chapel and S. Peter's 
Church. The church was designed by the well- 
known architect, James Gibbs, who was also 
architect of the Church of S. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, in addition to many other well-known 
buildings in London, Oxford, Cambridge and 

The plate includes two flagons of silver-gilt 

Tlate of S. Peters Qhurch^ Vere Street 

with plain cylindrical bodies on spreading moulded 
feet, with flattened dome covers and scroll handles 
of the time of James I, 1617. 

These flagons are inscribed 'For the use of 
Marybone Chapell, the gift of the Founders, 
Easter Day, 1724.' 

The flagons are engraved with the followmg 
coat of arms. Quarterly i and 4, or, a bend cottised 
sable (for Harley) ; 2 and 3, or, two lions passant 
gules (for Brampton). On an escutcheon of 
pretence, quarterly i and 4, ermine, two piles m 
point sable (for Holies) ; 2 and 3 sable, three bucks 
heads argent attired or (for Cavendish). The 
supporters are two angels ppr. habited, and wings 
displayed or. Underneath is the motto ' Virtute 
et fide.' On the covers is the crest, a castle 
triple-towered or; out of the middle tower a 
demi-lion issuant gules (for Harley). 

The alms dish, which is oval, is of silver-gilt, 
with plain sunk centre, the border ornamented 
with leafage strapwork, and shells with gadroon 
and rosette edging. Its length is \']\ inches and 
the date is George I, 1724. 

This dish is inscribed ' For the use of Marybone 
Chapel the Gift of the Founders 1724.' 

There are two chalices or cups of silver gilt, 
with arabesque and convex flute strap ornament, 
baluster stems and moulded feet, 8 inches high. 
These are of the time of George I ; but they are 
not hall-marked, the probability being that they 
had to be made by a given date— viz., Easter 1724 — 
and that there was no time to stamp them, and 
that they were allowed to be sent to the church 

on the occasion of the opening on Easter Day to 
be returned to be hall-marked afterwards, but that 
this was eventually omitted to be done. These 
cups are engraved ' For the use of Marybone 
Chapell the Gift of the Founders, Easter Day 
1724,' and underneath are the words ' Bibite ex 
hoc omnes.' 

The two patens of silver-gilt, which form covers 
to the cups, are plain, with raised edges on plain 
feet and are engraved with the words ' Hoc est 
Corpus Meum.' These patens are 5^ inches in 
diameter, and are of the time of George I. 

In addition to the above there is an interesting 
piece of foreign plate — viz., a silver-gilt dish, 
circular, with shaped edge, boldly chased with 
bosses, terminating in spiral convex flutes, and 
interspersed with punched scroll ornament, having 
a plain circular centre, bordered with matted band 
and engraved with a foreign coat of arms and 
coronet. This dish is 13^ inches in diameter, is 
late seventeenth century, and manufactured at 

It is interesting to note that the bell of S. Peter's 
Church is also engraved with the names of Lord 
and Lady Harley, the founders, and with the 
maker's name, Phelps, who also made the big bell 
of S. Paul's Cathedral. Richard Phelps was 
predecessor to the present firm of Mears and 

Several famous organists are also connected 
with the church, amongst whom may be enume- 
rated William Boyce and Edward Francis 


HEN in Dublin a short 

time ago, with a double 

intention in view — to see 

if any of the technical 

processes used by the old 

Irish craftsmen were re- 

vivable, and also if they 

would throw any light 

^ „. ... I was attracted 

by a piece of champleve enamel with panels 
suggesting milletiori glass (fig. i). My interest 
was redoubled when later I found that the illumm- 
ators had evidently derived some of their decorative 
motives from work of this kind (fig. 2). Both Du 
Chaillu, in his 'Viking Age,'and Dr. Ingvald Undset, 
in ' Petites Etudes surle dernier age de fer en Nor- 
v^ge,' published in the ' M6moires de la Societc 
des Antiquaires du Nord' for 1890, have noticed 
and illustrated bronze vessels found in graves in 
Norway which are embellished with enamel similar 


on the origin of Irish Christian art 





The Ornament of the Book of Durrow 

from ^he 5ooKoj Kelis, 
Gospel XV, 2-5. 

FIG. 2 

to the piece in 
the Royal Irish 
Academy col- 
lection in 
Dublin. Dr. 
Undset is of 
SrIi>.Tk opinion that 
these bronze 
vessels came 
from this 
country, but 
is unable to determine whether from England, 
Ireland or Scotland. However, their interest lies in 
the fact that the illuminator of the Book of Durrow, 
when he drew the symbol of St. Matthew (fig. 3), 
was evidently inspired by a handle similar to one 
that Dr. Undset illustrates (fig. 4). The symbols 
of the other three Evangelists in this manuscript 
show the same infiuence in varying degree, that of 
St. Luke least of all. The 'Cross' page in the 
same manuscript (fig. 5), places the matter beyond 
the shadow of a doubt. The cross is evidently the 

illuminator's ver- 
sion of this kind 
of enamel, which 
for the sake of 
being explicit, but 
using the term 
loosely, we might 
name 'champleve- 
millefiori enamel ' 
(Mr. Day in his 
recent book on 
enamelling makes 
some valuable 
technical remarks 
on millefiori glass 
inlay on metal), 
and when one 
sees what the cross 
has been derived 
from, the rest of 
the page, with its 
bright yellow, 
green and red in- 
terlacings, separ- 
ated from a black 
background by a 
line of colourless 
vellum, becomes, 
one might almost 
say, an elaborate 
enamel, the vellum 
Ime correspond- 
S^mboX o|- S>t Mi-ffKetu, jro-m ing to the metal 
" me ^oKof Dw^Trpgi?, ■ one left by the 

enameller and the 
black background 
being of course the calligrapher's writing fluid. 

The late ]. Romilly Allen has pointed out that 
the page of 'Trumpet' pattern in this manuscript 
was derived from enamelled discs showing that 
device, and the enamelled roundels on the 'Thames' 
shield in the British Museum, which are resembled 
in technique by those on the Ardagh chalice, are 
also used in the ornamentation of the Books of 
Durrow and Kells (fig. 6). 

It is most significant that the dominant note in 
the ornamented pages of the Book of Durrow 
should be derived from a phase of enamelling 
associated so unmistakably with the Romano- 
British period and a phase of glass working which, 
if not associated quite so closely with the same 
period, has at least left some traces of connexion 
with it. There are two other instances of the 
familiarity of the Irish craftsmen with Roman 
glass-working methods : one in the glass cameos 
on the ' Tara ' brooch, and the other in the practice 
of engraving a pattern in a glass base and filling it 
with another 
vitreous paste 
which melts at a 
lower tempera- 
ture than that to 
which it is ap- 
plied ; of which 
Roman examples 
can be seen in 
a collection of 
rings in the Glass 
Room of the 
British Museum, 
and its Irish 
parallel on the 
upper side of 
the foot of the Handle o[ BTon3e Vessel 
Ardagh chalice. . . . , 

Having got a fo« ^^^ Moklebusr, Notlu^. 

clue to what was fig 4 
dominating the 

mind of the illuminator of the Book of Durrow in 
some portions of his work, let us see if it is applic- 
able to all. Take, for instance, the opening words 
of the Gospel of St. John. Some of the interlaced 
patterns on this page show a peculiar treatment 
(fig. 7). Observe how a strand which is double in 
one part of the pattern is divided into single 
strands in another (evidently in the illuminator's 
mind each is a separate unit), and how colour is 
interspersed in the spaces between the knots. 

Naturally influenced by the facts we have already 
ascertained, we turn to the art of the Romano- 
British period to see if there are any remains of 
enamelled metal-work showing interlacing, and 
find, so far as I know, only one specimen, but a 
most significant one, a gold bracelet (said to be 
of the second century a.d.), found in Radnorshire 
and now in the Gem Room of the British 
Museum. The interlaced portion is composed of 


The Ornament of the Book of T)urrow 

three strands of gold wire placed parallel to each 
other and then interwoven ; the clasp, which 

eUam \t\i coloul i— Jrles3 

Green pile "3 '^0, 

line ofcoulr 

4wn<!) yeUouj 

from fhe Book of Durrocu. 

FIG. 5 

shows characteristic Celtic curves made with 
beaded wire, has little dots soldered here and there 



FIG, 6 

at the junctions of the curves and enamel in the 
spaces between the wires (fig. 8). It seems to me 
a short step from introducing enamel in the spaces 
left by the curves and spirals to introducing it in 

those left by the interlaced wire. If this is 
granted we have an excellent reason for 
Ihe invention of the stopped 
knot in the endeavour of the 
workman to get a large space 
in which to put enamel ; in 
fact, the invention of the 
stopped knot was forced on 
him, or else he would have had 
to abandon a most obvious idea. 
By a process of reasoning back 
from the pattern in the Book 
of Durrow which I have just 
cited, and the peculiar treat- 
ment of which would be ex- 
plained by the fact that it is a 
development of interlaced pat- 
terns similar to that on the 
Radnorshire bracelet built up 
of strands of wire (hence the 
separating of one strand from 
another), we see the idea was 
not abandoned. The problem 
was solved, most likely in Brit- 
ain, and a new decorative device 
was evolved which later gen- 
erations of Celtic craftsmen 
carried as far as it was humanly 

Further proof of this theory 
can be seen on the Welsh 
Crosses illustrated in Westwood's ' Lapida- 
rium Walliae.' Plate lo. 2. B. shows the sculptor's 
version of the goldsmith's wire and dots, so do 
patterns on plates 28 and 43, and in his description 
of the cross in Nevern churchyard, Pembrokeshire 
illustrated on plate 62, Westwood remarks that 
' some of the gigantic initials above alluded to 
(in Irish manuscripts) may be said truly to repre- 
sent the shafts of these great crosses reduced to 
the size of a miniature, thus proving the identity of 
the workmanship as well as the workmen by whom 
both classes of monument were executed.' This 
is partially correct ; both were derived, though I 

FIG. 7 


think independently of each other, from the en- 
amelling and goldsmiths' work I have been alluding 


The Ornament of the 'Book of T^urrow 

to. Another instance of the fact that, wliether a 
strand was double of treble, each of its units was 
considered separate can be seen on plate 83, fig. 2, 
where the double strand of which the interlaced 
portion is composed separates into its units, which 
are used to make a symmetrical fret pattern of 
Roman type. Westwood points out several Roman 
fret patterns on the Welsh crosses — fig. 4, plate 83, 
for instance. 

It is evident from the facts shown above that the 

Book of Dlutow is one of the earliest of the 
illuminated manuscripts of the Celtic school, and 
also that it was done before the continental in- 
fluences to be seen in the Book of Kells had 
reached Ireland, as all the ornament in it, with the 
exception of the zoomorphic portions, has been 
traced to internal sources. Is it possible the inscrip- 
tion it contains, assigning its writing to ' Columba,' 
is correct as to date, and that it belongs to the 
later part of the sixth century ? 


ITTLE is known about the 
beginningsof the different Italian 
manufactories of porcelain. 
Though Franks in his 'Cata- 
logue of a Collection of Conti- 
nental Porcelain,' and Chaffers 
m his ' Keramic Gallery,' as 
well as in his ' Marks and 
historical notes and 



Monograms,' have given 
reproductions, which do _ 

this knowledge, their work is not free from errors 
and mistakes. For instance, I have been able to 
identify the number 456, the statue of a Roman 
warrior seated, which Franks described as being 
of Venetian origin, as a piece from the manufactory 
of Fiirstenberg ; and the tureen, bearing the 
name of the painter Jacobus Helchis, reproduced 
as Venetian porcelain by Chaffers, and described 
as German, uncertain, by Franks, I was able, in 
connexion with several other pieces bearing the 
same signature, to identify as early Vienna porce- 
lain about 1735.' After much study and travel I 
have got together a large quantity of material for 
a history of the Italian manufactories in the eigh- 
teenth century, which I hope to publish in the 
future. Here I wish merely to call attention to a 
new discovery, made by myself, which throws a 
very interesting and instructive light on the 
beginning of the manufactory of porcelain in 
Doccia near Florence, founded by the Marchese 
Giuori in 1737. 

We know from a short historical review (pub- 
lished by the still existing manufactory) of the 
history of the manufactory by Lorenzini, that the 
first porcelain was made, after two years of experi- 
ment, in 1737, with the help of Carl Wandhelein, 
of the Vienna manufactory. 

In the above-mentioned book on the Vienna 
manufactory of porcelain I have pointed out the 
fact that no Carl Wandhelein was known in the 
latter manufactory, but there was a Carl Wendelin 
Anreiter, whose signature appears on many pieces 

' See the recently publislied book, ' The History of the 
Imperial Vienna Minufactory of Porcelain,' written by my- 
self and my friend, Josef Folnesics. 

of Vienna porcelain, and who belonged to the 
great family of porcelain painters and miniaturists, 
Anreiter von Zirnfeld. I am of opinion that in 
the account given in the Italian review some con- 
fusion has taken place. The Italians changed, as 
it seems, the second, to them unknown, baptismal 
name Wendelin into Wandhelein. The correctness 
of this supposition is proved by the fact, that there 
have recently appeared two cups painted by 
Anreiter in Doccia. 

The collection of Dr. Fritz Clemm, sold by 
auction in Berlin in December, 1907, contained 
one of these cups (cat. No. 183). It is a slender 
cup without handles, curving outwards tovv,u-ds 
the brim, and octangular in shape. The inside is 
entirely gilded, as is also the foot. The eight 
arched fields on the outside are richly painted, 
chiefly with market-scenes containing two or 
often three figures, alternating with iron-red 
scrolls which make the framework to a panel en- 
closing a gold etched bust, which is a form of 
ornamentation in use in the first half of the eigh- 
teenth century. Above the gold foot there is 
written in extremely small iron-red letters the 
signature ' Carlo Anreiter VZ.' This VZ does not 
mean the abbreviation of Venezia, as the Clemm 
catalogue suggests, but is the abbreviation of 
Anreiter's suffix ' von Zirnfeld.' 

Opposite to this signature is a second one 
' Fierenze,' not remarked by the compiler of the 
catalogue of the Clemm sale (figs, i and 2). The 
cup was bought at the rather high price of 1,600 
marks by a Vienna collector of porcelain, Herr 
Heinrich Rolhberger. The exact pair to this cup 
is in the possession of the Kaiser Franz Josef 
Museum in Troppau, to which it was presented by 
the great art collector, the Baron George Beess of 
Vienna ; this second piece shows the same colour- 
ing and double signature ' C. Anreiter VZ.' and 
' P'ierenze' (fig. 3). The substance of the cup 
shows clearly that it is a trial piece. The too cal- 
careous and therefore too vitreous enamel is too 
thickly put on the porcelain, and some sandy 
ruggedness on the bottom indicates still existing 
technical inadequacy. 


IDoccia Porcelain 

Both these signed pieces are indubitable early 
Doccia porcelains, and through comparison with 
these I am able to ascribe to the same manufactory 
a charming, finely modelled flagon in the collection 
of Herr Cahn-Speyer in Vienna, which is painted 
exactly in the same manner with figure subjects 

(fig- 4)- 

The ornamental decoration of the above des- 
cribed cups shows clearly the influence of the 
earliest Vienna porcelains, but the pretty figures 
are very likely painted after contemporary Italian 

A second group of early Italian porcelains which 
show the direct influence of Meissen models 
I also ascribe to the manufactory of Doccia. 
The pieces in question are cups, tureens with 
covers and saucers, etc., for the most part with the 
so-called 'Neuozier' brim, and cartouches, framed 

by iron-red and golden tendrils and violet 
lustre fields, painted with coloured Chinese and 
pastoral scenes. 

I reproduce here a tureen from the museum of 
the porcelain manufactory at Charlottenburg (fig. 
c;), a tureen from the Berlin Kunstgewerbe 
Museum (fig. 6), a cup from the collection of Dr. 
Sarbo in Budapest (fig. 7), all of them very char- 
acteristic types of these porcelains. 

A number of pieces with the same decoration were 
once owned by the Marchese d'Azeglio, whose col- 
lection is now at the Museo Civico in Turin ; one of 
these pieces bears the stamp, also reproduced by 



containing the initials of Pietro 

FanciuUo, who was working in the manufactory 
of Doccia. 



N the course of the last few 
years there has been a consider- 
able revival in the general 
interest in and study of Illu- 
minated Manuscripts, after a 
fairly long period during which 
these beautiful productions of 
the Middle Ages rather dropped 
into the background in presence of other more 
fashionable literary and artistic pursuits succes- 
sively in vogue. Those of us whose memory goes 
back some five-and-forty years will not have 
forgotten how popular was then the taste for 
copying from illuminations. Ruskin, the apostle of 
mediaeval art, was in the zenith of his glory. His 
disciples were many and enthusiastic ; and the 
Preraphaelite school was flourishing. 

The modern revival of the taste is chiefly due 
to means which can reach further than even the 
eloquent voice and pen of Ruskin ever reached. 
Mechanical contrivances for photographic repro- 
duction now perform feats which would once 
have been regarded almost as magic, and, though 
they cannot bring together the actual manuscripts 
from their several resting-places, they can present 
us with their simulacra in such an accurate form 
that the study and comparison of illuminations, as 
indeed of other works of art, are made easy, and 
the published works upon the subject are rendered 
intelligible and instructive to the general reader to 
a degree which was formerly impossible. 

The monograph before us ' is an instance of 
the modern method of treatment in describing an 
important manuscript — minute and accurate in 

''The Gorleston Psalter': .t manuscript of the beginning of 
the fourteenth century in the Library of C. \V. Dyson Perrins. 
Described in relation to other East Anglian books of the period 
by Sydney C.Cockerell. London: Bernard Quaritch. /3 i3s.6d. 


detail, after a fashion that might prove tiresome 
were it not for the generous supply of photographic 
illustrations which are selected, not only from the 
manuscript itself, but also from other volumes, for 
purposes of comparison. Mr. Cockerell has not 
failed to render his description in this respect as 
complete and instructive as possible. 

The Gorleston Psalter is one of a group of 
illuminated manuscripts produced in the Eastern 
Counties early in the fourteenth century ; works 
of the East Anglian school of book decoration, 
which, while essentially English in sentiment, 
probably owes something to the influence of 
the art of French Flanders from across the 
Channel. Without going altogether with Mr. 
Cockerell when he finds 'a sympathy with the 
vigorous schools of Artois and French Flanders ' 
to be ' clearly shown in the fondness for marginal 
grotesques' — for the fondness for grotesques in the 
mediaeval art of the countries of western Europe 
was too universal to be marked down as the 
special attribute of any particular school — yet we 
may certainly agree that there is a reminiscence of 
Flemish art in certain forms of the conventional 
foliage and in the occasional heaviness of outline 
in the drawings. So far we may concede an ex- 
ternal influence. But the general style of the 
East Anglian school is peculiarly its own— not of 
the very highest type of illumination, robust 
rather than refined, and in its scheme of ornament 
rather inclining to heaviness and over-elaboration : 
faultswhicharepartiallydisguisedin theoriginals by 
brilliant colouring and liberal use of gold, but 
which obtrude themselves in the unrelieved mono- 
tone of the photographs. 

The manuscript, which has hitherto been 
generally known as the Braybrooke Psalter, seems 
to have been e.xecuted, as Mr. Cockerell tells us, 




4. DoiX \ \ II I ■ I HE COLLEC- 









The Gorleston Tsalter 

for some distinguished person connected with the 
church of St. Andrew of Gorleston, a place once 
of some importance lying close to Yarmouth. 
Influenced chiefly by the occurrence, in two 
places in the volume, of the arms of Roger de 
Bigod, fifth earl of Norfolk and Marshal of 
England, who died in 1306, Mr. Cockerell is 
led to suggest tentatively that the earl was the 
distinguished person in question ; and again, on 
this assumption, he is induced, rather contrary to 
his better judgment, to fix the date of the manu- 
script earlier than 1306. But so many shields of 
arms of different English families are introduced 
into the illuminated pages merely as ornaments, 
that there seems to be no good reason for attaching 
more importance to one coat than to another ; 
and, as to the actual period of the execution of the 
volume, some clue is afforded by the character of 
the writing of the catchwords of the quires, which 
are in a charter-hand of the type which is usually 
attributed to the reign of Edward II. Arguments 
from such niceties, however, must not be pressed 
too far. There is good reason for assuming that 
the manuscript, like the great Ormesby Psalter of 
the Bodleian Library, passed at an early date into 
the possession of the cathedral priory of Norwich, 
for a litany applicable to that church was added 
to the volume in the course of the fourteenth 
century. By the sixteenth century it had passed 
into secular hands, being then owned by Sir 
Thomas Cornwallis, a noted East Anglian, who 
flourished in the reigns of Mary and Elizabeth and 
even survived to see King James upon the throne. 
It descended in the Cornwallis family until the 
death of the second Marquess Cornwallis in 1823, 
when it passed, by marriage, to the Lords Bray- 
brooke of Audley End. Mr. Perrins, the present 
fortunate owner, acquired the manuscript in 1904. 
By way of frontispiece to the present publica- 
tion, the page containing the initial and border 
ornamenting Psalm ci is reproduced in colours, 
affording a sample of the brilliant decoration of 
this splendid psalter. The central object which 
arrests the eye is the graceful female figure sym- 
bolizing the Church, which appears to be the best 
example of decorative figure-drawing in the volume. 
With the colours in this plate to guide us, we can 
more easily follow the structure of the peculiar 
conventional growths of which the borders of the 
manuscripts of this school are composed, and here, 
as in other English manuscripts, a pleasing 
feature in the scheme of ornament is the introduc- 
tion of natural plant life— oak-leaves, acorns, daisies, 

etc., along with the foliage of the ordinary stereo- 
typed pattern. 

The rest of the plates are photogravures and 
collotypes ; and it is among these that a selection 
from the illuminated pages of other manuscripts 
affords us the means of comparing the art of the 
Gorleston Psalter with that of other examples of 
the East Anglian school. Two psalters in particular 
are closely connected in style with that of 
Gorleston— -namely, the Douai and the St. 
Omer Psalters. The Douai manuscript is itself 
of Gorleston origin, having been the gift of 
Thomas, vicar of Gorleston, to an abbot John, 
who may have been John of Aylesham, abbot of 
Hulme in Norfolk from 1325 to 1346. The St. 
Omer Psalter, so called from its having been 
executed for a member of the family of St. Omer, 
is unfortunately incomplete. It now forms part 
of the collection of Mr. Henry Yates Thompson. 
Comparing the ' Beatus ' page (Ps. i) of the three 
several manuscripts (plates iv, xv, xvii), there can 
be no hesitation in accepting the order of merit 
assigned to them by Mr. Cockerell : the St. Omer 
is facile priiiccps, and the Douai excels the 
Gorleston. The St. Omer page is a wonderful 
production of minute and delicate work, with 
which the other two bear no comparison. But 
even in this, the finest example, there is the fault 
of overcrowding ; and we cannot forgive the 
artist for introducing a series of heads or busts of 
startling appearance which upset the balance of 
the design. Nor can we be brought to admire 
the two Crucifixions from the Gorleston and the 
Douai volumes (plates iii, xvi). The drawing is 
poor and the borders are unimaginative ; so differ- 
ent from the noble treatment of the subject as 
seen in the Arundel Psalter in the British Museum 
(plate xxi), probably the finest example in existence 
of this school, and here inadequately represented 
by two plates, we regret to say very poorly 

We must not take leave of this handsome and 
finely printed monograph, for which we have to 
thank Mr. Perrins's liberality, without noticing 
the many grotesques and humorous scenes from 
domestic and animal life with which Mr. Cockerell 
has filled several of his plates. We enjoy the 
amusement which these little drawings afford us ; 
no doubt they amused the draughtsmen still more. 
But we never cease from wondering why the 
margins of religious books were so frequently 
selected to receive the expression of very mundane 
humour and even the parody of sacred things. 



Among recent acquisitions of works representing 
eighteenth-century France in the National Gallery 

the most interesting is undoubtedly The Panide, 
by Gabriel de Saint-Aubin. The story of its identifi- 
cation is briefly related in the director's report 
for 1907. The picture was formerly in the Baring 

N 151 

Notes on Various JVorks of Art 

collection, where il was given to Wattcau's master, 

Gillot. It was purchased in the saleroom through 

Messrs. Agnew for the modest price of ^^99 15s. 

and was recognized by Mr. ]. P. Heseltine as the 

original of an engraving in ' Les Theatres Libertms.' 

Unfortunately the engraving did not bear the 

artist's name, so that identification seemed as far 

off as ever. At last M. Gaston Sch6fer discovered 

in a portfolio of theatrical prints at the Bibliotheque 

Nationale an unfinished proof of the plate, dated 

1760. On it, inscribed in an old handwriting, 

were the words 'Gabriel de Saint-Aubin pinxt.' 

The discovery was remarkable. Even those 
keen and persistent workers, the brothers de Gon- 
court, had failed in their classic work on French 
art of the eighteenth century to identify a single 
painting by Gabriel de Saint-Aubin. The picture 
just acquired by the National Gallery would thus 
seem, for the moment at least, to be the single oil- 
painting from the hand of this brilliant member of 
a brilliant family. 

In point of spirit and skill The Parade is not 
unworthy even of so talented an author, for in its 
way the thing could not be done better. Since its 
acquisition by the National Gallery a discovery has 
been made in France which sheds new light on 
Saint-Aubin and his connexion with Paris, and at 
one point touches our picture so nearly that it 
may not be out of place to mention it here. 

In the 'Gazette des Beaux-Arts' for April, 1908, 
M. Philippe Descoux describes and illustrates a 
copy of ' La Description de Paris ' by Piganiol de 
la P'orce (Paris, 1742) which has recently been 
found in the collection of M. Jacques Doucet. 
This copy once belonged to Gabriel de Saint-Aubin, 
and between the years 1770 and 1779 he filled the 
eight volumes with notes and sketches of things 
Parisian. Of the 170 little drawings contained in 
the volume, M. Descoux reproduces only a few 
specimens, but one of these, The Alley of Lime 
Trees in the Tiiileiies Gardens, dated April 20th, 
1774 (which he reproduces), bears so close a 
resemblance to the spirit and treatment of The 
Parade that the sketch might well seem to have 
helped to inspire the painting, had not the dates 
made this impossible. It can thus be regarded 
only as an interesting parallel.* C. J. H. 


Among the paintings which, prior to my discoveries 
in the Archives of Flanders, were wont to be 
attributed to Roger Van der Weyden, and later on 
to John Mostaert or Gerard David, there arc a 
number evidently by pupils or followers of the 
latter. Two of these followers I restored to 
history: Albert Cornells (c. 1475-1532) in 1863,1 
and Adrian Isenbrant (c. 1480-1551) in 1865.- 

1 Illustration from a photograph by Hauptaengl. 
1 'Le Bcffroi,' i, i-:!2. 
■' Ibid., ii, 320-3-^4 

The central panel of one triptych is still the only 
work known to have been painted by Cornells. 
Of a whole series of works attributed by Waagen 
to Mostaert, one of the best, the altarpiece of Our 
Lady of Dolours, in the church of Our Lady at 
Bruges, was restored to Isenbrant in 1902 by M. 
Hulin and myself. Isenbrant probably worked 
with David until June, 1520, when he took an 
apprentice and seems to have started a workshop 
of his own. A large number of paintings are 
now attributed to him by Friedlaender and Hulin.' 
Attention was first drawn by Justi'to several other 
paintings which were supposed by him to have 
been the work of a Spaniard who had learned his 
craft in Bruges, had come under the influence of 
David, and had modified his style after returning 
to his native land. He proposed to call him the 
' master of Segovia,' his best work being in the 
church of St. Michael in that city ; another by the 
same hand, signed AB., he found in the collection 
of Count Valencia at Madrid. Another, similarly 
signed, was noticed by Friedlaender in the 
Germanic Museum at Nurnberg and thought by 
him to be the work of a German painter influenced 
by the Lombard school. Hulin found in the 
register of the Guild of St. Luke at Bruges the 
record of admission as free master in 1519 of 
Ambrose Benson from Lombardy. As long ago 
as 1875 I had brought together a number of 
documents concerning Benson and his family, 
but as I had found no mention of any painting 
executed by him nor any proof that he had pro- 
duced a single work of art I reserved them, hoping 
at some future time to publish the same with a 
large number of notes on other Bruges painters 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It would 
be interesting to know something of Ainbrose 
Benson prior to his arrival at Bruges— whence he 
came, who were his parents, and where he had 
learned his craft. The entry in the Bruges 
register merely states that he was from Lombardy, 
but when he died his younger son John was still a 
minor, and the guardian appointed to administer 
his affairs as next-of-kin to his father was one 
Francisque da Verona, a barber who had settled 
in Bruges in 1510. He was a Lombard but not 
necessarily a native of Verona. In the sacristy of 
the cathedral of that city there is a painting signed 
Antonio Benzono 1523,^ but I have been unable to 
find mention of any other Benzone at Verona 
about that time. There was, however, a family of 
painters of this name who flourished at Ferrara in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Geminian 
Benzone had a son, a painter, who was already 
dead in 1504; by his wife Beatrice, daughter of 

'A list of these is given in Bodenhaiisen's monumental work 
on Gerard David and his school, p. 209. 

* In the ' Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kunst,' xxi. 139, Leipzig, 1886. 

'H. von Tschudi in the ' Allgemeines Kiinstler Lexikon,' iii, 
566. His manner is said to resemble that of Francis Caroto. 




rilK PAkADi:. BY (.AIllv'III. DE SAINT-AlllIN 

Notes on Various Works of Art 

a master Ambrose, he had several sons, two of 
whom, Geminian and James, were painters, 
Geminian being mentioned in public documents 
as 'pictor egregius'l" It was customary at that 
time to give the eldest son the name of his pater- 
nal, and the second that of his maternal grand- 
father : I am inclined to think that the Ambrose 
who came to Bruges may have been the second 
son of Geminian and Beatrice, but there is no 
mention of any member of the family bearing 
that name. Ambrose quickly gained the esteem 
of his fellow craftsmen, for he was chosen a member 
of the council in 1521, 1539, 1540 and 1545, and 
was twice dean — in 1537-38 and 1543-44. During 
several years he exhibited works for sale at the 
January and May fairs held in the cloister of 
the P'riars minor. The magistrates of the Liberty 
of Bruges when building their Landshuis twice 
consulted him with regard to their projects for its 
decoration. During his career of thirty years 
he doubtless executed many paintings, as he left 
at his death in January, 1550, the sum of 
Flemish currency. His two sons, William and John, 
and his grandson, Ambrose, were all painters. 
William was a member of the council in 1551-52 
and 1561-62, and died in 1585. John went to 
Antwerp and was admitted as free master into the 
guild there in 1551, but returned to Bruges at the 
end of 1552, was a member of the council in 1553- 
54 and died in 1585, shortly after his brother, as did 
also Ambrose the younger. 

Bodenhausen gives a list of works attributed to 
Benson ; as to the two signed AB,' there can I 
think be no doubt, but as regards the remainder 
it must be remembered that Isenbrant, the sons of 
John Prevost, the Bensons and others were for 
many years busily employed in painting original 
works and copies which they exported to Bilbao, 
where they met with a ready sale, and it is 
in Spain that Bruges paintings of this period 
are chiefly met with. They are easily recognized ; 
the types of the figures as a rule resemble those of 
David, as for instance those of Our Lady and Child 
with SS. Katherine and Barbara in the collection of 
Martin Leroy at Paris, but occasionally the type 
of the Holy Child and the landscape liackground 
show reminiscences of Milanese masters. The 
modelling of the heads is often hard, the fingers 
too long and thin ; dark red and dark green seem 
to have been favourite colours. 

W. H. J. W. 

These drawings, evidently leaves of a sketch-book, 
were sold as Holbeins in some sale or other not 

" See Cittadella, ' Documenti risgarduanti la Storia aitistica 
Ferraiese,' 1868, p. 25. For this reference I am indebted to 
Drs. Thieme and Becker, the editors of the important 'Allgemeines 
Kunstler Lexikon,' now in course of pubHcation. 

' These are : a Holy Family at Nurnberg in the Germanic 
Museum, 244, and a triptych representing the Adoration of the 
Ma:ii with SS, Anthony of Padua and Secundus on the shutters. 

many years ago. How I obtained the photo- 
graphs I do not remember ; probably I picked 
them up otif some bookstall. It is enough to 
compare the heads, evidently drawn from life, 
with the heads in Gerard David's Marriage at 
Caiia, now in the Louvre, painted for Jan de 
Sedano early in the sixteenth century (according 
to Professor Hulin), to see that the draughtsman 
must have been the same man as the painter. 

Martin Conway. 

I. One of the most important points about Lo 
Fil de Mestre Rodrigo — his parentage — is eluci- 
dated by Seizor L. Tramoyeres Blasco, keeper of 
the museum of Valencia, in ' Cultura Espailola,' 
No. ix (February, 1908). The article is of great 
importance in view of the National Gallery's 
recent accession, an Adoration of the Magi, signed 
by this rare Valencian master.' F"irst mentioned in 
a document of 1464 concerning a now lost work, 
the painter's father, Mestre Rodrigo de Osona, 
again occurs in 1483 as ' pictor retabulorum sedis 
Valentie,' when he probably supplanted the 
Neapolitan Francisco Pagano, and Paolo de San 
Leocadio of Reggio,' in the execution of works for 
the decoration of the choir of Valencia Cathedral, 
commenced in the episcopate of Rodrigo Borja, 
afterwards Pope Alexander VI. Mestre Rodrigo 
is considered to be the pupil of Jaime Bago or 
Jacomart (d. 146 1), the painter of Alfonso V of 
Aragon, for a knowledge of whose career we are 
indebted also to Senor Trainoyeres Blasco's 
researches. Analyzing different paintings existing 
at Valencia, the author assigns to Mestre Rodrigo, 
the elder, panels representing SS. Vincent (Martyr) 
and Vincent Ferrer, and four scenes in the life of 
St. Narcissus, in the cathedral ; a Crncifixion 
signed Rodrigus (de Veia ?), in the church of S. 
Nicolas, published by Monsieur Bertaux in the 
' Revue de I'Art ancien et moderne,' xx (425) ; 
various fragments of works, and a Pieta, in the 
museum. When Rodrigo died is unknown, as is 
also the precise significance to be attached to the 
predicate 'de Osona,' from which his origin in the 
Catalan town of Osona might be inferred. His 
works exhibit that fusion of the native and 
Netherlandish styles, and that acquaintance with 
Renaissance details, traced by Senor Tramoyeres 
Blasco first in Jacomart and later in Rodrigo's 
son. So far as can be judged from the reproduc- 
tions accompanying the article, the conclusion 
appears justified that Rodrigo I was a more 
accomplished artist and his style purer than that 
of Rodrigo II, The son lived in days when 

' Reproduced and described in The Burlington Magazine, 
Vol. xi, pp. 108 and iii, May, 1907. 

•^ For this artist's works, especially at Gandia, see Monsieur 
Bertaux's article in the ' Gazette des BeauK-Arts,' 3rd series, 
xxxix, 207-20. (March) 190S. 

Notes on Various Works of Art 

Italian influences were rapidly gaining the upper 
hand, and the painting at the National Gallery, 
and a Christ before Pilate (Valencia Museum), here 
attributed to him, are combinations it is difficult 
to summarize in words. It is to be hoped that 
further material concerning both artists will 
reward Seiior Tramoyeres Blasco's zeal in the cause 
of the early Valencian school. At present the 
only documentary record of ' Lo Fil de Mestre 
Rodrigo ' is an entry in the tax-rolls (his art was, 
apparently, a remunerative one) in 1513. 

II. In 'Arte,' vol. x (fasc. v), Signor R. Schiff 
ascribes a recently-aquired panel in the Palazzo 
Mediceo, Pisa, to the San Severino master, Lorenzo 
Salimbene. The subject represented is Saint 
Catherine of Siena's Last Exhortation of Iter Disciples. 
Although it has passages somewhat similar in 
treatment to Salimbene's best-known work, the 
triptych of the Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, 
(Did SS. Simon ami Jude^ in the San Severino 
Gallery, there can be not the slightest doubt that 
it is from the hand of the painter of the Catalan 
altarpiece of the Descent of the Holy Ghost, at Manresa. 
According to Seiior Sanperey Miquel this is Louis 
Borrassa, but there is no documentary evidence for 
this, and when damaged the painting was, in 141 2, 
repaired by Francisco Feliu. The Pisa panel has 
close affinities with another Pentecost picture, in 
S. Anne's, Barcelona, illustrated by the same 
authority as a Borrassa, and likewise with the 
Santa Clara altarpiece of 1415 (Vich Museum), the 
latter an authenticated work by the master. The 
pseudo-Salimbene is a closely crowded composi- 
tion, and it has the identical types, with their 
almost exaggerated characterization, of the master 
of the Manresa painting. The shape of the panel is, 
moreover, one affected by Catalan artists for the 
smaller compartments of retables. 

III. Three panels from the Ciudad Rodrigo 
altarpiece, now in Sir F. Cook's collection, were 
described and illustrated in The Burlin'GTON 
Magazine, vol. vii, pp. 388, 392 and 393, August, 
1905. It is interesting to find one of them serving 
as the composition for a woodcut in an edition of 
Antonio Nebrissensis's 'Aureaexpositiohymnorum,' 
printed by Paul Hurus at Saragossa in 1499. 
Including a few alterations, and transpositions of 
the figures, nearly all the right hand and central 
portions of the painting are to be found in the cut. 
The latter is reproduced in Herr Haebler's 
' Tipografia Iberica,' pi. xlii, from a copy of the 
work in the Royal Library, Stuttgart. A great 
feature of the productions of the Hurus press is 
(to translate the same authority) 'the prodigious 
number of cuts they contain, not all of artistic 
merit, but many after originals by the best German 

2 Finished in 1416, and signed and dated by the artist, then 
act. 26, who died some four years later. Reproduced in ' Rassegni 
d'Arte,' vi, p. 50, 1906. There is also a good photograph, since 
its exhibition at Macerata. 


masters.' Any one, therefore, who could spare time 
to examine the rare and somewhat scattered Hurus 
publications might be in a position to decide the 
date of certain very late fifteenth-century works, 
and perhaps discover a cut after some famous lost 
original. A. V. D. P. 


As I am at present engaged in the publication of 
a work of some size on Roman female draped 
statues,the excellent article on the interesting draped 
figure from Trentham in the March number of 
The Burlington Magazine was specially 
welcome. A careful study of the available 
material has, however, convinced me that the 
conclusions of Mr. Cecil Smith as regards the 
most essential point cannot possibly hit the mark. 

1 see no convincing reason for separating the 
statue from the inscription. On the contrary, the 
character of the style and the somewhat rough 
execution of the figure seem to me in perfect 
keeping with the period mentioned in the inscrip- 
tion — namely, the first century B.C. iThe statue 
can never be regarded as an original work of the 
fourth century. The figure belongs to the class 
of artistic creations of the first century B.C., 
which do, indeed, already bear Roman inscriptions, 
but are still purely Grecian in spirit. As the 
nearest analogy I may mention the honorary 
statues from Magnesia, which were erected to 
the female members of the family of Q. Baebius 
and the Pro-consul L. Valerius Flaccus.- These 
too have Roman inscriptions, and date from the 
first century B.C. The draped figure from 
Trentham — like the statues from Magnesia — is 
no new, original invention ; it goes back, rather, 
to a well-known model of the fourth century,'^ and 
repeats it in the spirit of the waning Hellenistic 
feeling for art. The execution of the folds has no 
longer that easy play, the surface of the robe has 
no longer that shimmering textural charm, which 
are found in the plastic creations of the Hellen- 
istic florescence. The command of form, the 
lively, curious feeling for art, have died out in 
riotous masses ; have aged, become weary. The 
face, too, of the Trentham statue is but a banal 
well-known ideal type, by no means a new 
creation of a really independent artist. 

The statue comes from a Grecian studio of the 
first century B.C., and was then used, with an 
added inscription, to decorate the grave of P. 
Maxima. Lastly, I may mention — what has 
escaped Mr. Cecil Smith — that there are two 

' Translated by L. I. Armstrong. 

-Cf. Humann, Rothe, Watzinger : ' .Magnesia am Maander.' 
Pp. 191 ft'. A. Hekler : ' Romische weibliche Gewandstatuen,' 
' Miinchener archeologische Studien,' pp. 123 ft", (in the press.) 

2 The comparison of the statue from Trentham with dated 
draped figures of the fourth century, B.C. like the Themis from 
Rhammus or the so-cMetiArkmisui is most instructive. Cf.'E^ij/ti 
apx- 1^9'- f 4; Brunn-Bnnckmann : Denkmaler pi. 242. 



<-r n 









PI. ATI- 1 


Notes on Various Works of A rt 

known replicas of the type of the Trentham 
figure: one in the Hall of Inscriptions in the 
Uftizi at Florence ;* the other, with a Roman 
portrait head, in the Palazzo Lazzeroni in Rome.^ 
The motive of the figure has also been employed 
in the Sarcophagus of the Muses in the Munich 
Glyptothek.*' Dr. Anton Heklek. 



It is all too seldom that a production on the 
London stage deserves notice in a magazine devoted 
to the fine arts, and ' Lanval,' the romantic drama 
of the Arthurian age performed at two matincei 
last month, must not be allowed to pass un- 
chronicled. The author, ' Mr. T. E. Ellis,' whom 
the newspapers have revealed to be Lord Howard 
de Walden, is, if not a practised dramatist, at least 
an author of an original and fertile imagination, a 
writer of sound blank verse not without passages 
of true poetry, and a contriver of interesting and 
powerful dramatic scenes. We should have liked 
to see the whole play staged and dressed by Mr. 
Charles Ricketts, for whose genius in this branch 
the author's conceptions would have provided a 
fine field. As it was, only one of the scenes was 
entrusted to the artist of 'Attila' and ' Don Juan 
in Hell ' ; but that was one which demanded 
treatment beyond the reach of the ordinary de- 
signer. Lanval, wandering penniless and homeless 
from Arthur's court, is wooed in the forest by a 
maiden from ' the middle world,' and accompanies 
her to her own domain. This was the region 
revealed to us by Mr. Ricketts. Save for a sh.ift 
of red light cast from the turmoil of the upper 
world, the only colour was green. Under a sky of 
infinite depth, where stars twinkled, rose strange 
green rocks of many sizes, but all approaching in 
shape to the conical. The middle world is a place 
of rest and dreams, not of action, and the contrast 
to the hard and dusty world of men was not only 
indescribably refreshing but the very gist of the 
author's meaning. The whole was v.ague, myste- 
rious, quiet, and empty ; the atmosphere was cold 
and still ; the light appeared to be one with the 
place, and not to fall on it from a point outside ; 
and the scene told its own story and created its 
own impression before a word had been said. 
The costumes, too — the floating drapery of the 
maiden and the exquisite tunic worn by Lanval — 
were the work of the same artist, and part of his 
conception. For the rest of the scenes, the pro- 
ducers had done their best with ordinary material, 
and it must be admitted that in some — the forge, 

* Amelung : ' Fiihrer,' No. 112, p. 78 ; Reinach : ' Rcpeitoiie 
de la statuaire 'II, 606, 7. 

' Einzelverkauf, No. i 170 ; A. Hekler : ' Romische weibliche 
Gewandstatuen,' p. 19S. 

■* Furtwaengler : ' Beschreibung,' No. 326; Baumcister : 
Denkmaler,' Abb. 11S6. Cf. also the motive in terra-cottas : 
Winter : ' Die antiken Terrakotten,' p. 50, i, 2, p. 51, i, etc. 

for instance, where the author incidentally betrayed 
the connoisseur's joy in armour — they had done 
very fairly well. H. C. 


The peculiar fascination which seems to attach 
itself to the Maitre de Flemalle is, perhaps, partly 
due to the fact that there still exists a chance of 
discovering him in works attributed to other 
masters. His characteristics, too, are so strongly 
marked that, if he has once been recognized, there 
is hardly any room for doubt left. Indeed, since 
Dr. Bode, some twenty years ago, identified him 
with the famous Merode triptych at Brussels, 
which proved so great an attraction at the recent 
exhibition of the Golden Fleece, various other 
paintings have, with good reason, been assigned 
to him. 

A fresh glimpse of light has recently been thrown 
on the master's activity by a dated inscription on 
a picture by him in the Prado, which was formerly 
attributed to Jan van Eyck. It represents Henricus 
Werlis, a well-known master of arts at Cologne, 
with St. John the Baptist. According to this in- 
scription, the panel in question, which evidently 
formed the left wing of a triptych (the right wing 
being the Si. Barbura Rending, likewise at the 
Prado), was painted in 1438. LJnfortunately, the 
centre-piece of these side-panels, which were 
formerly at Aranjuez, has disappeared. 

Now, is it not possible that a later copy of this 
centre-piece has come down to us in an Aiuuiiicia- 
tion in the Louvre, which, labelled ' Ecole Flam- 
mande,' has hitherto passed unnoticed ? It evi- 
dently bears the same relation to the wings in the 
Prado that the Merode altarpiece bears to its 
wings. The Virgin, holding an open missal in her 
left hand, is interrupted in her reading by the 
divine messenger. With her long hair parted over 
her forehead, and falling in heavy curls over her 
shoulders, she forcibly recalls the reading Mary of 
the Merode picture ; whilst the angel, with his 
gorgeous dalmatic and white under-garment 
sweeping with heavy folds over the patterned floor, 
seems to be inspired by Roger van der Weydeii's 
Angel Gabriel in the Kann collection. As to the 
interior of the chamber, it bears a close analogy to 
the oratory of the Si. Btnbiiia Reading. There is 
the same window in the background looking out 
on a landscape ; there is a nearly identical 
mantelpiece with the lustre over the centre and 
the bottle with its well-drawn shadow on one side 
of it. The bronze basin and pitcher, too, placed 
on a gothic cabinet near the window are of a 
similar cast as the same utensils in the Prado 

It is interesting to note the alternate influences 
of the \'an Eycks and of Roger van der Weyden 
in the Louvre picture ; and again the Maitre de 


Notes on Various JVorks of Art 

Fleinalle's own characteristic touches, as, for 
instance, in the sparkhng tints of hght on sombre 
shadows, and in the dexterity with which accessories 
are handled. Yet with all his adaptability, the 
later pupil's hand did not attain the same force 
and vitality, the power of plastic modelling, which 
we find in the original works of the master. As 
it is, the merit of this Anminciation in the Louvre 
lies only in the fact that it seems to record a lost 
original of the Maitre de Flemalle. 

Louise M. Riciiter. 

It needs some courage nowadays to claim a 
Western origin for any detail of the received 
iconography of Christian art. Yet such is the 
object of the present note ; and that, too, for a 
device so symbolical — and therefore, it might be 
supposed prima facie, so Eastern — as the emblems 
of the four Evangelists. It has been admitted, 
however, by that enthusiastic and thoroughgoing 
Byzantinist, as well as learned archaeologist. Pro- 
fessor Kondakov,' that this device is unknown in 
Byzantine art from the sixth century to the twelfth ; 
and 1 only wish to go a little further — viz., to 
suggest that it was invented in the West, and never 
found its way at all into Byzantine art until the 
latter period. 

Copies of the Greek Gospels, containing full- 
page mmiatures of the Evangelists, form by far the 
most numerous class of Byzantine illuminated 
manuscripts. The earliest extant manuscript of 
this kind is the Codex Rossanensis, of the sixth 
century, in which one only of the four portraits — 
that of St. Mark — remains.- He sits writing his 
Gospel at the dictation of a lady, who is generally 
explained as typifying Divine Wisdom ; but there 
is no trace of the lion with which he is com- 
monly associated. No more of these portrait- 
miniatures have survived from the early ages 
of Byzantine illumination ; it is not until the 
beginning of the tenth century that the great 
series of Greek Gospel-books becomes con- 
tinuous. During the interval the personification 
of Divine Wisdom drops out of the picture — dis- 
carded, perhaps, as being too directly reminiscent 
of pagan art ; but she is not replaced by the em- 
blems until long after the Crusades had begun to 
bring Western ideas into the East. In fact, I 
know of no instance of their appearance before 
1326, when they occur in a Gospel-book Hvritten by 
Constantine, priest and notary, in a monastery 
dedicated to St. Demetrius the Martyr, probably in 
the neighbourhood of Mount Sinai, where it was 
procured by Bishop Butler. It is possible, of 
course, that between the sixth and tenth centuries 
they had been introduced and afterwards rejected; 

" Geschichte des byzant. Emails,' 1S92, p. 177. 
'^A. Haseloff, 'Codex purpureas Rossanensis,' 1898, pi, 14; 
A. Muiioz, ' 11 Codice purpureo di Rossano,' 1907, pi. 15. 
» Brit. Mus., Add. 11838. 


but most unlikely, seeing how Byzantine painters 
clung to symbolic imagery, especially to symbols 
of such unexceptionable origin as the 'four living 
creatures' of Ezekiel i. 10, the 'four beasts' of 
Revelation iv. 7. 

In Latin patristic literature the interpretation of 
the Apocalyptic beasts as symbols of the four 
Evangelists goes back, no doubt, to a very early 
date; it is set forth in full detail by St. Jerome (d. 
420) in his Commentaries on Ezekiel and Matthew.* 
Probably the oldest surviving examples of its use 
in art are an ivory diptych, now in the Trivulzio 
collection at Milan," and the mosaics of the 
Baptistery of S. Giovanni in Fonte at Naples.^ 
Both are assigned by the best judges to the end of 
the fourth century or beginning of the fifth, and 
though the former has been claimed by some zealous 
Byzantinists, there are good reasons for regarding it 
as' Roman or, at any rate, Italian work. Illuminated 
copies of the Latin Gospels from the seventh century 
onwards practically always include the emblems : 
they appear, for instance, in the seventh century 
Gospels at Cambridge ;' in the Codex Amiatinus 
at Florence, w-ritten in Northumbria about the 
year 700 ;' and in the Durham Book," written at 
Lindisfarne about 700. Perhaps the earliest 
instance, however, of their occurrence in miniature 
is the Verona Psalter (v-vii century).'" The Durham 
Book is known to have been copied — at least so 
far as the prefatory matter is concerned — from a 
manuscript emanating from the neighbourhood of 
Naples ; and though the purely decorative orna- 
ment in this beautiful and famous book is distinctly 
Celtic, the full-page miniatures of the Evangelists 
are of a different character, and their composi- 
tions were doubtless inspired by the corresponding 
paintings in the Neapolitan archetype. There is 
one very curious feature about these four pages. 
The figures of the Evangelists are inscribed ' O 
agios Mattheus,' ' O agios Marcus,' and so on ; 
while the emblems bear the inscriptions 'imago 
hominis,' ' imago leonis,' etc. The former legends 
prove incontestably the Greek parentage of the por- 
traits. May we not regard the latter as affording 
equally good evidence of a Latin origin for the 
emblems ? In short, my suggestion is that the idea 
of depicting the emblems occurred first to an Italian 
artist ; that he and his earliest imitators used them 
as symbols or substitutes for the figures of the 
Evangelists (it is thus that we find them in the 
Trivulzio diptych and the Naples mosaic) ; and 
that their later use as adjuncts or attributes arose 

■■ Migne XXV. 21, xxvi. 19. 

= Molinier, ' Hist. gen. des Arts,' i, 1S9G, pi. 6. 

" Garrucci, ' Storia della Arte cristiana,' iv, 1877, tav. 270 ; 
' L'Arte,' 1S9S, pp. 325-7; ' Nuovo BuUettino di Archeologia 
cristiana,' 1900, pp. 99—106. 

•Corpus 2S6, see Palaeogr See, ser. i, pll. 33,44. 

'Gariucci, iii, tav. 141 : Pal. Soc, 

»Biit. Mus , Cotton MS. Nero D iv, fully described by Dr 
G. F. Warner, 'Illuminated MSS. in the Brit. Mus..' 1903. 

1" Goldschmidt in ' Repert. f. Kunstw.' xiciii pp. 265 if. 









from an Italian (perhaps Neapolitan) miniaturist 
combining the Latin emblem with the Greek por- 
trait on one page, giving to each its own inscription 
as he found it. There would be nothing improb- 
able in the presence of a Greek Gospel-book at 

Notes on Various Works of Art 

Naples in the iifth, sixth or seventh century, and 
we know that at least one representation of the 
emblems was actually there at that time — viz., the 
mosaic which has survived, though in a mutilated 
state, to the present day. J. A, Herbert. 



To the Edilor of The Burlington Magazine. 

Sir, — Having seen in No. LV of The Burling- 
ton Magazine a photogravure of A Utile Girl by 
Velazquez in the possession of Messrs. Duveen, I 
enclose a photograph of A Little /joy, by the same 
artist, trusting that it may be of interest to your 
readers and subscribers. I am sorry that I cm 
give no clue as to whom it represents. I only 
know that it was in my f.unily collection and is 
now in my private one. Trusting that it may 
throw some light on the work of the great Velaz- 
quez, I offer it you for publication. 

I remain, Sir, Yours very truly. 

Prince Doria Pamphili. 

Palazzo Doria, Rome. 

[Owing to the heavy pressure on our space we 
have been compelled to delay publication of the 
interesting and attractive portrait to which Prince 
Doria Pamphili refers. A reproduction will be 
found on p. i66. — Ed.] 




To the Edilor of The Burlington Magazine. 

Sir, — It is now a rare event for a picture by 
Turner to be offered at auction for the first time, 
and it was not surprising, therefore, that the 
characteristic example that was brought before the 
public at Christie's on April 4th was received with 
applause ; nor that, from a starting bid of 3,000 
guineas, it should have reached double that sum 
before the hammer fell. This work, which was 
catalogued as The Beach at Hastings, was painted 
by the artist in his full vigour, at the age of thirty- 
five, being signed in full and dated 1810, and was 
purchased from him by the patron, Mr. John 
Fuller, of Rose-Hill Park, for whom he produced 
so many lovely water-colour views of the Weald 
of Sussex five or six years later than that date. 
Those drawings, thirteen in number, were to have 
been all engraved and published by W. B. Cooke, 
in either the ' Views in Sussex,' of which only one 
part was issued in 1819, or the ' Views in Hastings 
and its Vicinity,' which fell through entirely for 
lack of subscribers. It is unfortunate that such a 
fine connected series of local views should now 
have become dispersed, at the same sale, before 
being reproduced together by photogravure pro- 
cess for modern publication. 

The oil painting is specially worthy of notice as 

being a favourite subject with Turner, to which he 
returned repeatedly after his first conception of 
The Sun Rising tliroiigli Vapour in 1807, the large- 
scale work (52 X 70) in the National Gallery. When 
first exhibited at the Academy the artist added to 
his description of that famous work. Fishermen 
Cleaning and Selling Fish, which he altered to 
zvith Fishermen Landing and Cleaning their Fish 
when hung at the British Institution two years 
later; while he varied the small replica (27x40) 
which he painted for Mr. Fawkes into a Sicnset : 
Sussex Coast. It is to be noted that Turner would 
never repeat himself in his work. For Mr. Gillott 
he painted three such coast scenes, which were 
sold at his sale in 1872 for 1,100, 270 and 300 
guineas respectively, the first being entitled 
Hastings Beach : the Fish Market. For Mr. Fawkes 
he also executed a water-colour drawing, which 
he called Fish Market, English Coast, and other 
similar drawings were once in the possession of 
Mr. John P\arnworth (of Woolton, near Liverpool), 
and of Mr. Griffiths (of Norwood) ; while, finally, 
he painted his largest canvas of the subject (60 x 84) 
imder the title. Fishing Boats, ivith Hncksters Bar- 
gaining for Fish, which was in the British Institu- 
tion exhibition of 1838. 

Mr. Fuller's picture, which has just been sold by 
his descendant. Sir Alexander Acland-Hood, is a 
'Kit-cat' (the actual sight measurement is 35 by 
47), and when lent to the International Exhibition 
in 1862 the title was Hastings sea-coast; but there 
are no means whatever by which one can decide as 
to the locality. It was painted about the same time 
as Bligh Sand, which, although not shown at the 
Academy until 1815, was included in a catalogue 
of the works in the artist's gallery which he printed 
in the year 1809, as ' No. 7. Fishing npon the Blythe 
Sand, Tide setting in ' ; that canvas is of the same 
size precisely, but about seventy of his pictures 
were variations of three feet by four feet. As this 
picture does not appear in the 1809 catalogue, we 
may presume that it was not painted before the 
date it bears, though most probably it did not 
pass into Mr. Fuller's possession before 1815. 
It is very doubtful whether the name Hastings 
should have ever been attached to the work, there 
being no indication of the ' sea-coast ' of that place, 
n(jr any resemblance to its ' beach.' The shore 
here is, in fact, a level sand without any shingle, 
and it might be either near Bligh-sand or Margate ; 
which recalls the fact that the Fish-market on the 
Sands: the Sun rising through Vaponr {t,^ x 44), 
exhibited in 1830, and now in the collection of 


Letters to the Editor 

Mr. Edward Chapman, is said by Mr. C. F. Bell 
to have been sometimes called The Sliorc at Margate. 

Certain it is, however, that Turner gave the 
name Fish Market at Hastings to an important 
water-colour drawing (17^ x 265), which he lent 
to Mr. W. B. Cooke, the engraver and publisher, for 
his exhibition in 1824, and which he afterwards 
presented to Sir Anthony Carlisle. That drawing 
was sold in 1858, and it has been confused in Mr. 
Bell's list with the oil painting sold in the Gillott 
sale of 1872, already referred to ; while, on the 
authority of Mr. Finberg, it is stated to be now in 
the collection of Mr. G. W. Vanderbilt, in New 

It may, perhaps, be thought unnecessary for so 
many pictures and drawings to have been thus 
briefly referred to in this connexion ; but there 
has been so much confusion caused by the fre- 
quent variation in titles given at different times to 
Turner's works in general that it has become 
extremely difficult to identify them and to trace 
their pedigree correctly. This difficulty is fre- 

quently intensified, instead of cleared, by the 
descriptions given in what should be reliable 
catalogues. In illustration of this objection it is 
surprising to find that in the Christie sale cata- 
logue the spectator's ' right ' and ' left ' are through- 
out reversed, thus falsifying the compositions of 
(he pictures entirely, and upsetting the identifi- 
cation of the works in question. Another instance 
of erroneous description may also be appropiately 
mentioned here. In the sale catalogue of April 
30th, 1904, an oil picture on panel (10 x 14) 
called ' Hastings,' attributed to Turner, was really 
a copy of the oil painting (11 X i4)of ' LyiiieRegis ' 
which was engraved in the ' Southern Coast ' series. 
It is much to be regretted that more care is not 
exercised, both in regard to the titles and the 
descriptions of pictures and drawings ; and also 
in the measurements, which are very frequently 
given incorrectly, and therefore become misleading 
as important data for precise identification. 
I am, Sir, etc., 

William White. 



Manuel d'Art Musulman. Two volumes : (1) 
L' Architecture, par H. Saladin ; (2) Les Arts 
Plastiques et Industriels, par Gaston Migeon. 
Paris : Picard, 1907. 15 francs each. 
These volumes, containing together upwards of 
1,000 pages, mark a very distinct advance in the 
study of Muslim art, and that by reason no less 
of their detail than of their comprehensiveness. 
For the first time we have a systematic attempt to 
examine, compare and correlate the geographically 
far-sundered artistic products of Islam — to trace 
the history and development of its artistic spirit 
through all its manifestations. The task is an 
immense one ; and MINI. Saladin and Migeon 
deserve the warmest recognition of the time, labour 
and skill devoted to this manual, which must take 
its place at once as a most valuable work of 
reference for students. This it cannot fail to be, 
and no criticisms which we may feel compelled 
to make will seriously qualify this judgment upon 
the book. With every division of the subject is 
given a bibliography, which is most useful, though 
the authorities given are not always the best, and 
a doubt is suggested whether the authors are 
acquainted with Arabic, and in M. Saladin's case 
even with English. 

M. Saladin treats in his volume on Architecture 
of five great schools, which he calls (i) Syro- 
Egyptian — Syria, Egypt and Arabia ; (2) 
Moorish — Algeria, Morocco, Spain and Sicily ; 
('3) Persian — Persia, Mesopotamia, Armenia, 
etc.; (4) Ottoman — Asia Minor and Constanti- 
nople ; and (5) India. Each of these schools is 
considered in respect of religious, civil and military 


architecture ; and it is little wonder if M. Saladin 
complams that he had greatly to compress his 
material ; the wonder rather is that he has put 
together so much in so small a compass. His 
history is not always good : he relies too much on 
authors like Le Bon, quoting, for example, his 
most inaccurate statement that the effect of the 
first contact of Islam with earlier civilizations was 
to galvanize their last remains. Nor is M. Saladin 
very happy in his general theorizing upon the 
origins of Muslim architecture. He rightly 
gives Persia, Egypt and Spain as the three poles of 
Muslim art; but in attributing the strong local 
colour in each case to the fact that all three 
countries had strong artistic traditions, which 
clever workers were ready to revive, he goes too far. 
In Persia and Egypt the traditions and the practice 
of the arts were alive and needed no revival, indeed 
Islam did much to destroy both Graeco-Roman 
and Pharaonic monuments in Egypt ; while in 
Spain neither any great tradition nor any highly 
skilled craft existed in the seventh and eighth 
centuries. So, too, it seems a sort of obsession 
with M. Saladin to derive nearly all forms of 
architectural decoration from textiles. He thinks 
that wall-tiles were suggested by textile hangings, 
that pillars hung with embroidery inspired the 
treatment of the small columns in the sebil of 
Kait Bey in Cairo, and he even traces the richly 
carved designs on the arcading at S. Sophia to a 
motive from embroidery or jewellery. This kind of 
of theory is too fanciful — even fantastic — to be 
helpful in determining the evolution of Muslim 
art ; and a scientific study of that subject has still 
to be made. But for such a study the facts 

Art History 

which M. Saladin amasses, both from his own 
wide travels and researches and from the work 
of others, are invaluable. The range which he 
covers is astonishing, and the minuteness of his 
descriptions, as well as the profusion of his plans 
and illustrations, gives him a strong claim to the 
admiration and the gratitude of all workers in the 
same field. 

Even more unqualified praise may be given to 
M. Migeon's volume on the industrial and plastic 
arts. As he says, the neglect of Muslim art as a 
whole is incredible ; and he strongly insists on the 
need for a Chair of Muslim Art and Archaeology 
in connexion with one of the existing schools of 
Oriental Languages. That is an idea which one 
of our English Universities might well borrow : it 
is an idea which M. Migeon's work will certainly 
do much to forward, whether it be first realized in 
France, Germany, or England. Limits of space 
forbid any detailed examination of M. Migeon's 
learned review of Mohammedan miniature paint- 
ing, sculpture, mosaics, wood-carving, ivories, 
metal-work, ceramics, glass and crystal. In all 
these branches of art the author gathers together 
and illustrates the most important known examples; 
and the theories he formulates are stated with 
reserve and caution, as becomes a writer conscious 
that a vast amount of study is still required before 
the great problems of his subject can be solved. 
Forexample,take the tenth-century Spanishablution 
tank, frankly Byzantine in character, yet bearing 
a Cufic inscription. Was the artist a Christian or 
a Muslim by race ? Is his work Muslim at all ? 
and, more generally, when in Persia, Egypt, and 
Spain, did Muslim art cease to learn and to copy ? 
When did it begin to design and to teach ? 
No simple or single answer can be given to such 
questions. On the subject of mosaics the discus- 
sion of origins is quite inadequate ; indeed, the 
whole chapter is too short, and it contains no 
mention of glass mosaic in Cairo. The attribution 
of fig. 98 (Minbar at Sidi Okba) to a time long 
anterior to Egyptian woodwork is very doubtful ; 
it contains characteristically Egyptian mushrabiah 
work — probably of thirteenth century — but the 
author associates it with that absurd legend dating 
the tiles in the same mosque ninth century — a 
legend for which M. Saladin is responsible, and 
which has been completely refuted in this maga- 
zine.' The same mistake must be pointed out on 
p. 257, under the head of ceramics. The only 
other specimen of so-called ninth-century lustre 
ware given by M. Migeon is the dish on p. 258, 
but no evidence whatever is furnished for the date. 
Again, on p. 259 the author's want of acquaintance 
with Arabic leads him to speak of Vacoub, the 

' See under ' Letters to the Editor ' in the numbers for Sep- 
tember, October and November, 1907, the correspondence 
between Mr. Van de Put and Dr. A. J. Butler. Vol.xi, pp. 391-2, 
Vol. xii, pp. 48, 107. 

geographer, instead of Yakut — a mistake which 
has slipped even into the catalogue of the Burling- 
ton Fine Arts Club Exhibition of 1907. How- 
ever, the chapter on ceramics on the whole is an 
admirable piece of work, and the great number 
of dated specimens it contains give it an excep- 
tional value. Admirable also are the chapters 
dealing with metalwork and enamelled glass. 
Indeed, the richness and variety of Muslim art 
products as disclosed in this volume will be a 
revelation to most people. One could wish that 
for so many forms of art M. Migeon was less 
inclined to rest on the theory of a ' Mesopotamian 
origin ' — thrice blessed as the word Mesopotamia 
is by most authorities. But that the origins of 
faience are nearer geographically and more remote 
historically than has been generally allowed seems 
no longer doubtful after the extraordinary dis- 
coveries at Knossos of glazed and coloured ware, 
held by Dr. Arthur Evans to date from 2,000 B.C. 
But it would be equally unfair and ungracious 
not to recognize to the fullest the debt which all 
Oriental scholars owe to the accomplished authors 
of this book. The debt would be greater if to 
both volumes were added a fuller and more 
scientific index. 


Grund archivalischer Forschungen 
bearbeitet von Dr. A. von Wurzb.\ch. 2^ 
Band. 5'* und 6''^ Lieferungen. Wien, 1907. 
These two' fascicles bring the notices of artists 
down to Rembrandt ; those of fifteenth century 
painters are as a rule followed by a long list of 
paintings attributed to them by one or other critic, 
many without any docuinentary evidence (see 
for example A. van Ouwater, Patenir, Prevost); 
it is well that these should be recorded, if only as 
a warning to future writers, but one cannot help 
thinking how much more useful it would be to 
examine thoroughly the immense number of 
documents that have yet to be dealt with, although, 
as the present writer knows too well, such research 
does not meet with much encouragement. The 
bibliographical references are generally fairly com- 
plete, but in the case of Adrian van Overbeke, 
neither H. Keussen, ' Der Meister des Schreins am 
Hauptaltare in de Pfarrkirche zu Kempen '(Bonn), 
nor the notice in P. Clemen's 'Kunstdenkrnalcrdes 
Kreises Kempen ' (Diisseldorf, 1891), p. 62-65, is 
mentioned. Van Overbeke, like several of his 
contemporaries at Antwerp, did not confine 
himself to painting pictures, but also undertook the 
execution of carved and polychromed oak 
statues and altar reredoses ; for one of the latter, 
which still adorns the high altar of the church 
at Kempen, he received a commission, nth 
August, 1513, from the confraternity of Saint Anne 
for the sum of three hundred gold florins. The 
central sculptured portion, polychromed, represents 


Art History 

subjects from tlie life of Christ ; the shutters, 
painted, scenes from the story of Saint Anne ; 
above the reredos is a polychromed statue of that 
saint. At the back of the central portion is the Last 
Judgment painted by another hand. Albert 
Duerer in the diary of his journey to the Nether- 
lands mentions a Master Adrian whose portrait he 
drew ; this may possibly be Van Overbeke ^ On 
5th March, 152 1, Van Overbeke was summoned 
before the magistrates for having been present at 
a Protestant sermon, and on the 19th he with two 
other painters and a sculptor were again brought 
up on a similar charge, when they were admonished 
and dismissed. On the 26th, Van Overbeke was 
again in trouble, this time for having publicly 
read and expounded the Scriptures, and was 
sentenced to leave the town before sunset and to 
make a pilgrimage to Wilsenaken, and in default 
to suffer the loss of his right hand. In 1529 he 
painted an altar-piece for the chapel of Saint 
Joseph in the church of Kempen ; this was taken 
away in 1662 to Kaiserwerth. 

As to Joachim Patenir, there may possibly be 
some truth in C. van Mander's statement that he 
was in the habit of signing his paintings with a 
little figure of a man, apparently a play on his 
name. In the print-room of the British Museum 
there is a drawing by John De Beer of Antwerp, 
1504-1536 — probably the painter of the altar-piece 
at Lierre and of the Richmond Saint Katlicrinc and 
the philosophers — on the back of which are 
Patenir's name (signature ?) and the little man. 
I have discovered him in two paintings in the 
Prado Gallery : Tlie Holy Fainilv resting on 
the icay to Egypt and Tlie Elysian fields and 
Tartarus ; and he may possibly be found in others, 
but like the owl in pamtings by Bles, he is generally 
difficult to find. The sheet of paper with the 
figures of Saint Christopher given to Patenir by 
Duerer is now in the possession of M. Henry 
Duval of Liege. The Bruges goldsmith, John 
Pcutin or Puetin — not Pentin, one of Laborde's 
many misreadings — made the enamelled collars 
given to the first twenty-five members of the Order 
of the Golden Fleece.^ 

Peter, son of John Pourbus or Poerbus (pounce- 
box) of Gouda, was born c. 1512 ; it is not known 
where he served his apprenticeship. He came to 
Bruges about 1538 and probably worked under 
Lancelot Blondeel whose daughter Anne he 
married in 1544. He was admitted as free-master 
into the gild of Saint Luke, August 26, 1543 ; 
was a member of its council for the first time, 

' ' Item hab meister Adrian mit den koh'n conterfet.''Tagebncli 
ed. Leitschuh ' p. 63. In another entry (p. 76) he mentions Sir 
Adrian, ' herr Adrian,' certainly the secretary of the municipality, 
but as in another (p. 77) he calls tlie latter ' maister Adrian, der 
von Antorff secretary,' it may probably be he whose portrait he 

■■* ' Compte de la Recette Generale de Flandre,'i432, fol. ccxiv. 
Archives of the Department of the North, Lille. 


not in 1552 but in 1550, and held the office 
of dean in 1569-70 and 1580-82. He may have 
travelled in Italy, and probably did, but if so, it 
must have been prior to his settling in Bruges. 
He was a very gifted and many sided man ; as a 
cartographer he has seldom been surpassed ; his 
portraits are remarkably fine ; his religious com- 
positions generally show Italian influence, but he 
was a great admirer of his Netherlandish prede- 
cessors, especially of Memlinc, David and Isen- 
brant, for some of whose works he painted shutters 
not unworthy of them. Of his allegorical com- 
positions there is a remarkable example in the 
Wallace collection, formerly in that of William II., 
king of Holland. John Prevost, the painter of the 
Last Judgment in the Bruges museum, was not a 
Fleming, but a native of Mons in Hainault, and 
in all the earlier documents his name is thus 
written ; it would therefore be well to keep to that 
form. The Walloon painters, Campin, Daret, De 
la Pasture, Marmion, Gossart, Prevost, Patenir and 
Bles, had a considerable influence on the develop- 
ment of the Netherlandish school, and the attempt 
to hide this by always employing the Flemish 
equivalents of their names is quite as indefensible 
as the late M. Bouchot's mania of claiming the 
Flemish artists as belonging to the French school. 
The Bruges Last Judgmeid of 1525 is the only 
painting proved to be by Prevost, but many others 
not only of contemporary and later masters,but also 
of much earlier date, have been attributed to him. 
Some critics now claim to be able to show what 
the author of a dated work painted in after years 
and even to trace his manner back to his early 
efforts. When fresh documents happen to be dis- 
covered these speculative guesses almost always 
turn out to be wrong. 

W. H. J. W. 

A History of Art. By Dr. G. Carotti. Vol. I : 
Ancient Art. Revised by Mrs. Arthur Strong, 
Litt.D. London : Duckworth, 5s. net. 
A SHORT time ago we had occasion to praise this 
volume of the ' Manuali Hoepli ' : we now welcome 
it in English. Miss Todd, the translator, it is true, 
has kept so closely to her original that her style 
retains something (occasionally not a little) of the 
rather ponderous complexityof Dr. Carotti's Italian, 
but the book on the whole has become infinitely 
more accessible for English readers. It has gained, 
too, by Mrs. Strong's super\'ision, though she has 
left Dr. Carotti's text almost untouched. We note 
here and there additions or corrections on minor 
points {e.g., the note on the Knossos excavations) 
which are of distinct value, and the defects of the 
book are few in comparison with its merits. The 
art of pre- and proto-dynastic Egypt is incompletely 
summarized ; in the case of ^linoan art, a brief 
outline of the three chief periods and a reference 
to the unique collections in the Ashmolean 

Art History 

Museum might h:ive been added ; and the section 
on India is too sHght. But the httle book as a 
whole is an admirable compilation, its systematic 
plan makes it easy of reference ; its five hundred 
and forty illustrations are excellently chosen ; it is 
furnished with a good bibliography and an index; 
while its handy form and modest price make it the 
most generally useful introduction to ancient art 
that has iiitherto appeared in English. 


Portraits in Suffolk Houses (West). By 
Rev. Edmund P\urer, F.S.A., Hinderclay 
Rectory, Suffolk. London : B. Quaritch. 
1908. L.p., £2 10s. ; s.p., 25s. 
Dr. Johnson, vvho is seldom reckoned as an art 
critic, speaking of his friend, Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
said, ' I should grieve to see Reynolds transfer to 
heroes and to goddesses, to empty splendour and 
to airy fiction, that art which is now employed in 
diffusing friendship, in renewing tenderness, in 
quickening the affections of the absent, and con- 
tinuing the presence of the dead.' On another 
occasion the same great-hearted sage said of 
portraits that 'Every man is always present to 
himself, and has, therefore, little need of his own 
resemblance ; nor can desire it but for the sake of 
those whom he loves, and by whom he hopes to 
be remembered. This use of the art is a natural 
and reasonable consequence of affection, and 
though, like other human actions, it is often com- 
plicated with pride, yet even such pride is more 
laudable than that by which palaces are covered 
with pictures, that, however excellent, neither 
imply the owner's virtue nor excite it.' In these 
words Dr. Johnson strikes a special note in the 
history of the British race, that justifiable pride in 
one's own self which is derived from the example 
of our forefathers and is intended to benefit 
posterity, and which takes its concrete form in 
family portraits. 

Family portraits are a characteristic part of 
family life in this country, and serve to accentuate 
the value of home and family with their inherent 
liabilities, as opposed to the mere individualism of 
the moment. The idea involved in membership 
of a family is one which prevails strongly through- 
out England even in these days, when the lines of 
demarcation between the landed gentry and the 
people become day by day less strongly marked. 
Many houses to this day preserve within their 
walls portraits of their former owners, their wives 
and children, and others whose lives were bound 
up with the old place, or with the history of the 
country or locality, and in the company of which 
each successive owner hopes to be remembered 
by his own posterity. It is true that few branches 
of the painter's art have been so much neglected 
by art critics and art historians as family portraits, 
the reason being that, as a sense of duty rather 

than mere personal vanity has often been the 
prevailing cause, the portraits in themselves do 
not in the majority of cases attain to any high 
position of artistic merit. 

Such portraits are however a study in them- 
selves, and any student, who cares to detach 
himself from the contemplation or dissection of 
masterpieces will find in family portraits a fruit- 
ful field of research. He can learn from these 
portraits the rise of a particular family, and the 
distinction conferred upon it by the success of any 
particular member of the family. He will be able 
to trace the existence of local schools of artists, 
swayed as to fashion by the leading artists of the 
great world in London, and painting in the man- 
ner of Lely, Kneller or Lawrence, as the caprices 
of society might from time to time dictate. He 
can study the vagaries of costume, and the pre- 
valence of convention, such as the 'fancy dress 
which was frequently painted on the canvas before 
the arrival of the sitter.' In all such studies he 
will find an intelligent and useful guide in the 
Rev. Edmund Farrer, whose book on Suffolk 
portraits is before us now. 

It is only a few years since at the Congress of 
Archaeological Societies in London a scheme was 
mooted, carried and put into execution for 
obtaining some kind of record of the innumerable 
portraits existing in country houses, colleges, 
public institutions and elsewhere in this country. 
In far too many cases the care of these portraits 
has been sadly neglected, and, although there are 
many houses where the family portraits have been 
duly cared for and the names preserved, there are 
too many in which such portraits have been treated 
as mere worthless or just tolerable furniture, the 
names in most cases lost, and the pictures them- 
selves allowed to go to decay. The scheme, how- 
ever, was fruitful of but scanty result. 

Mr. Farrer's book is evidence in itself of the 
expenditure of time and trouble, to say nothing of 
more material expenses, which must be incurred in 
any exhaustive and scientific attempt to enumerate 
the portraits in any given part of the country. 
Mr. Farrer's industry has been phenomenal. In 
house after house he has not only noted the por 
traits in the drawing-room, but has descended into 
the parlour, as Horace Walpole describes, to find 
my father's and mother's pictures, and then 
climbed upstairs to search after my grandfather 
and grandmother, and as many generations 
back as the staircases and passages may reveal. The 
result is a book of peculiar interest for historical, 
local and artistic purposes. In view of the 
difficulty attending such researches it would be 
ungracious to criticize the form or language, to 
seek for inaccuracies or omissions. The mere 
fact that this one portion of Suffolk should include 
the portraits in such important houses as Barton 
Hall, Culford Hall, Euston Hall, Hengrave Hall 



and Ickwoith is sufficient to denote the value of 
the book as a work of reference. 

Mr. Farrer may be congratulated on completing 
this portion of the catalogue of the Suffolk 
portraits. Tlie illustrations in themselves add 
value to the book, and are no inconsiderable addi- 
tion to the art history of the nation. It is to be 
hoped that he will see his way to complete the work 
by cataloguing the remaining portraits in East 
Suffolk. L. C. 

Heraldry as Art. An account of its develop- 
ment and practice, chiefly in England. By 
G. W. Eve. Batsford. 12s. 6d. net. 
There are already so many little heraldry books 
that a newcomer needs more excuse than we can 
find for this one of Mr. Eve's. As a popular 
engraver and designer of book-plates and the like 
Mr. Eve has some tricks of craft which his fellows 
may study to their advantage. But through the 
most part of a book written with a somewhat heavy 
pen we must read again the familiar compilation 
from well-known works — a compilation unen- 
lightened by original study, and with a liberal 
share of its forerunners' mistakes. 

No antiquary, and having, therefore, to take his 
archaeology at second-hand, Mr. Eve falls under 
the curse which the learned Woodward, in putting 
forward his ' Heraldry, British and Foreign,' pro- 
nounced upon all the host of the ' freebooting 
compilers' who borrow without acknowledgment. 
The curse fulfils itself, for the borrower borrows 
without judgment, and the lack of original study 
is soon betrayed. In his first pages Mr. Eve warns 
the antiquary that he need adventure no further. 
' In Europe,' writes Mr. Eve, 'heraldry began to 
be systematized (as we know it) somewhere about 
the eleventh century.' Seeing that archaeologists 
have as yet found in the eleventh century no trace 
of any use of heraldic forms, Mr. Eve's opinion 
on their systematization seems of little value. Let 
us finish his sentence : ' . . . it flourished exceed- 
ingly until about the middle of the sixteenth 
century, the period thus indicated being that of its 
greatest strength and beauty.' Here the student of 
decorative art may slap the book cover and follow 
the antiquary. These things are but matters of 
taste, but we have here an authority that would 
lump the commonplace devices of the mid-fifteen- 
hundreds, when heraldry was dead as stockfish, 
with all the live and brave fancies of the middle 

Not a Jack o' lantern flits but Mr. Eve follows 
it. The curious belief that heraldic charges began 
in some fashion as symbols of virtues or qualities 
has seized him. ' Not heraldry alone, but every 
part of a knight's armour has a mystic meaning, 
the knowledge of which was an important part of 
a knight's education.' In support of this fantasy 
we are referred to passages in the 'Order of 


Chivalry.' Long before Caxton's day, a Roman 
citizen explained the symbolism of the breastplate 
of righteousness and the helmet of salvation, but a 
knowledge of his explanation was not, we take it, 
an essential part of the education of a Roman 
centurion. When we have said that heraldry 
begins as a system of arbitrarily chosen devices to 
be worn on coat and shield we have said all that 
we know. Putting aside charges that pun upon 
the bearer's name, the most are barren of significa- 
tion. Red chevrons on an earl of Gloucester's 
shield and the red triangle on a bottle of pale ale 
have the same idea behind them ; they are there 
that you should know the great chief of Clare in 
the press of knights and Bass amongst strange 
beers. Yet another and a persistent legend is 
handed on by Mr. Eve from his masters, the belief 
that 'many mediaeval bearings' commemorate some 
deed of renown. So rare are such cases that Mr. 
Eve cannot cite a mediaeval example, although he 
tells us of ' the belts and buckles of Pelham, which 
commemorate the capture of the French king at 
Poitiers.' But although a buckle is an old Pelham 
badge of unknown origin, the shield or quartering 
with ' the belts and buckles ' is a herald's invention 
several hundred years later than the fight at Poitiers. 
Beside this legend we may place Mr. Eve's 
opinion that 'chiefs, like cantons, were at first 
honorific additions to pre-existing arms.' It would 
be difficult to wrap up more misapprehension of 
early heraldry in so short a sentence. Shields 
having a chief without other charge are found in 
the earliest arms ; ' cantons,' as distinguished by 
Mr. Eve from quarters, belong to post-mediaeval 
armory ; and ' honorific additions ' are far from a 
primitive development. 

It does not profit us to follow Mr. Eve's specu- 
lations further. A glance at his ' heraldic rules ' 
shows the mis-named charges in the broken 
English and crazy French beloved of the anti- 
quarian vulgar, the ' crosses patonee ' and the 
" crosses furchee,' the ' bordures counter-com- 
pony,' the furs of ' counter-vair and counter 
potent,' the ' unicorns crined ' and the ' lions 
salient.' ' When the hind legs are placed together 
the position is called salient,' says Mr. Eve. Had 
he seen a mediaeval representation of the shield of 
any one of the two or three houses which bore 
leaping lions he could alter the sentence. Since 
we are among his lions, let us remark that 
a beast drawn from the well-known Percy seal, in 
use during the early fourteenth century, can hardly 
be a useful example of heraldic art at the ' end of 
the twelfth century.' And before leaving the 
quaint French, scattered so freely through the 
book, we may suggest that, before sending out a 
second edition of what will probably remain as a 
standard popular manual, Mr. Eve would do well 
to persuade some one familiar with that language 
to correct for him such names as 'Violet-le-duc,' 


'J. R. Planche,' ' Grielly,' 'Amadee,' and 'Cham- 
bery,' and such words as ' gouttes,' ' cabuchon ' 
and ' plique-a-jour.' 

Of the three hundred illustrations too few deal 
with the fine armory of the gothic period, but of 
these there are enough to save any reader from nam- 
ing the sixteenth century as an age of strength and 
beauty, and beside them Mr. Eve's own neat designs 
of armorial ornament in copperplate or gesso have a 
Bond Street air. Pugin and Powell's cartoons for 
Westminster Palace windows are curious and 
most interesting examples by men whose work 
was in advance of the taste of their time, a Han- 
over white horse by John Powell being a little 
wonder of vigorous expression simply achieved. 
The illustrations from needlework are, as a rule, 
interesting rather as decoration of textiles than as 
examples of heraldry, and Mr. Eve is mistaken 
in believing that the roses, pomegranates and 
fleurs-de-lys covering an embroidered cap in the 
South Kensington Museum have any armorial 
character. O. B. 

D.AS Abendmahl des Leonardo da Vinci. 
Ein Beitrag zur Frage seiner kiinstlerischen 
Rekonstruktion. By Otto Hoerth. Leipzig : 
Hiersemann. 1907. M. 20. 

Upwards of a century ago Carlo Amoretti laid the 
foundations of the exact study of Leonardo, and 
his example was soon followed. The painter 
Guiseppe Bossi in ' Del Cenacolo,' published in 
1810, collected the records of his greatest creation, 
and added a detailed description of the painting 
and an account of the various copies. Bossi's 
work served as the occasion for Goethe's treatise, 
which is the most noteworthy interpretation of the 
artist's thought, and the two have been the starting 
points for subsequent criticism. Researches among 
contemporary documents have failed to yield any 
additional facts of importance. The raison d'etre 
of future work is that it concern itself with the 
mental history, with the conception and progress 
of the idea. 

This is the scope of the first half of Herr 
Hoerth's compendious work. He has used the 
artistic material available more thoroughly than 
any preceding writer, and the result is to enhance 
our knowledge of the original. Whatever view 
may be held as to some of his conclusions, there 
can be no difiference of opinion as to the zeal and 
scholarly conscientiousness which characterize his 

The comparison of preparatory drawings renders 
it possible to trace the gradual growth of the con- 
ception in Leonardo's mind. That it originated 
during his first period of residence in Florence 
is shown by a drawing in the Louvre of the figure 
of Christ pointing to the dish, on the same sheet 
as various studies for the Adoration. This sketch 

and the two studies at Windsor and Venice, in 
each of which the hands of both Christ and Judas 
are stretched out towards the disii, show that 
Leonardo's first conception was of the moment 
immediately following the words of Christ, ' He 
that dippeth with Me in the dish.' In the painting 
Judas is no longer isolated as in the earlier 
representations of the subject. What then is the 
moment of action ? Goethe, following Fra Luca 
Pacioli, who was Leonardo's companion when he 
left Milan for Venice in 1499, places it immediately 
after the earlier speech of Christ, ' One of you shall 
betray Me.' 

Professor Josef Strz^^gowski, in the 'Goethe- 
Jahrbuch ' (Bd. 17, 1896), put forward the theory 
that the moment represented is the same as in the 
Windsor and Venice sketches, but there is a greater 
weight of evidence in support of Goethe's inter- 
pretation. It rests on the statement of a personal 
friend of the artist who was closely associated with 
him soon after the date of the painting. It finds 
the fullest support from the painting itself. The 
disciples are not represented as spectators. They 
are all concerned in the action. The speech 
of Christ afifects them personally, and the attitude 
of some of them is one of emphatic asseveration. 
The attention of none is directed to Judas. 
The identity of the betrayer has not been revealed. 
His left hand is not advancing towards the dish 
as the later theory presupposes ; and the attitude 
of Christ is inconsistent with the supposition of 
the right hand being in movement. 

The figure which Professor Strzygowski relies 
on as affording primary support to his theory, that 
sitting immediately to the right of Christ and 
starting back with hands thrown out in horror, 
does not seem inconsistent with either interpre- 
tation. There is a preliminary study for this 
figure at Windsor, the red chalk drawing of a 
head which is sometimes believed to be for a 
combatant in the Anghiari picture but which a 
comparison with the original shows to be a study 
for this disciple. 

The purpose of Herr Hoerth's book is to inter- 
pret and to reconstruct — the latter terra being 
applied to conjectures founded upon the evidence 
afforded by copies and studies of parts of the 
original. Here criticism must concern itself 
primarily with the nature of the material, and 
must decide whether it illustrates the progress of 
the artist's conception or is the work of later hands 
which may yet throw light on the former condition 
of the original. The materials for judgment are 
too intangible for unity of opinion. 

The history of the cartoons of separate figures 
at Strassburg and Weimar is admirably told, but 
zeal outruns discretion in the estimate of the 
former. To regard any of the heads at Strassburg 
as the work of Leonardo, if the claim be not sub- 
stantiated, causes their contribution to an exacter 



knowledge of the original to seem less valuable. 
These drawings do not seem to possess the quality 
of original work. They lack altogether the fire, 
the nervous energy, the free, supple touch, which 
characterize undoubted original studies such as 
the Philip and the Judas at'Windsor. The com- 
parative smoothness of execution suggests the 
work of a copyist, and the recurrence of such 
subsidiary details as the folds of the garments 
precisely as in the painting points to a later date 
of execution. It is improbable that such details 
would have been settled before Leonardo was at 
work upon the painting itself. The significance 
of the latter fact was shown by Herr Dehio in the 
Prussian Jahrbuch (Bd. 17, 1896). He believes 
that the drawings were made by some immediate 
follower of Leonardo in preparation for a copy, 
and are probably the earliest reproductions which 
exist. As their author, Herr Dehio suggests, ten- 
tatively the name of Boltraffio, and the conjecture 
seems a reasonable one. (There is a general 
similarity of treatment in two portrait studies in 
the Ambrosiana formerly ascribed to Leonardo, 
but now believed to be by Boltraffio.) 

The authorship of the Weimar cartoons is a 
matter of greater uncertainty. That they are copies 
of those at Strassburg, and not derived directly 
from the original painting, is shown indubitably 
by the comparison of pciiiiineiiii made by Herr 
Dehio and Herr Hoerth. Their date is of small 
importance, but the suggestion of Herr Dehio 
that they were made at the beginning of last cen- 
tury when the Strassburg cartoons were in 
England is somewhat fantastic. They seem 
earlier in date and Italian in character and 

Herr Hoerth's book is a compendium of facts, 
and as such it must be of service to all future 
students of Leonardo's work. It is somewhat 
lacking in arrangement, and some parts of it, 
particularly the detailed examination of the 
attitudes of the figures in criticism of Professor 
Strzygowski's theory, show an excess of thorough- 
ness which verges on redundancy. 

The charts showing the results of a comparison 
of details in the various copies are important as 
helping to decide questions of colour and design ; 
but the most spirited of these copies, that by 
Cesare Magno in S. Maria delle Grazie and that 
at Ponte Capriasca, fall short of the original, even 
in its present condition, in depth and profundity, 
and this is a bar to attempts at reconstruction from 
such material. 

Two mistakes in the book may be noticed. 
Leonardo's drawing of hands, mentioned on p. 
180 as in the Uffizi, is in the Windsor library, and 
the sheet of studies for the Adoraiion, said to be 
(p. 95) in the possession of Mr. John Malcolm, 
has been for a long time in the British Museum. 

E. McC. 

Decorative Heraldry. By G. W. Eve. 
London : Bell. 6s. net. 

Mr. Eve's well illustrated book evidently fills a 
popular need, for it has reached its second edition 
— a success which must in no small measure be 
attributed to the author's skill and taste as a heraldic 
draughtsman. Indeed, the artistic side of the 
subject is so pleasantly handled that we question 
whether it was wise in a popular book to attempt 
any explanation of the technicalities of the science 
Such questions, in practice, have (or ou4ht) to be 
determined by expert heralds. The business of 
the artist is only to make expert decisions beautiful; 
to attempt anything more is to court danger, if 
not disaster. 

The Greater Abbeys of England. By the Rt. 
Rev. Abbot Gasquet. Illustrations in Colour 
after Warwick Goble. Chatto and Windus. 
20S. net. 

Those who were present on the first day of a 
certain pageant last year will remember a curious 
incident. The promoters of the pageant (the 
object of which was to celebrate the departed 
glories of a famous convent) engaged a " special 
preacher," who horrified some and amused many 
by devoting his sermon to the vices and idleness 
of the monastic houses. The publishers of this 
volume have been too wise to commit a similar 
mistake. For the textual description of the greater 
abbeys of England they have gone to the author 
who, of all others in England, is most widely 
known for his knowledge and love of these ancient 
fabrics and his sympathetic understanding of the 
work that was done there. At the same time, 
Abbot Gasquet's work in the present instance is 
not controversial in tone. He tells the stories of 
these abbeys, of course, from the point of view for 
which he has won such wide acceptance ; but he 
tells them in a spirit calculated to arouse the gen- 
eral reader's appreciation of his subject, not to fan 
flames of disagreement. His chapters are at once 
learned and humanly interesting. Mr. Warwick 
Goble, the illustrator of the volume, lacks much 
of the knowledge and security shown by his colla- 
borator. That'he has suffered to some extent from 
his colour-printer the exhibition of the original 
drawings now on view in Brook Street \Vi\\ serve 
to show ; but he alone is responsible for certain 
faults in architectural drawing. The view of Torre 
Abbey (of which, by the way, he has chosen a 
strangely uninteresting portion,where several better 
subjects were open to him) is a striking instance 
of this weakness. Unequal artist as he is, there 
are, however, some extremely charming plates m 
the volume, particularlv those of the Abbot's Bridge 
at Bury St. Edmunds,"and the views of Netleyand 
Tintern, and Rievaulx in the early morning. 
He gives with much beauty the colour of old stone. 



We have received from Messrs. Ciiatto and 
Windus tlie latest instalment of their now famous 
series of 'Medici' prints — a reproduction in 
colours of The Virgin adoring the Infant Savionr 
by Filippino Lippi in the Ui^zi. In point of 
artistic effect the coloured reproduction is in no 
way inferior to the previous ' Medici' publications, 
and the details in certain of the more delicate 
passages, such as the Virgin's head and the trans- 
lucent veil thrown over her hair, could hardly be 
better. The tone of the print at first sight looks 
slightly heavy by contrast with the broad white 
mount, but the moment the reproduction is given 
its proper setting in a frame this heaviness vanishes 
and the print exhibits the warm and tender 
luminosity of the original. The standard of these 
prints has been so uniformly high that we shall 
look forward with the greatest possible interest to 
the appearance of Botticelli's Birth of ]'cniis, 
Titian's Madonna of tlic Clicrrics and the famous 
picture of Giorgione at Vienna commonly known 
as the Three Wise Men, which, it appears, are now 
in preparation. 

From the same publishers we have received the 
third portfolio of their series of colour reproduc- 
tions of the early painters of the Netherlands, 
containing facsimiles of several most interesting 
pictures, among them the Madonna and Child 
attributed to Hubert Van Eyck in the Berlin 
Museum, which is perhaps as severe a test of any 
reproductive process as could well be imagined. 
The details, the surface and the craqnelnre are 
rendered with wonderful fidelity. The same high 
praise must be accorded to the other four plates in 
the number, special mention being made of the 
extraordinary picture by Pieter Brueghel the Elder 
in the Vienna Gallery. That the humorous 
grandeur of this little masterpiece should be 
caught and preserved is perhaps not wonderful, 
since its treatment is bold and massive as well as 
minute ; but the reproduction goes much farther, 
the actual texture, substance and quality of the 
pigment being so deceptively imitated that it is 
impossible, except by touching the surface of the 
reproduction, to realize that the pitting and corruga- 
tion of the original surface have not been rendered 
by actual relief. Nor does the illusion vanish 
under a strong magnifying glass ; in fact, no 

Trints and (Catalogues 

process of facsimile reproduction can possibly go 

The second part of the similar publication 
dealing with the great Italian masters also contains 
several reproductions of very high interest. The 
minute accuracy of the colour process employed 
is well illustrated by the Portrait of a Young Man, 
by Antonello da Messina in the Berlin Museum, 
while a broader style of Venetian workmanship is 
illustrated in the reproduction of the Portrait of a 
Canon by Catena at Vienna ; the delicate quality 
of the faded pink silk hood being beyond all praise. 
The charming panel in the Berlin Museum by 
Filippo Lippi, Scene from tlie Cliildhood of a Saint, 
is also excellent, though, while the details of 
colour and treatment are perfectly retained, there 
seems just the slightest possible loss of freshness 
in the general effect. The Allegory of Music by 
Filippino and the small Portrait of Rannccio 
Farnese by Francesco Rossi de' Salviati in the 
same collection are not quite so good, possibly 
because they were taken from less felicitous 


Of the catalogues that have reached us the most 
important are the two illustrated ones received 
from Messrs. Frederick Miiller and Co. of Amster- 
dam. The first deals with the Boreel collection 
of porcelain and furniture, to be sold on i6th and 
17th June. Though the collection includes good 
pieces of Delft and oriental ware, the examples of 
the Dresden factory are its chief feature, and the 
admirable illustrations enable an excellent idea to 
be formed of their importance. The same remark 
applies to the catalogue of drawings by old masters 
from various collections which Messrs. Miiller will 
sell on I5th-i8th June. As the collection includes 
examples attributed to Diirer, Schaiifelein, Lucas 
van Leyden and other rare masters of Germany 
and the Netherlands, in addition to several speci- 
mens of Rembrandt, it is worthy of close attention. 
The illustrated bulletins of the New York and 
Boston Museums are, as usual, interesting, the 
Portrait of a Man by the elder Cranach acquired 
by the former institution beingspecially noteworthy. 
]\Ir. Ludwig Rosenthal of Alunich has issued two 
new catalogues — the one dealing with manuscripts, 
the other with almanacks and calendars. 


GusMAM (P.). L'ait decor.ilif de Rome, de la fin del.i republique 
au IVesiecle. (15 x 11) Paris (Eggimann). Ft. I. 20 photo- 
types, sculpture and architectural details. 

Della Seta (^..). Le genesi dello scorcio nell' a'te grcca. 
(12x9) Rome (Tipogr. della R. Accademia dei Liiicei). 

* Si/es (height X width) in inches. 

Kraus (F. X.). Geschichte der Chrisllichen Kunst. Vol. Ill 
pt. II, second half. Italicnische Renaissance. (11x8, 
Freiburg im I'rcisgau (Herder), 19 m. Concludes the work' 

JusTi (C). Miscellanen aus drei Jahrhunderlen spaniichen 
Kunstlebens. I Band. (II xS) Berlin (Grote), 10 m. 


Recent Art Publications 


MusiL (A.). Arabia Petraca : I, Moab ; II, Edom. (10x7) 

Vienna (Holder), 45 m. 3 vols. Illustrations, plans, etc. 
Dubois (C). Pouzzoles antique : histoire et topographie. (9x6) 

Paris (Fonteinoing). 450pp. Text illus. and map. 
Erder.a (C). L'Ossola. (11x7) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti 

grafiche), 1. 3.50. 151 illustration'. 
Brixhet (M.). Le chateau de Ripaille. (11 xS) Paris (Dela- 

grave), 60 fr. 15 plates. 
Fossa (F. de). Le chateau historique de Vincenncs. Vol. I. 

(11x9) Paris (Daragon), 25s. Illustrated. 
Bes.-vnt (->ir \V.). Early London : Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon 

and Norman. (12x9) London (Black), 30s. 
Renwick (R.). Glasgow memorials. (9x7) Glasgow (Macle- 

hose), 21S. 100 illustrations. 


SiEVERs(J.). Pieter Aertsen. (10x7) Leipzig (Hiersemann), 

18 m. 32 phototypes. 
FoRATTi ( A.). Giovanni Bonconsigli, pittore vicentino. (9x6) 

Padua, Verona (Drucker). 48 pp. 
CoNTARiNi (E.). Nascimbene Bjltrani, pittore bagnacavallese 

del quattrocento. (10x6) Faenza (Tipogr. sociale). 16 pp. 
Kristeller (P.). Giulio Campagnola. Kupferstiche und Zeich- 

nungen. (15x11) Berlin ( Jassirer, for tlie ' Graph ische 

Gesellschaft '). 27 plates. 
Glaser (C). Hans Holbein der Aellere. (11x8) Leipzig 

(Hiersemann), 20 ni. Phototypes. 
MicHEEET (V. E.). Maufra, peintre et graveur. (11x8) Paris 

(F'loury), 6 etchings and process illus. 
GiLBEY (Sir \V.) and Cumixg (E. D.). George Morland, his life 

and works. (9x6) London (Black), 20s. 50 coloured plates. 
Bernardini (G.). Sebastiano del Piombo. (11x7) Bergamo 

(Istituto ital. d'Arti grafiche), 1. 15. Illustrated. 
OsBORN (.VI.). Joshua Reynolds. (10x7) Leipzig (Velhagen 

S: Klasing), 4 m. 115 illustrations. 
Fletcher (B.). Richard Wilson, R.A, (7x5) London 

(VV. Scott Publishing Co.), New York (Scribne'-), 3s. 6d. 

net. 21 plates. 

Hogarth (D. G.). British Museum excavations at Ephesus. 

The archaic Artemisia. (12x9) London (British .Museum), 

50s. With atlas of plates (22 x 15). 
Zanca (A.). La cattedrale di Palermo, rilievi e restaiiri. 

(28x24) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arte grafiche), Pts. 1-3 (photo- 
type plates), each 61. 
Avexa (A.). II re^tauro dell' arco d'Alfonso d'Aragona in 

Napoli. (13x9) Rome (Danesi), 20I. 138 illustrations. 
Haupt (A.). Palast-Architektur von Ober-Italien und Toscana 

vom xiii bis xviii Jahrhundert : Verona, Vicenza, Mantua, 

Padua, Udine. Pt. I. (21x14) Berlin (VVasmuth), m. 28. 

To be completed in 5 parts, each containing 20 plates. 
Watson (VV. C). Portuguese Architecture. (11x7) London 

(Constable), 25s. net. lOi process illustrations. 
Feilchenkeld (F. W.j. Die Meisterwerke der Baukunst in 

Portugal. (17x12) Vienna, Leipzig (Stern), 25 m. 30 

ScHi'LZ (F, T.). Die Rundkapelle zu Altenfurt bei Niirnberg. 

Ein Bauwerk des xii Jahrhunderts. (10x7) Strasburg 

(Heitz), 5 m. S plates. 
Garner (T.) and Stratton (A.). The domestic architecture 

of England during the Tudor period. Pt, I. (20 x 15) 

London (Batsford), 42s. Plates. 
Kloeppel ( — ). Friedericianisches Barock : fiirstliche, kirch- 

liche und hiirgerliche Baukunst vom Ende des xvii bis zum 

Ausgang des xviii Jahihundtrts. (14x10) Berlin (Weise), 

30 ni. 80 phototypes. 
Exterieurs et interieurs du XVIIIe siecle. Architecture et 

decoration des edifices les plus remarquables de I'epoque 

Louis XVI a Bordeaux. (18x13) Paris (Schmid), 50 fr. 

44 phototypes. 
Gallee (f. H.). Das niederliindische Bauernhaus und seine 

Bewohner. Pts. \ and 2. (20 x 14) Utrecht (Oosthoek), 

subscription price 50 m. ; after publication 60 m. In 4 pts. 

70 pl.ites, with text. 
Bl'Mpus (T. F.). London Churches, ancient and modern. 2 vols. 

(8x5) London (Laurie), lllnslraled. 
Hutton (Rev. A. W.). A short history and description of Bow 

Church, Cheapside. (10x7) London (Stock), is. net. 


MALAGfZZi Valeri (Count F.). Catalogo della R. Pinac->teca 
di Brera. (7x5) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti gratichc), 1. 5, 
46 plates. 

Lemberger (E.). Beitriige zur Geschichte der Miniaturmalerei. 
Ein Handbuch liir Sammler, etc. (7X4) Berlin (Bernstein), 
20 m. A dictionary of miniaturists : 2,500 names, with 
introduction and an essay on forgeries. 

National Gallery of British Art, Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Part II. Catalogue of water-colour paintings by British 
artists and foreigners working in Great Britain. London 
(VVeyman), 9d. ; in cloth covers, is. 6d. 

Martin (H ). Le Terence des dues. (15x11) Paris (Plon- 
Nourrit), i2ofr. 37 photogravure plates. 

II libro di Jacopo Bellini. Con prefazionc di Corrado Ricci. I. 

Disegni conservatial Museodel Louvre. Florence (Alinari), 

130 1. facsimile of original leather bindmg ; 100 I. cloth. 

The illustrations include 94 collotype plates. 
Les dessins de D. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes au Musee du 

Pradoa Madrid. Preface et texte explicatif de P. d'Achiardi. 

(15x11) Rome (.Vnderson), 30 fr. Livraison I. (Les 

Caprices). 44 phototype plates, 


Leidinger (G.). Vierzig Metallschnitte des xv (ahrhunderts 

aus Munchener Privatbesitz. (10x6) Strasburg (Heitz), 

8 in. 20 plates. 
Singer (H. W.). Die Kleinmeister. (10x7) Leipzig (Knack- 

luss), 3 m. 114 illustrations. 
Hymans (H.). Catalogue des Estampes d'Ornement faisant 

partie des collections de la Bibliothequeroyale de Belgique. 

(10x7) Brussels (Lamertin). 8 plates. 


Burlington Fine Arts Club. Exhibition of faience of Persia and 
the Nearer East. Illustrated catalogue. (16x12) London 
(privately printed). 26 plates, some in colour. 

QuEiROZ (J.). Ceramica Portugueza. (13x9) Lisbon (Typo- 
graphia do Annuario Commercial), 45 fr. Cop'ously illus- 
trated, facsimiles of ii.arks, etc. 

DoENGEs (W.). Meissner Porzellan, seine Geschichte und 
Kunstlerische Entwicklung. (9x6) Berlin (Marquardt), 
12 m. Plates, some chromo. 

Sherrill (C. H.). Stained glass tours in France. (8x5) 
London, New York (Lane), 6s. net. Illustrated. 

OiDT.MANN (H.). Die Glasmalerei im altcn Frankenlande. 
(9x6) Leipzig (Duncker), 6 m. 


EVANS (Rev. J. T.). The church plate of Carmarthenshire, with 
chantry certificates, extracts from returns of church goods, 
and addenda and corrigenda to ' The Church Plate of 
Pembrokeshire.' (10x7) East Acton (H. Gray), 21s. 14 

Jones (E. A.). The old church plate of the Isle of Man. (10x7) 
London (Bemrose), los. 6d. net. 

Forrer (k.). Zinn-Cimelien der Sammlung Ho'rat Kahlbau. 
(13 X 9) Strasburg (privately printed). 20 phototypes. 


La collection Kelekian. Etoffes et tapis d'Orient et de Venise. 
Notice de J. Guiffrey. Cent planches reproduisant les pieces 
les plus remarquable de cette coU-'ction. (16x12) Paris 
(Levy), 200 fr. Phototypes and process reproductions in 

Marquet de Vasselot (I. J.). Catalogue raisonne de la col. 
lection Martin Le Roy, IV: Tapisseries et broderie. 
(16x12) Paris (privately printed). 17 photogravures. 

Astier (Col. d'). La Belle Tapisserye du Roy (1532-1797) et 
les tenlures de Scipion I'Africain. (11x9) Paris (Cham- 
pion), 30 fr. 37 phototypes. 

Ricci (E ). Antiche trine italiane: trine ad ago. 2 vols. 
(14x11) Bergamo (Istituto d'Arti grafiche), 73s. 6d. 
Copiously illustrated. 

Collection J. G. Camerino, Paris. Les Points de Venise. 
(22 X 15) Paris (Lib. des Arts decoratifs), 65 fr, 40 photo- 



The Salon of the Societe Nationale des Beaux- 
Arts, which we still agree to call the Salon du 
Champ de Mars, reaches a rather higher level, and 
is certainly more interesting than that of last year. 
Its failing is that of so many modern exhibitions — 
namely, that, while the average is high, there is so 
very little that is above the average. This year's 
Salon shows that French painters are more than 
ever attached to brilliant colouring. On the other 
hand, the Salon is singularly free from eccentricity 
and from pictures of the type to which one may 
take exception without being a Puritan. Since its 
migration from the Champ de Mars to the more 
fashionable environment of the Champs-Elys^es 
the ' New Salon ' has become quite respectable, 
and this year it can hardly be said to have any 
marked characteristic as a whole that distinguishes 
it from its older rival. 

As one enters, from the Avenue d'Antin, the 
great hall where the sculpture is exhibited, the 
thought strikes one that M. Rodin's studio must 
have been wrecked by a mob of disappointed rivals ; 
for there, right in front of the door, are three 
enormous pieces of the clibris. The catalogue in- 
forms us that one was once an Orphce, the second 
a Triton et Xeiitlc and that the third is the truncated 
remains of a Muse. M. Rodin is one of the great- 
est of living artists ; it is deeply to be regretted 
that he does not realize the responsibility of his 
position. He has only to visit the Salon des 
Independants to see what his example has led to. 
The sculpture as a whole is not especially remark- 
able. Perhaps the bust of Ingres, by M. Bourdelle, 
is one of the most striking pieces ; it is a splendid 
head full of life and character. The Hiver of 
M. Desbois is a fine piece of work, and M. Pierre 
Roche's plaster model for the monument pf Dalou 
has excellent qualities, but is not great enough in 
conception for its scale. A large design for a 
monument called Z-n(te///iJd//(/;;7rt//;t', by M.Lagare, 
will attract attention. A charming nude figure by 
M. Jose Clara is extremely promising ; this sculptor 
is, if I mistake not, a new comer. 

The three pictures by which M. Zuloaga signal- 
izes his return to the Salon after several years' 
absence show what great progress he has made in 
the inter\'al. M. Zuloaga has inherited the great 
Spanish tradition. I recognize all that may be 
said as to the ugliness, even the brutality, of the 
picture of a repulsive dwarf, with the carcases of 
the bears in which he deals slung over his shoulders, 
or that of the witches of San-Millan ; but what 
strength, what mastery both of composition and 
colour they show ! Only a superficial observer 
would call this group of hideous old women ugly ; 
it is extraordinarily attractive. And, to show that 
he can paint other than types of ugliness, M. 
Zuloaga gives us a brilliant portrait of that most 
charming of Carmens, Mile. Lucienne Breval, a 
marvellous effect of light and shade. Close by 

M. Zuloaga's pictures hangs a large canvas of M. 
Leon Lhermitte, Ln Faviillc, a group of peasants 
in a cornfield ; it is a characteristic work of an 
accomplished artist, but it suffers by the proximity. 

The Ccniiioiiic RcUgiciise of M. Lucien Simon is 
perhaps even a finer piece of work than his Rccollc 
iics Ponimcs de terre, recently exhibited at George 
Petit's. In this picture of the censing at the 
Magnificat in the basilica of Assisi, M. Simon has 
set himself a difficult task and has overcome 
the diiftculties. In the same room are Mr. Charles 
Shannon's portraits of himself (if iorse en niarbre) 
and of Miss Kathleen Bruce {La robe rose), two 
of the best portraits in the exhibition, and a portrait 
of Bracquemont and of the artist, by M. Gaston La 
Touche {Bracquemont et son disciple); the last is 
less hot in colour than most of M. La Touche's 
work (though still a little too hot) and has many 
good qualities. 

M. Jacques Blanche sends two of the pictures 
which he showed recently in the Georges Petit 
Galleries and four others, of which the portrait of 
Mesdenioisclles G.L.... should be specially noticed, 
although it is perhaps too conscious a following of 
the eighteenth century. A fine portrait of Mr. 
Conder hangs as a pendant to that of Sir Coleridge 
Kennard, and between them is a group of 
the children of Mr. Saxton Noble. M. Cottet 
shows only one picture, a modern Pietd : a 
drowned Breton sailor lies on his bier in the fore- 
ground, behind him kneels his mother surrounded 
by a group of sorrowing women; in the background 
is the harbour with its red-brown sails. The picture, 
which is treated in a decorative manner, is certainly 
one of the most personal and interesting of the 
year. M. Le Sidaner shows four pictures of 
Hampton Court and two of London which all 
deserve notice ; that of the fountain court at 
Hampton Court is particularly attractive. M. 
Lobre, M. RaoulUllmann and M. Zakarian are all 
well represented here. The Plage Lointaiue of Mr. 
Rupert Bunny, an artist of Australian birth, is one 
of the pictures to be noticed ; it is a group of 
four girls, one of whom has just been bathing. 

Among the best of the many decorative panels in 
the exhibition are those which M. Maurice Denis 
has painted for a private house, and which he calls 
L'eternel priutenips. The influence of Puvis de 
Chavannes is sufficiently obvious, but M. Denis 
has at any rate chosen a good model, and he is 
far from being a mere imitator. The great merit 
of these panels is that they are really decorative. 
One cannot say the same either of the great panel 
which M.Roll haspaintedfortheSorbonne or of the 
Paradis Perdu which M. Gustave Courtois designs 
— with a certain irony — for the Salle des Mariages 
in the Hotel de Ville of Neuilly. This huge and 
glaring canvas is everything that a decorative panel 
should not be, and has not even technical qualities 
to recommend it ; it is a corrupt following of the 
late M. Bouguereau. M. Roll's panel. Vers la 


Art in France 

Nainre, pour I'HmunnHc, is far superior as a piece 
of painting, but it is not decoration, and its mean- 
ing is obscure. Perhaps the intellects of the 
Sorbonne will be able to solve the elaborate riddle, 
but is this decorative art ? As decoration, the 
charming if frivolous panel of M. Aubertin, I'Aiihc 
lies Cygnes, is far more satisfactory, though both 
its subject and its colour suggest a bathroom as its 
appropriate destination. 

There remain to be noticed several portraits ; 
two by M. Boldini are as clever and as brilliant as 
usual. M. de La Gandara is less satisfactory than 
he was the other day at Georges Petit's. M. Boutet 
de Monvel sends an enormous canvas, a portrait 
of himself, with two dogs, standing on a vast 
plain ; it is fine in composition, but the quality of 
the paint is execrable. La vie pensive of Mile. 
Louise Breslau — a portrait of herself and her 
companion — is among the best in the exhibition ; 
it is really a picture. M. G. W. Lambert's portrait 
group, exhibited in last year's Academy, has been 
much admired by most of the French critics ; it 
has an excellent place in the first room. In spite 
of an over-elaboration of detail, M. Prinet's Portraits 
must be given a higii place. It shows insight into 
character as well as technical ability. 

The humour of the Salon is supplied by M. jean 
Veber, whose decorative panel, La Giiiiiguette, is 
rather brutally clever and extremely amusing. It 
is said to be intended for the Hotel de Ville ; one 
could hardly imagine the City Fathers selecting 
sucli a piece of decoration for the Guildhall, though 
they might like it for a smoking-room. It is 
perhaps too much like an enlarged picture from 
Le Rire. The story of the removal of M. Veber's 
other exhibit, ]'isioii d'Alletuagiie, is generally 
known. Another picture temporarily removed was 
La Vision {Rennes, Aont 1899) by M. Paul Renouard; 
this, however, was restored to the walls after the 
removal of the offending inscription. 

The Salon of the Societe des Artistes fran^ais 
confirms one's opinion that its rival has hardly 
any longer a raison d'etre; there is, it is true, a 
larger expanse of nullity than in the New Salon, 
and the exhibition as a whole is this year the less 
interesting of the two, but there is no sign that 
any one has been excluded for offence against 
academic principles. The real justification of the 
division is that, if the two Salons were combined in 
one exhibition, it would require superhuman 
courage to enter it. 

The Old Salon has, however, certain notes of 
its own. One knows that one will encounter M. 
Falli^res visiting everywhere and opening every- 
thing. This year one or two of these official 
pictures, notably that of M. Abel Boyi^, are much 
above the average of such things. Then there is 
sure to be the Breton sailor going away or coming 
back, or his wife mourning because he is never 
coming back ; I wish he would stay away for at 


least three salons. Lastly there must be Jeanne 
d'Arc to make the Salon complete ; this year we 
have her talking to an angel, by M. Gaston 
Bussiere, to whom the jury has patriotically 
awarded a medal. A protest must really be made 
against the absurd practice, not entirely new but 
very prevalent in the present Salon, of cutting a 
picture into three and calling it a triptych, as if a 
triptych were a mere affair of framing. 

The arrangement of the beautiful sculpture hall 
(or rather winter garden) is this year more attractive 
than ever ; it would be impossible to show sculp- 
ture to greater advantage. But unfortunately the 
sculpture as a whole is less interesting than it has 
been for a long time. The work of M. Fernand 
David deserves special notice ; his Feninie an bain 
in particular is an admirable study of the nude. 
IM. Sicard's monument to Edouard Barbey is 
another of the best pieces. There are many 
excellent busts. 

In the section of painting English and American 
artists make a most creditable show. An admirable 
portrait of a girl reading by Mr. G. S. Watson has 
a place of honour in the first room ; in the same 
room is Mr. J. H. F. Bacon's accomplished picture 
of the Boyd Harvey family, and an excellent 
picture by an American painter, Mr. Joseph Raphael 
(Bohbncs et paysannes), which is unfortunately too 
high up to enable it to be seen properly. Among 
other pictures by Englishmen and Americans 
which deserve special mention are Mr. John da 
Costa's Pierrette, Mr. P. W. Gibbs's La Civilisation 
(perhaps showing rather too much the influence 
of Mr. Brangwyn), Mr. Hughes-Stanton's Caniiers 
(one of the best landscapes in the Salon), Mrs. 
Maclane-Johansen's Sur le haul de la colline, Mr. 
Richard Miller's Marchand de jonets, Mr.^Tom 
Mostyn's An refuge, Mr. Charles Sims's La fete stir 
Vile, Mr. Lionel' Smyth's Les Glaueurs and Mr. 
Robert Vonnoh's two excellent portraits, especially 
Bessie Potter Vonuoh. It is an American painter, 
Mr. Robert MacCameron, who sends one of the 
most striking pictures in the whole exhibition, the 
Gronpe d'aniis, a powerful study, admirably painted, 
of three human wrecks seated at an estaniinet table. 
Artistically, like most of the Americans, Mr. Mac- 
Cameron belongs to the French school. 

There are also several good pictures by Spanish 
artists, notably La Revanche oi M. Bermejo-Sobera, 
the Assez, nioii pere.'oi M. Jose Malhao, the 'Jaleo' 
en Andalousie of M. Tito Salas (a South-American 
Spaniard), and the very strong and brilliant Belle- 
mere of M. Carlos Vazquez. An Italian painter, 
M. Ulysse Caputo, sends two very good genre 
pictures. Indeed a large share of the honours of 
this year's Salon belongs to foreigners, many of 
whom, of course, have been trained in France. 
The pictures just mentioned show that M. Zuloaga 
is not alone in Spain, and that there is promise in 
modern Spanish art. 

Art in France 

In any case the pictures which bear the label 
' H.C are very far from being among the best as 
a whole ; I do not remember a Salon in which 
the Societaires hors coucoiirs showed up so badly. 
M. Bail paints as carefully as usual, and he always 
has quality, but how much more interesting work 
he has done in the past ! M. Alexis Vollon, as 
usual, takes a high place ; his success last year 
with a brilliant portrait of a Parisian woman in a 
very different style from that to which we had 
been accustomed has led him to send a portrait 
group in the same bright and clear tone ; 
although not perhaps quite equal to its prede- 
cessor, it is admirably composed and painted. M. 
Henri Martin sends a decorative panel for the 
Sorbonne, L' Etude, and a portrait. Of course the 
panel shows some sense of decoration, which is 
more than can be said for most modern decorative 
work, but it is terribly uninteresting and the spots 
are larger than ever. It represents M. Anatole 
France conversing with a group of disciples 
whose appearance suggests that his conversation 
is less interesting than his books. A much more 
satisfactory decoration, also for the Sorbonne, is 
sent by Mademoiselle Dufau ; her two panels 
symbolizing Astronomy, Mathematics, Radio- 
activity and Magnetism are really decorative, 
attractive in colour and composition, and very 
well painted. M. Desire-Lucas is a member whose 
work is always to be noticed ; Lc pardon dc Saiiit- 
Cado is a strong and attractive picture. It is with 
some alarm that one observes the energy displayed 
by M. Dujardin-Beaumetz in the decoration of 
public buildings ; his energy is also demonstrated 
by the unusually large number of pictures and 
statues bearing labels which indicate that they 
were ordered in advance by the State. 

The retrospective section of the Salon is devoted 
to the sculpture of Ernest Barrias, which is very 
interesting, and the paintings of Alexandre 
Cabanel, which are much less so. 

The Socicte Nationale holds its retrospective 
exhibition, as usual, at Bagatelle. This year it 
consists of portraits of celebrated men and women, 
1830-1900. The two hundred portraits have 
naturally been chosen chiefly from the point of 
view of the celebrity of their subjects, and the 
artistic level of the exhibition is not very high. 
The only living painters admitted are socictnircs 
of at least six years' standing, who are permitted 
only one work each. It is pleasant to see again 
M. Boldini's wonderful portrait of Whistler ; M. 
Aman-jean's portrait of Verlaine is also very inter- 
esting, as are three little portraits by M. Rafaelli of 
M. Clemenceau, M. Pichon and M. Millerand — the 
first two painted in 1883, and the last in 1885. M. 
de La Gandara's extremely unpleasant portrait 
of Jean Lorraine is much stronger than the fashion 
plates which he is now too fond of giving us. 
There are several very interesting portraits by 

Ingres, including those of himself, Gounod, 
Rossini and Mnie. d'Agoult ; the three first are 
drawings. Isabey's portrait of his niece, Chas- 
seriau's of his daughter, Delaroche's portrait of 
Emile Pereire, Carriere's sketch of Edmond de 
Goncourt, Friant's little picture of M. Jules 
Claretie in his study, the three portraits by Ricard 
and the three by Baudry are among the best from 
the artistic standpoint. The numerous portraits 
of the deposed royal family illustrate the fate 
which ordains that royal personages should be 
painted by any one but an artist. The one excep- 
tion is the unfinished sketch of Queen Amelie by 
Ary Scheft'er ; there is also, by the way, an admir- 
able portrait by Henry Scheffer of his wife. 

One of the most interesting of the exhibitions 
now open is that of the drawings and etchings of 
Rembrandt at the Bibliotheque Nationale. It 
could be dealt with adequately only in an article 
by an expert student of Rembrandt, and I can 
only call attention to it for the benefit of visitors 
to Paris. The prints, 275 in number, all belong 
to the library, with the exception of seven magni- 
ficent proofs lent by Baron Edmond de Roth- 
schild ; they represent nearly the whole of the 
engraved work of Rembrandt and include most 
of the rarest states and the finest impressions. 
There are about three hundred drawings lent by 
private collectors, among whom are included Mr. 
Fairfax Murray and Mr. Heseltine. The excellent 
and very complete catalogue, to which M. G. 
Courboin has contributed an introduction on the 
history of the collection in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale and M. J. Guibert a bibliography, will 
be permanently valuable as a work of reference. 

The Marquise de Ganay has organized on behalf 
of the Croix Roitgc a loan exhibition of one hundred 
pastels of the eighteenth century, which was opened 
at the Georges" Petit galleries on May i8th and 
will remain open until June loth. M. Durand- 
Ruel is holding an exhibition of early landscapes 
by Monet and Renoir which will continue until 
June 20th. It need hardly be said that it is worth 
a visit. 

With the theatrical exhibition at the Mus^e des 
Arts Decoratifs we propose to deal next month. 

The month of May has given us the first sales 
of importance this season. The most interesting 
were those of the collections of objcis d'art 
belonging to M. Zelikine and the late M. Homberg ; 
the collection of M. Jules Gcrbeau, which was 
very varied, and the well-known collection of 
M. Cheramy. Thirty-one oil sketches left by 
Cazin were sold at the beginning of the month 
and produced a total of frs. 78,810. The sale of 
the Clieramy collection excited immense interest, 
and the prices paid wjre on the whole very high. 


Art in France 

The total amount fetched by the collection was 
frs. 1,242,287, pins the usual 10 per cent. One of 
the most ardent buyers was a M. Simon Oppen- 
heimer, said to be a German collector, who 
certainly had the courage of his convictions. He 
paid no less than 85,800 frs. (for the sake of exacti- 
tude I include the 10 per cent, in quoting the 
prices) for an old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's 
Vicrgc aiix Rockers (105), which the catalogue, 
with natural optimism, declared to be finer than 
the picture in the National Gallery, an opinion not 
shared by amateurs generally. The collection, as 
a whole, was perhaps disappointing, after all that 
one had heard about it : the Italian pictures were 
very poor indeed, and the other schools, except 
the French, were less strongly represented than 
one had been led to believe ; but the French 
pictures alone made the collection a notable one. 
M. Cheramy had some of the finest examples of 
David in existence, examples which showed that 
that artist is at present very much underrated. 
His collection of paintings and drawings by 
Delacroix was unique, and there were beautiful 
examples of Corot, Ingres, Gericault and Prudhon. 
The collection of pastels, water colours and 
drawings also bore witness to M. Cheramy's taste 
and judgment. An exquisite drawing by Millet, 
Soiiis Maicrnds (393), fetched frs. 6,600, and was 
well worth the price. Another by the same artist, 
La BaigncHse (394), fetched frs. 2,640. To my 
mind one of the most beautiful and at the same 
time one of the cheapest things in the collection 
was a pastel by Degas, Le Mod'clc an repos (292) (a 
portrait of Mile. Daubigny, daughter of the artist), 
which M. Simon Oppen'heimer bought for frs. 
19,800. Several water colours and drawings by Barye, 
Corot, Delacroix and Ingres fetched high prices. 
M. Haro paid no less than frs. 10,450 for a pen 
drawing by Delacroix, Lion cf lionne (230), and M. 
Simon Oppenheimer gave frs. 6,150 each for two 
water colours by the same artist, the former a scene 
in Tangiers (293) and the latter a military subject, 
Marocainspadant pour le combat (304). The very 
fine wash-drawing by Daumier, l Artiste cu face de 
son cciivre (291), fetched frs. 3,355. 

Among the pictures by David, the Portrait 
de la Marquise de Pastoret (44) fetched the highest 
price, frs. 45,100; ihe. Po)trait du Marechal Mac- 
donald (45) by the same artist was bought by 
M. Jules Gallet for frs. 20,460, and M. Kelikian paid 
frs. 18,150 for another portrait, that of Mnie. de 
Morel de Tangry (47). These prices suggest a 
revival of interest in David ; I\I. Cheramy gave 
frs. 19,690 for No. 44 in 1897 ^^ ^^^ Plessis-Bel- 
liere sale and only frs. 2,970 for No. 45 at the 
Rottan sale in 1890. A very fine picture by Prud- 
hon, Trioinphe de Bonaparte (94), formerly in the 
Viot collection, was bought by the Lyons 
museum for frs. 24,200. The more important 
pictures by Gericault also fetched high prices : frs. 


25,410 for the Lanciet rouge (55) and frs. 20,900 
for Officier de la Garde luiperiale chargcant (56). 
Perhaps one of the best in quality of the Geri- 
caults was a small picture, Le Fon assassin (57), 
which the Ghent museum brought for the low 
price of frs. 1,155. 

The forty pictures by Delacroix sold extremely 
well. The famous picture, Hercule et Alceste (151), 
fetched frs. 35,700 — nearly double the price that 
M. Cheramy paid for it at the Cronier sale three 
years ago. Handel et le cadavre de Polonins (154)1 
formerly in the Edwards collection, fetched frs. 
22,000 and the Conite Palatiano (159) went up to 
frs. 19,910 ; the same price was paid for Tobie el 
I'Aiigc (169), which fetched frs. 3,900 at the Dutil- 
leux sale in 1874. The prices of the Corots were 
much lower ; but the beautiful Terrasse du Palais 
Doria a Genes (127), painted in 1834, was very 
cheap at frs. 5,830 ; the Venise (132), a picture of 
the same year, fetched frs. 12,100 and was also 
far from dear, although the Terrasse seemed to me 
the best example of Corot in the collection. A 
poor example of Puvis de Chavannes, Madeleine 
(227), fetched frs. 6,820 and the Oedipe etle Sphinx 
of Ingres (208) frs. 16,610. 

The pictures of other schools in this collection 
were by no means chosen with the same judg- 
ment. Of the thirty-five pictures which bore 
Constable's name there were not more than six- 
teen which it was possible to attribute to him, and 
even of these half a dozen were doubtful. More- 
over, none of them were pictures of first-rate im- 
portance. One of the best was the small Hanip- 
stead Heath (12), for which M. Oppenheimer paid 
frs. 2^,100. The same collector paid frs. 27,500 
for Malvern Hall (8), a characteristic work of about 
1818. A brilliant sketch of the celebration of 
Waterloo at East Bergholt was sold for frs. 5,747, 
and the other pictures that were certainly the work 
of Constable all fetched quite moderate prices, 
but they were all small and unimportant. On the 
other hand, La charctte de Join (13), a strange 
pastiche of the Hay-Wain in the National Gallery, 
which appeared to be a work of the late nineteenth 
century, was acquired by the indefatigable M. 
Oppenheimer for frs. 24,200 ; it would have been 
cheap, had it been a work of Constable. A pic- 
ture strangely described as Le pare de I'Archeveche 
de Salisbury (6), a not unpleasing work by an 
unknown artist, who would have been surprised 
had he known that the name of Constable would 
become attached to it, fetched frs. 7,150, and no 
less than frs. 1 1,000 was paid (by M. Oppenheimer) 
for a picture of Preston tower near Ipswich (7), 
described in the catalogue as Freeton Tower pres 
Ipsifick, which certainly did not come from Con- 
stable's brush. One of the most extraordinary attri- 
butions in the catalogue was that of No. 97, a female 
portrait attributed to Raeburn ; it was dear at frs. 
2,530. A good portrait of Garrick,by Reynolds, was. 

Art in France 

on the contrary, very cheap at frs. 14,080 ; it would 
probably have fetched ;^i,ooo at Christie's. A por- 
trait of a woman attributed to Hoppner but pro- 
bably by Lawrence (82) fetched frs. 6,600 and a 
perfectly genuine sketch by Lawrence frs. 4,290. 
On the other hand, the so-called Romney (99), of 
course a LrtJy Hamilton, was very dear indeed at 
frs. 13,3 10. A comparison of these prices will show 
what a lack there still is in France of real know- 
ledge of the English school. 

Among other very high prices in the collection 
were those of frs. 61,600 for a portrait of Sedainc 
(5), catalogued as by Chardin, but much more like 
the work of Lcpicie ; frs. 80,300 for a portrait of 
Lola Zimeucs (71), catalogued as by Goya, which, in 
spite of its signature, was not entirely convincing ; 
frs. 30,800 for a St. Dominic (76), catalogued as by 
Greco but even more doubtful ; frs. 22,220 for 
another picture (77), Lepartagc dc la Sainte Tuniqnc, 
which was described in the catalogue as a reduced 
replica, by the master himself, of the well-known 
picture in Toledo Cathedral, but which had all 
the appearance of being a copy. 

The collection of the late M. Gerbeau was 
divided into four separate sales. The first section, 
which consisted of porcelain, objcts d'art, furniture 
and tapestries, produced frs. 356,370 (not including 
the commission). The old prints, which were next 
sold, made a total of frs. 320,413. Some of the 
prices in this section were very high ; a set of three 
proofs before letters in different states of J. M. 
Moreau's Conchcrdc la mariec was bought by Mme. 
Rousseau-Girard for frs. 13,310. 

The Homberg collection, sold, like that of M. 
Cheramy, at the Georges Petit galleries, contained 
no pictures, but was one of the finest collections in 
France of ivories, enamels, carved wood, sculpture 
and objcts d'art of the middle ages and the Re- 
naissance. The sale took six days, and the total 
amount realized (including commission) was frs. 
902,563. The collection included a fine series of 
oriental faiences, which fetched high prices ; M. 
Kalebjian paid frs. 17,600 for a mosque lamp m 
Damascus faience with blue decoration on a white 
ground. The oriental bronzes also sold extremely 
well, as did the Italian faience and the manuscripts. 
The ivories and enamels were warmly contested. 

The Zclikine collection was also almost entirely 
composed of objcts d'art ; there were some 
twenty pictures, all of very small importance. For 
the fine pieces in the collection the prices were good. 

M. Armand Dayot, who arranged the Chardin- 
Fragonard exhibition last year, has a still more 
ambitious scheme for 1909. He proposes to 
hold an Anglo-French exhibition, consisting of a 
hundred of the most beautiful portraits of women 
of the eighteenth century, fifty of the English 
school and fifty of the French school. Such an 
exhibition would be extremely interesting, and it 
may be hoped that M. Dayot will be assisted by 
private collectors in England to make it really 
representative. It is suggested that the English 
pictures should be selected by an mfluential 

English committee. 

R. E. D. 




'HE 40olh anniversary of 
Calvin's birthday is to be 
celebrated at Geneva by the 
erection of a monument sym- 
bolizing the Reformation. An 
international competition has 
been opened with prizes to 
the amount of 30,000 francs. 
Among the judges are to be 
found names of the highest standing, such as 
Bartholome of Paris, Frampton of London and 
Tuaillon of Berlin. 

A number of mural paintings of the fourteenth 
century have been discovered in the choir of the 
Church of S. Gallus at Muhlheim on the Danube. 
They represent scenes from the Passion, the wise 
and foolish virgins, St. George, St. Martin and 
episodes from the life of St. Gallus. The work 
discovers striking resemblances to the paintings in 
the former Dominican monastery at Constance. 

The museum at Elberfeld has acquired an im- 
portant early painting, dated 1876, by Lieberminn, 
representing a Dutch sewing school, while 
Uhde's earliest work of importance. La Chanlcusc, 
painted when he was still influenced by Munldcsy 

at Paris, has come into possession of the Neue 
Pinakothek at Munich. Another Liebermann, 
Street in the J civs' Quarter at Amsterdam, has been 
bought by the museum at Magdeburg. 

Besides several paintings of minor interest 
and about one hundred excellent drawings, the 
National Galerie at Berlin has recently acquired 
some very interesting reliefs and a bust by Gott- 
fried Schadow. Of the reliefs nothing but models 
existed so far, and these have only now been cast 
into bronze. They represent simple and graceful 
studies from the nude, decoratively handled and 
rather less forcibly naturalistic than Schadow's 
later work. The original models were used by 
him to decorate the entrance hall of his own house. 
Two friezes of ancient horse and chariot races 
were, strangely enough, copied pretty accurately 
from repro^luctions of Etruscan vases (published 
in i8o3byTischbein). Thebustisoneof Schadow's 
first wife : it too is archaic rather than naturalistic. 

Among the recent additions to the Kaiser 
Friedrich Museum there figure ajacopo Robusti, a 
Tiepolo and a Zoffany. The Robusti, which hails 
from Budapest, represents the portrait of an old, 
white bearded and almost bald man, evidently an 


Art in Germany 

official of some consequence in Venice and one 
who was used to command. It belongs to that 
class of warm-coloured and passionate portraits 
of which it is occasionally doubtful whether we 
do best to attribute them to Titian or Tintoretto. 
The Kaiser Friedrich Museum is already rich in 
good work by Tiepolo ; the small new canvas, 
wliich formerly belonged to a collector in St. 
Petersburg, is however, upon the whole, a very 
welcome addition. It represents Taiicrcd en- 
amoured of Arinida in her enchanted garden — a 
simple north Italian villegiatura — and displays to 
fine advantage the elder Tiepolo's grasp of per- 
spective, his piquant and joyous coloration, and his 
free and spirited technique. Ever since the famous 
recent English exhibition at Berlin, the public 
has especially felt it to be a grievous shortcoming 
that Berlin's great gallery does not contain a 
room of English paintings, not even a small 
cabinet full, but for the present only an English 
wall in one of the rooms. Considering the prices 
that fine Romneys, Reynoldses and Gainsboroughs 
now command, there is unfortunately much more 
than good will necessai-y to fill up the lacunae. 
The small full-length portrait of Dr. Hanson of 
Canterbury, by Zoitany, seated, in a landscape, is 
only a slight step in this direction, though the quali- 
ties of the work, taken by itself, are quite respectable. 
But Zoffany is so decidedly second-rate a painter 
that it remains a matter of doubt whether it be 
really the right thing to buy a work of his brush 
before the gallery can show its visitors what 
English art at its best is like. Such acquisitions 
are likely to be misleading. People who have 
heard about the show at the Berlin Academy 

without having been able to see it may turn to 
work like this, and be at a loss to understand why 
anybody could have raved about English eighteenth- 
century art. The little portrait, by the way, was 
on view in this year's Winter E.xhibition at Bur- 
lington House, and will be familiar to many Lon- 
doners in consequence. 

Berlin boasts of so few old buildings that the 
loss of the Garnisons Kirche, which was burnt down 
during the night of the 13th to 14th of April, is 
seriously felt. It was originally built in 172 1-2 by 
Gerlach, and rebuilt by Rabe in 18 16. The facade 
was simplicity itself, and the structure had little 
more than age (or, rather, what would be looked 
upon as old age at Berlin) to recommend it. Owing 
to a thorough restoration, which was effected 
during the year 1900, the interior did not even 
display many traces of that. 

Baden-Baden is to have a new ornamental 
fountain, for which Mr. H. Sielcken of that town 
has given ^^2,000. The arena of the amphi- 
theatre at Treves is going to be restored and, in 
part at least, accommodated to its ancient uses as a 
stadium for outdoor sports. 

The competition opened by the Bavarian 
Government for designs for new postage stamps 
has proved a great disappointment. None of the 
1,100 designs contributed by about 300 competitors 
seem to have satisfied the judges well enough to 
induce them to propose any one to the Govern- 
ment for adoption. The prize-money was conse- 
quently divided up into a number of small pre- 
miums. The result of the Leipzig ornamental 
visiting-card competition, I have been told, is 
scarcely more promising. H. W. S. 



Mr. John La Faroe has now in his studio two 
small windows, or panels, of coloured glass which, 
apart from their intrinsic beauty, are of great in- 
terest as exemplifying almost every phase of those 
' American methods,' in the invention of which he 
has played so important and preponderant a part. 
They are not in any proper sense 'stained' glass 
and still less painted glass, and one of them is 
not leaded glass : they are examples of what 
may, perhaps, best be called transparent glass 

One of them, The Peony in the Wind, is a trans- 
lation into gla^s of an ancient Japanese design, 
and it is interesting to note that the borders, with 
their relations of width to each other and to the 
central panel, are according to a Japanese rule for 
the borders of a Kakemono. In its structure this 
panel is exceedingly simple. It is composed of 
single pieces of glass leaded together, the colour 
being in the glass itself. There is absolutely no 


painting, and, apparently, there is little if any 
' plating,' or putting one piece of coloured glass 
over another, as a printer in oils ' glazes ' over his 
underpainting. It relies, primarily, on the beauty 
of the material itself — a material infinitely varied 
and rich, which has little in common with the 
sheets of glass of one united hue which are the 
foundation of glass painting in the English 
manner — and upon the skill of the artist in fitting 
together these beautiful bits of coloured glass into 
a beautiful whole while making of his lead lines 
not a disagreeable necessity but an integral and 
important part of his design. Of this material, 
the result of many experiments made by Mr. La 
Farge and others, with its opalescence, its const-ant 
gradation of tender hues, its cloudings and veinings, 
it is as impossible to convey any idea as of the 
mastery of colour harmonies with which it is 
assembled ; but in black and white reproduction, 
where the splendour of the colour is lost and even 
th- composition of light and dirk is but dimly felt, 
the iraoortance of the lead lines— the backbone 




Art in America 

of the design — is even more clearly seen than 
in the original. They are so important — so essen- 
tially the design itself — that they might almost 
stand alone without the addition of colour, and 
we should have a piece of leaded glass as interest- 
ing in its linear beauty as a Japanese woodcut. 

This is the American method at its best, free of 
commercial vulgarization and of the compromise 
with paint forced by the necessity of figure repre- 
sentation — a method entirely logical and leased on 
the nature of the material and tlie processes of 
manufacture, and using them in the simplest and 
most direct way with splendid results. 

The other panel. The Peacock, is a much more 
personal thing, produced by methods of great 
subtlety and difficulty (most of them of Mr. La 
Farge's own invention), and of a costliness which 
must render their employment by himself or 
others of rare occurrence. There are a few leads 
here and there in this panel, where the emphasis 
of a firm line was wanted, but the greater part of 
it is put together without leads. Glass is fused to 
glass with nothing between them, and glass is 
joined to glass by a fine copper wire fused to the 
pieces it joins. Glass is plated over glass, enriching 
and deepening its colour or uniting many separate 
pieces with a glaze of one predominant tint, and 
these platings are again fused to the original 
pieces— finally the whole delicate structure is 
encased between two plain sheets of glass, back 
and front, which bind it together and give it the 
necessary rigidity, while they soften the sharpness 
of the cutting lines where these appear. The 
separate pieces of glass are very small and almost 
countless in number, and in the choice of these is 
involved not only taste and knowledge of the laws 
of colour, but a knowledge of the material and of 
the change in its colour which will be brought 
about by the heat to which it must be sulojected. 
It is not to be wondered at that this panel has 
been years in attaining completion. 

The design is adapted from a Chinese ivory of the 
Ming dynasty, in its turn copied from an earlier 
work, and was probably chosen by Mr. La Farge 
for its adaptability to his purpose of showing all 
the resources of the art of glass as he understands 
it. The line has been deliberately subordinated, 
or eliminated, and the attention of the artist has 
been concentrated on obtaining the utmost beauty 
and fullness of colour — colour glowing, flushing, 
pulsating, without definite edges or divisions — 
colour almost inconceivably powerful, yet subtle 
and delicate — colour which makes that of the 
Peony in tlic Wind, beautiful as it is, seem thin by 
comparison — colour such as is obtainable in no 
other material and in that material by no other 

Of such a work no reproduction can give any con- 
ception — perhaps a reproduction in monochrome 
is less likely to give a false conception of it than 

would be any attempt at colour-printing. The 
plain black and white can at least show something 
of the fineness of the workmanship — of the mere 
refinement of the cutting and of the multitude of 
small separate pieces of glass employed. For any 
notion of its glory one must go to the work itself. 

Kenyon Cox. 


The Saint Gaudens Exhibition. — It is most 
gratifying to note that the Saint Gaudens Memorial 
Exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
was visited by tens of thousands of whose sincere 
enthusiasm there can be no doubt. It originally 
was contemplated to have it last a month, that time 
had to lie extended one month and again another. 
The organization of the exhibition was admiiable, 
the representation of the master's work was 
extensive, and the larger reproductions lost little 
in their setting within the great entrance hall of 
the museum. 

Many to whom sculpture in its purely aesthetic 
appeal is dumb can understand in the works of 
Saint Gaudens certain large ideas which are not 
for art alone. The embodiment of such thoughts 
as leadership and heroism in war and statesman- 
ship in the eager Sherman and the brooding 
Lincoln ; the fateful issues of slavery and freedom ; 
the ancestral memories of pioneers and founders ; 
the acceptance and presentation of contemporary 
life ; the shaiiiing of sordid aims ; the sense of 
dignity and beauty in every vision, cannot fail of 
its effect upon public taste. Now that we have 
lost him, we feel all the more that he has done a 
greater thing than produce a series of works of 
art. He has helped to make for us Americans an 
ideal actual. And, through his sense for the value 
of a higher tradition, he has brought our deeper 
sentiments in touch with the whole imaginative 
world of the past. Essentially conservative and 
objective in temper, the work of Saint Gaudens 
marks an era in American sculpture. That the 
exhibition has been a great public success is most 
encouraging. Those who despair of art culture 
in America have not Saint Gaudens's faith ; tliose 
who work halfheartedly towards it may be 
inspired by his tireless energy. 

Whatever final place among the great sculptors 
of the world will be given to Saint Gaudens by the 
verdict of posterity we may not be able to say, 
but he was a great factor in our national life and 
a recognized leader in our fight for the achievement 
and recognition of beauty. What we can know 
securely is that his pre-eminence was achieved by 
exceptional, consistent endeavour, a love of good 
craftsmanship, an indefatigable search for higher 
truths and more perfect forms. This Memorial 
Exhibition revealed the range of Saint Gaudens's 
art, from the little portraits in relief, as fine in 
sentiment as in execution, to the imaginative 


Art in America 

utterance and noble design of liis big things. It 
contained no hasty workmanship, no extreme or 
eccentric experimentation. He 'nothing common 
did or mean.' Saint Gaudens was never, Hke 
Donatello at times, regardless of beauty. He was 
never, like Michelangelo at times, impatient or 
untender ; and he never exploited a manner or 
obscured a meaning. His genius was indeed of 
the classic type and in no way revolutionary — a 
constructive perfectibility seems to have been his 
guiding ambition in botli thought and craft. And 
above all we honour him for the large and noble 
part that he played in our national development 
because of his loyalty and devotion to high artistic 

The Spring Academy. — I must limit a belated 
report on the Spring Academy to a few general 
aspects— and to painting only, as no fully repre- 
sentative exhibition of sculpture was attempted for 
want of space. The bringing together of conser- 
vatives and radicals under one roof did not dis- 
close any such schism in the aims of our artists as 
might have been expected. The result was quite 
harmonious ; for the general effect of the exhibi- 
tion was at once modern and conservative. A 
brilliant wall of the younger men, who follow Manet 
in an ideal of simplification, did not break the 
rank. Their work was rich in native themes and 
full of human interest, if without high stylistic 
achievement in any instance. A portrait by Mr. 
Sloan deserved mention for its dash and character. 
But we are most of us busied more with ends than 
means. We have found ourselves, more or less, 
technically ; and, while the European oracles are 
not dumb, style for style's sake no longer satisfies 
our ambition. Who, for instance, has more style, 
has learned more from European art, and yet is more 
native and less conventional, than Mr. Alden Weir ? 
We feel, rather than recognize, a tradition here. 
The Laurel, a blithe and exquisite piece, which 
must rank high among Mr. Weir's ever original 
and various works, and a sylph of a Ballet Girl 
were secure and complete examples. And who, 
again, conforms more to a classic canon, and yet 
is less derivative, than Mr. Tarbell ? The President 
Seeley was beautiful as art, and a monumental 
portrait in intention if not in absolute achieve- 
ment, since the hands were so insistent as some- 
what to mar the ensemble. 

On a lower aesthetic level, Mr. Smedley seemed 
like an American Ghirlandajo : a wholesome 
average. He sets up a standard for himself, and 
carries it out. In a very serious and able image 
of child life Mr. Kendal repeated a familiar motive 
with his usual authority and competence. Mr. 
Isham, with his frankly decorative pastoral, con- 
trived an eighteenth-century effect in modern 
dress. A charming figurative landscape, or out- 
of-door genre piece rather, by Miss Genth, had 
portrait quality and a real physical presence in the 


figure, and in its vivid light and colour was worthy 
of comparison with Renoir and Mme. Morisot. 
The Lark, a captivating nude by the same artist, 
was a success in feeling and style and workmanlike 
execution. The contribution of Mr. Thayer was 
most attractive, if unsatisfactory, which did not 
achieve beauty of form in this image ; we cannot 
forget that we owe him the debt of his priceless 
attitude, his sense for ideal beauty. 

Mr. Sargent's four portraits, of which the Mr. 
Robinson was the most studied and the Mr. Henry A. 
Crane perhaps the most characteristic, brought 
his peculiar note into the assembly. Miss Beaux 
and Mr. J. J. Shannon were well represented in 
single examples, and Mr. Wiles's Paul Cornoyer, 
Esq., had direct purpose and character. The 
Miss Uliarton, by the late John Lambert, in its 
quiet refinement and distinction, gave witness to 
the loss which our painting has sustained in the 
death of this simple and lovable artist. Among 
other works in this field may be mentioned those 
by Mr. Eakins, Mr. Nicmeyer and Mr. Hopkinson. 

The exhibition was rich in more or less objective 
landscape. The effect of this art is cumulative, 
and selection is difficult. Mr. Ochtman, Mr. 
Tryon and Mr. Lathrop exhibited characteristic 
work in a very native tradition, and various shades 
of contemplative observation of nature in its more 
external aspects were expressed by Mr. W. S. 
Robinson, Mr. Nettleton, Mr. Eaton and Mr. Van 
Laer. The brilliant Moonlight of Mr. Benson 
and Mr. Carlsen's sensitive treatment of a similar 
theme were honoured in the hanging. A theme 
that can never grow old, the Venice of Mr. Bunce, 
expressed tenderly and finely a more subjective 
mood. In this romantic category were examples 
from Mr. Bruce Crane and Mr. Ballard Williams. 
More modern and more searching compositions, 
in the region of colour at least, were offered by 
Mr. Lawson, who has a distinctive individual style 
of great power and refinement, and by Mr. Childe 
Hassan, who having long achieved success keeps 
growing in mastery. Mr. Rook's Laurel made 
an interesting colour essay of bold execution. 
Realistic works by Mr. Redfield and Mr. Rosen 
commanded attention. Mr. Redfield has colour 
and Mr. Rosen temperament. 

That our landscape generally needs the tone of 
a larger mood is proved by the exceptional power 
of Mr. Winslow Homer's art as represented by 
two characteristic works painted some years ago. 
The imaginative vision of Mr. La Farge in his 
Wolf Charmer also transcends the normal activity 
and tendency of American painting. Art of this 
kind, like the sculpture of the late Saint Gaudens, 
belongs to the future, for it means more than its 
concrete issues, and carries with it a spiritual 
leadership and influence, the effect of which we 
can in no way at present estimate. 

W. Rankin. 


Sm^V^M^P*- ^ 

^ THE AFFAIRS O^ ^^^«^' 

' HE high a I 
recently accej 
T. D.Gibson- > 
does more than create a 
vacancy in the ranksof the 
trustees of the National 
Gallery. It deprives that small portion of 
the nation which is seriously interested in 
, of the help of. one whose fine 
ui,5ur ,.i)d wide s"'. ' ' ' e done u> 
invaluable if uhj 

The filr 
departure : 

i " 

' its lofty place 

)rld — a period 

i;iC directorship ot 

.. — the part played by 

■at of htlpers and advisers, 

control and the ultimate 

ior purchases rested solely 

' ■'■'■''•'-•"■ ' se manage- 

c and Sir 

Frederick Burton this plan had resulted in 

almost un. ' success. A few mistakes, 

indeed, wtic Uiude, hut by trusting to thr 

judgment of a sir. -Ir c-Krt-n the nation 

acquired a ser! '.erpieces long 

before the rest of the world awoke to 

theii importance. 

When Sir Edward Poynter succeeded 
Sir Frederick Burton the results were not 
so happy, and finally Lord Rosebr 
Government by a Treasury minute reve 
the whole arrangement. The directoi 
still a director in name, but he could ni.i..- 
no purchase for the gallery without obtain- 
ing the consent of the trustees. He was 

THE B(ilU.lvar<»II llMAtlNS, No, 64. Vm XIII— jlli}, l»Oll 



..: ' ^all overt • - ■ ;. 

w.*; — -prived of ai. ^ - ;...,....,.. ^^ 

master i)e bank at once to the position of 

ht still h 

more than averai't- 
whose contributi 
gallery would be mamly th( 
tU' U a cri? 

si' „.t in : ■■.... 

world, and of that large com- 
ition sciK.e in dealing with people and 
th'.ngs that comes of high station and long 
cxpCi lence of affairs. Such a board would 
have been of invaluable assistance to a 
clever judge of pictures, while he, on the 
other hand, would have possessed just the 
wide and precise technical knowledge in 
respect of which his trustees wtvit at rhe 
best no more than amateur^ 

The actual conditions have proved very 
different, and probably could not exist 
outside England. The majority of the 
present trustees of the National Gallery 
cannot be called amateurs at all except 
by courtesy. They are distinguished col- 
lectors who have ■ -"i. their hobby with 
the keenness and g of professional art 

critics ; in fact are themselves really art 
critics except in so far as neither poverty 

i \'anity has driven them to writi.ig. 

What must be the inevitable result : 
However distinguished an expert the 
director may be, he is only one expert 
among many, and the one with the least 
real power. Pie may recommend again 
and again, but if there be one dissentient 
voice among the trustees his recommenda- 
tions are made useless. 

."^V ' ' ' " virihus ruit! Haa 11 
:.;!-..., : uc : Li.-d with subtle and deli- 
berate malice, that Treasury minute could 
not have been more disastrous and fatal to 




HE high appointment 
recently accepted by Sir 
T. D. Gibson-Carmichael 
does more than create a 
vacancy in the ranksofthe 
trustees of the National 
Gallery. It deprives that small portion of 
the nation which is seriously interested in 
the arts of the help of one whose fine 
taste and w^ide sympathies have done us 
invaluable if unadvertised service. 

The filling of the gap caused by his 
departure to Australia will thus be no light 
matter, and we trust that the Government, 
in making the new appointment, will in- 
clude in its purview the whole question of 
the administration at Trafalgar Square. 

At present the position of the trustees 
of the National Gallery is peculiar, if not 
unique. In the period when the gallery 
was laying the foundations of its lofty place 
among the museums of the world — a period 
which culminated in the directorship of 
Sir Frederick Burton — the part played by 
the trustees was that of helpers and advisers, 
but the supreme control and the ultimate 
responsibility for purchases rested solely 
with the director. Under the wise manage- 
ment of Sir Charles Eastlake and Sir 
Frederick Burton this plan had resulted in 
almost unqualified success, A few mistakes, 
indeed, were made, but by trusting to the 
judgment of a single expert the nation 
acquired a series of masterpieces long 
before the rest of the world awoke to 
their importance. 

When Sir Edward Poynter succeeded 
Sir Frederick Burton the results were not 
so happy, and finally Lord Rosebery's 
Government by a Treasury minute reversed 
the whole arrangement. The director was 
still a director in name, but he could make 
no purchase for the gallery without obtain- 
ing the consent of the trustees. He was 

THS BURUNQTOS MAGAZINE, No. 64. Vul .Xlli— July, 190S. 



relieved of all overt responsibility, but he 
was also deprived of all power. From being 
master he sank at once to the position of 

This arrangement might still have 
worked well had the trustees been no 
more than average men of high position 
whose contributions to the working of the 
gallery would be mainly those of an oppor- 
tune cheque at a critical moment, of occa- 
sional support in Parliament or in the 
diplomatic world, and of that large com- 
mon sense in dealing with people and 
things that comes of high station and long 
experience of affairs. Such a board would 
have been of invaluable assistance to a 
clever judge of pictures, while he, on the 
other hand, would have possessed just the 
wide and precise technical knowledge in 
respect of which his trustees were at the 
best no more than amateurs. 

The actual conditions have proved very 
different, and probably could not exist 
outside England. The majority of the 
present trustees of the National Gallery 
cannot be called amateurs at all except 
by courtesy. They are distinguished col- 
lectors who have pursued their hobby with 
the keenness and learning of professional art 
critics ; in fact are themselves really art 
critics except in so far as neither poverty 
nor vanity has driven them to writing. 

What must be the inevitable result .? 
However distinguished an expert the 
director may be, he is only one expert 
among many, and the one with the least 
real power. He may recommend again 
and again, but if there be one dissentient 
voice among the trustees his recommenda- 
tions are made useless. 

Sii/'s et ipsa Roma viribus ritit! Had it 
indeed been designed with subtle and deli- 
berate malice, that Treasury minute could 
not have been more disastrous and fatal to 

R I 89 

The Affairs of the National Gallery 

effective action. To expect unanimity from 
a committee of more than two or three 
average men is optimistic ; to expect it 
from nine experienced art critics is insane. 
Let the reader think of the first half-dozen 
famous art authorities whose names he 
remembers, and then imagine what his 
difficulty would be in bringing them 
to agreement on any delicate problem! 
The best he could hope for would be 
compromise, and compromise in buying 
pictures means buying second-rate pictures. 

Such is the position towards which we 
are inevitably drifting, even if our national 
good sense may have saved us so far from 
actual catastrophe. Meanwhile the great 
galleries of Germany and America compete 
with our unwieldy arrangements through 
trained experts who take full responsibility 
for their acts, and in return are entrusted 
with full powers. They can seize the 
chances of the moment, those chances that 
never can return ; while we have to stand 
by with our hands tied. 

That the handicap is too heavy for us 
has been proved time after time of recent 
years. Masterpiece upon masterpiece has 
gone to Berlin or to America which 
might under a more practical system have 
been retained in England ; while the uni- 
versal outcry in Germany over official 
interference with the judgment of Dr. von 
Tschudi is a present proof of the impor- 
tance which that country attaches to the 
independence of her experts. 

All this is a commonplace to those who 
have studied the subject ; yet it is also a 
most unsatisfactory state of things, and 
one for which some remedy (if a positive 
cure is too much to hope for) ought to be 
found as soon as possible. The appoint- 
ment of a new trustee would give the 
Government a chance of doing something 
to help this good work, could the question 
once be put before it fairly. 


The crux of the problem lies in the 
fact that the critical knowledge of the 
trustees may at any moment become an 
active source of peril instead of being a 
tower of strength. Its intrinsic value to 
the nation, however, is so considerable that 
we cannot afford to do without it, and we 
trust the Government, in filling the vacancy 
left by Sir T. D. Gibson-Carmichael's 
retirement, will not hesitate to select one of 
the three or four gentlemen who are 
peculiarly fitted for the post by their 
critical knowledge as well as by their posi- 
tion and experience. If the new trustee 
could be one intimately connected with the 
National Art Collections Fund, so much 
the better. It is pre-eminently desirable 
that the Fund and the trustees should be 
as closely connected as possible, so that 
there may be no clashing of aims and 
ideals when any great crisis arises. 

We not only need all our best talent 
just now ; we also require that it should 
co-operate harmoniously, if as a nation 
we are to hold our own in the future. 

Assuming, then, the vacant trusteeship is 
filled by one as gifted as its late holder, 
how can we make the best use of his tal- 
ents and those of his colleagues ? Some 
change at least from the existing con- 
ditions is imperatively needed. In a 
previous article,^ when discussing the larger 
question of our general art policy, w^e 
advocated the restoration of independence 
to the director. That plan still appears to 
us to be the ideal one ; if a director cannot 
be trusted he is not fit to be appointed. 

The suggestion is far from novel. It 
has been generally voiced in the press, but 
the fact that no action has been taken 
seems to show that there are difficulties 
in the way which are not apparent to 
outside spectators. 

In default of this complete and ideal 

' See The Birlington Magazine, vol. viii. p. 225 (Jan. 
1906), 'The Lesson of the Rokeby Velazquez.' 

The Affairs of the National Gallery 

independence, we feel convinced that two 
slight modifications of the present system 
would at least enable the director and the 
trustees to develop their respective powers 
to much greater benefit than at present. 

(i) To enable the director to take ad- 
vantage of the opportunities of the sale- 
room, and of purchases involving instanta- 
neous decision, a definite proportion (say, 
j^i,ooo) of the total sum available for 
purchases should be allowed to him 
annually to use at his sole discretion. 

(ii) More important purchases might 
be made by the director if his recommen- 
dation were backed by the formal approval 
of not less than two of the trustees. 

By this provision we should avoid all 
risk of failure owing either to a difference 
of opinion on the part of a single trustee 
or to the delay necessitated by having to 
collect eight highly placed and busy men. 
Even trustees, too, must sometimes take 
holidays, and what is the poor director to 
do then ? It must never be forgotten that 
important works do not usually remain in 
the market for long. With them it is a 
case of ' now or never,' and the director 
who has to wait three weeks or a month 
before he can come to a decision cannot 
possibly hold his own against men who 
can complete a bargain on the spot. 

By this arrangement the director would 
be able to avail himself of the special 

knowledge of each of the trustees, as occa- 
sion demanded. If he wanted to buy a 
Flemish picture he would naturally go to 
those trustees whose knowledge of the 
Flemish school was most profound ; for an 
Italian picture he would turn to the ap- 
proval of those best acquainted with Italian 
art, and for a French picture to those most 
interested in France. The arrangement, 
after all, is like that of an ordinary business 
firm, whose cheques for safety's sake have 
to be signed by two directors, as well as 
by a responsible officer of the company. 
But what should we think of a business 
whose every cheque needed nine signatures ? 
We have the less hesitation in discussing 
this delicate problem openly because the 
change in the director's status made by the 
Treasury in Lord Rosebery's time was 
designed to meet an exceptional and tem- 
porary difficulty. To exalt it to the dignity 
of a perpetual rule was not, we believe, con- 
templated by those who introduced it ; 
yet if it be not reconsidered soon it will 
acquire respectability from mere acquie- 
scence. Time and experience have proved 
its inherent defects; its advantage we see in 
the keen interest which the trustees now 
take it all that concerns the National 
Gallery. The suggestion we have ventured 
to put forward, though no more than a 
compromise, appears to minimise those 
defects without sacrificing that advantage. 


HE outcry against the 
building of the British 
Medical Association was 
even less well informed 
than such outcries usually 
are, yet it might have 
been serious but for the good sense and 
firmness of ' The Times.' It is curious 

that these violent outbursts should almost 
invariably select really original and first- 
rate work for their object ; still more 
curious perhaps that the accusation of 
indecency should have been levelled in 
this case against sculpture of which the 
distinctive characteristic is its monume ntal 




POPULAR venture intermit- 
tently backed by tiie official 
world of two nations, important 
I owing to the chance of politics, 
'at once reactionary in aim, yet 
' in part admirable : such is the 
character of the Franco-British 
.Exhibition at Shepherd's Bush 
— I had almost said Earl's Court. At first one feels 
that the management which is answerable for the 
Turco- Austrian architecture can claim part author- 
ship in some of the' sculpture represented, that 
decorations intendedifor the buildings have found 
a place in the galleries, where the energetic impres- 
arios of the exhibition may be detected in works 
disguised under very French and English names ; 
but this impression passes, and we find among the 
litter of exhibition art some masterpieces by the 
giants who have illustrated the nineteenth century. 
My business is with the French section. Unlike 
the English one, this is confined to a period of 
production which excludes even the survivors from 
the eighteenth century who lived into the nine- 
teenth, such as Prudhon, Fragonard, Houdon and 
Clodion. France, however, has strengthened her 
exhibit by a group of monuments by her great sculp- 
tors, Barye, Rude, Carpeaux and Dalou ; whilst 
England, forgetful of the monumental work of her 
one great sculptor, Alfred Stevens, benefits only 
by one work (Watts's Clytc), which is not of recent 
production. In the English section the younger 
masters have been practically extinguished by bad 
placing ; if in the French section there is also a 
predominance of work which has lost its hold even 
upon the market, there are several examples by the 
more prominent masters of the New Salon, even 
the reluctant Monsieur Rodin being present with 
two marvellous busts. With the works of the 
French members of the International Society, such 
as A. Besnard, J. E. Blanche, Cottet, E. Carriere, 
Bartolome, I have no space to deal adequately ; it 
would also be difficult for a contemporary to write 
with that generosity which the importance of their 
art commands, and their work is not unfamiliar 
to London. The bulk of this article must of 
necessity concern itself with the masterpieces 
done some years ago, though no system has 
been observed in the arrangement of the French 
section, and works done yesterday are placed next 
to those of the past. 

Some acknowledged masterpieces stand in the 
centre of the Sculpture Hall ; foremost among them 
is the Ugolino by Carpeaux. We have to revert to 
The Deposition by Michelangelo to find a design 
at once so central and significant as this. We have 
but to think of the wriggling Laocoon and his 
Sons, with their academic anatomies, meaningless 
hands, and the lack of relation of the figures to 
each other, to realize the beauty of this tragic work, 
which stands beyond the habit and range of Car- 


peaux as the Colhoni stands beyond the range of 

I have to confess to a great disappointment in 
the sketch for Carpeaux's Flora ; it shows signs of 
physical fatigue which are absent from the final 
version. The Dead Cavaignac by Rude is one of 
the great triumphs of French sculpture, which was 
so fertile in masterpieces during the nineteenth 
century. The current estimate of modern art 
tends to exaggerate the significance of modern 
landscape painting ; it is in sculpture, in the 
masterpieces of Barye, Carpeaux and Rodin, that 
the highest level of success has been achieved. They 
can challenge comparison with the masters of the 
Renaissance. But the study of art is ever fertile 
in surprises, and leads constantly to unexpected 
' transvaluations ' of the work of a period. We 
overrate the painting of the eighteenth centurv, 
hardly as yet appreciate its sculpture to the full, 
whilst its beautiful architecture remains for another 
.ceneration to understand. How shall I convey 
the austere tenderness, the dignity and realism 
which characterize the effigy of G. Cavaignac ? The 
rendering of the head, the humble anatomy, the 
clinging draperies, each and all are beyond praise ; 
I prize this noble work beyond Holbein's tragic 
Dead Christ, or that haunting effigy of a dead man 
with a wreath of roses by that great modern 
Italian sculptor Bastianini, to whom we owe three 
masterpieces and one of the great scandals or 
bankruptcies of criticism in the history of art." 

The famous statue by L. Brian is half lost 
against a wall ; close to it is a tired and dirty cast of 
Falguere's Martyr. Falguere, at one time over- 
praised and now underrated, is represented again 
by an enchanting little bronze bas-relief hung in 
the picture gallery, which holds also Barye's 
fascinating Tliesens and Minotaur and a case of 
small bronzes by Dalou, three out of these last 
having been seen recently in London. One feels 
before these masterly works that one is face to 
face with some priceless addition presented to the 
museum of some impoverished or stingy nation 
by some prince of finance, and not before the 
modern work of a man who once counted 
like Rodin only as a skilful workman. Paul 
Dubois's famous Et'e and bust of Paul Baudry have 
not stood too well the test of time ; after Rodin's 
busts the portrait of Baudry, which seemed at the 
time of its production an epoch-making work, has 
lost force and power. If the sculpture department 
holds several admirable works by Carpeaux and 
Rude, there are disappointments, notably with 
Fremiet, who seems too tight and too anecdotic in 
aim ; there are also countless pretentious and 
meaningless female nudes flaunting the curves of 
professional hips before the more modest male 
academics of the British sculptors, who face them 

'The sum of X^.ooo would secure this priceless work for the 
' Rude was assisted in the work by Christophe. 

The Franco- British Exhibition 

in bashful poses suited for instant purchase by the 
Chantrey Bequest. 

Ingres is represented by a masterpiece, this alone 
is an artistic event ! — Ingres who still remains unin- 
telligible to most Englishmen. Unlike David, who 
really focused the reactionary temper of an epoch 
in the commonplace terms of that period, Ingres 
is no mere contemporary of Canova and Vigee- 
Lebrun. Like his contemporary, the Englishman 
Blake, Ingres held tenaciously to an ideal which 
ignored the limitations of his time. Something of 
the pontiff or prophet characterized both. Blake 
thundered to a chapel audience about original 
innocence and about the might in the Holy Ghost 
of Michelangelo ; there was a chapel fervour in 
the art of this man who might have been also the 
founder of a pre-Mormon sect. To Ingres be- 
longed the culture and obstinacy of a great tradition : 
he thundered also to his disciples and enemies, 
doubtless explaining to Madame Ingres that he, 
she and art lived in an ' ^poque apostat ' ! But 
he loved art only, and with his pencil and brush 
he tracked down that which he wished to see 
with something of that instinctive grip upon 
delicate form which characterizes Holbein and 
Raphael. If Blake despised the beauties of the 
noblest painting to evolve at times a curious and 
not unlovely workmanship of his own, leaving 
form, which he worshipped, to the chances of a 
'provincial' practice, Ingres knew his qualities 
and persisted in them till drawing acquired with 
him a new quality of its own, unlike the balanced 
design of Raphael, unlike the delicate precision of 
Holbein, yet allied to each — at times more realistic, 
at times more abstract, but rarely failing in some 
strange quality of emphasis which constitutes the 
essence of art. Baudelaire, in one of the most 
searching pieces of criticism ever penned, analyzes 
the extraordinary quality of exaggeration in 
Ingres's drawing, the profound sensuousness which 
underlies it, and its freedom from academic 
vacancy. Was this draughtsman's quality always 
present in his subject pieces as it is in his direct 
transcripts from nature ? It is often there, but not 
always ; it is present in the Sfratuiiice at Chantilly 
and in the ]lrgi! at Brussels. In the work of this 
arch-priest of perfection we shall find anticipations 
of the voluptuous and melancholy figures of his 
pupil Chasserieau, represented in the exhibition by 
a small pensive I'eiiits rising from a silent sea 
under the grey of the dawn. 

The colour and pigment of Ingres's portrait of 
Bartolini are sober and fine ; the painting of the 
left hand has the quality of some masterpiece of 
the Renaissance. The drawing of the coat is 
worthy of Holbein, the painting being on a par 
with that of Velazquez when a young man or 
Courbet at his best. 

Delacroix fares less well ; he is represented by a 
superb sketch for the Louvre ceiling, but the ugly 

little picture of Mivabcaii, if intelligent in concep- 
tion, lacks the pictorial substance or the emotional 
range that would allow full scope to the master's 
hand, which became chilled, outside tasks 
not calling for the utmost effort and emotion. 
To Delacroix belonged an astonishing gift of 
expressive draughtsmanship ; to a great plastic 
sense he has added a sense of emotional move- 
ment which is unparalleled in art and different 
in kind from that of any other master. His 
strange and emotional sense of colour was often 
marred by the uncertainties of his practice as a 
painter. If the very size of his designs excludes 
the beauties of iine pigment, in his sketches we 
recognize the born painter. In his large and 
noblest work Delacroix is one of the great 
draughtsmen of the century ; in some small pic- 
tures, like the Mirabcau, for instance, his drawing 
becomes cramped and the colour uncertain — even 
his powers as a designer have forsaken him here, 
and we long in its place for some masterpiece like 
the Combat de Chevaiix dans tine Eciirie or the 
Hamlet. Fortunately, he is present in the Wallace 
Collection by a masterpiece, the Marino Faliero, 
with its marvellously painted banners and columns, 
and its nobly designed Doge in white on the 
black velvet carpet. I would hasten past Courbet's 
superb La Sieste, the adequate but not supremely 
representative pictures by Corot, since these 
painters are well known in England. The small, 
sombre and laboured little Millet is a masterpiece ; 
it is dull and dingy only at first sight, in conception 
and design it is worthy of the Louvre. ' 

I have hastened past Courbet, yet the most 
fertile and sequent efforts in French painting since 
i860 owe their impulse to him. Manet, Whistler, 
each and all the Impressionists, have at some time 
painted in his dark massive manner, whilst the 
early work of Legros and Carolus Duran reflects 
his influence, three notable pictures by the latter 
being one of the pleasant surprises of the exhibi- 
tion. To Courbet's example, modified by Impres- 
sionism and the influence of the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts, we may ascribe the now underrated painting 
of Bastien Lepage, represented by his best work, 
Les Fains, and a small portrait of his brother. 
Many painters of uncertain artistic achievement, 
such as Butin, Roll and Duez, owe the salt in their 
better work to the example of Courbet, modified 
by the developments of Impressionism. To 
Courbet belongs the largest share in influencing 
French painting in the channel of direct painting 
from nature. I am aware of a side influence 
from Corot, and even Millet, but this has been 
less certain and less constant, and has to be 
sought for more in Holland. Another cur- 
rent in French painting may be said to start with 
Chasserieau, and to have been modified by the 

3 When this article was written the famous drawings by 
Ingres and Millet were not on view. 

The Franco-British Exhibition 

example of Ricard. Each artist influenced by it 
developed in isolation, and none have achieved as 
yet their full meed of praise. If we might de- 
scribe Courbet's naturalistic movement as a sort of 
assertion of middle-class feeling for substance and 
fact, the stylists about whom I am about lo write 
tended towards a decorative or a more expressive 
or intimate type of art. 

In a former number of this magazine* I have 
warned the reader not to overestimate the influ- 
ence of Chass^rieau upon Puvis de Chavannes, 
represented here by one of his earliest and noblest 
works, the Decapitation of St. John. In this 
synthetic design, in the rendering of the draperies, 
rudimentary tree and the formal rendering of 
accessories, we recognize the unique aspect and 
temper common to the work of this great master ; 
the charming and singular colour unusual in 
Puvis can be ascribed to no known influence ; in 
the exotic perfume which envelops the Salome, 
however, there remains an indefinable trace of 

Not far from this noble picture hangs an admir- 
able work, The Plague in Rome, by Delaunay, 
an unequal artist, admirable in this one work, 
which shows the influence of Chass^rieau, whilst 
his conscientious portraits reflect a remote in- 
fluence of Ricard. Ricard, the magician, the 
supreme painter of women in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, whom I should have mentioned earlier in 
this article, is represented in the next room by a 
thoughtful portrait of a man, skied to make room 
for some nondescript modern work, and by a 
study of a woman who waits and watches in the 
golden twilight of the picture with haunting eyes 
and lips like some pensive flower. 

Perhaps another generation may recognize quite 
readily that in expression, variety and delicacy 
Turner, Ricard and Watts are the original and 
subtle technicians of the century, and not Courbet 
or Corot and Manet. Perhaps it is unwise to 
prophesy, since all great emotional or thoughtful 
work requires emotion and thought in the spec- 
tator. Our civilization has witnessed the indiffer- 
ence of three centuries to the noble primitives ; 
Tiepolo, Watteau and Houdon have each at one 
time been forgotten ; Alfred Stevens is still unfa- 
miliar to English sculptors ; while France has for- 
gotten the marvellous art of Paul Baudry, who 
died little more than twenty years ago. 

A profound study of the great Italians resulted 
in one of the most astonishing and daring creations 
in the history of painting— namely, Baudry's cycle 
of decorations in the foyer of the Paris Opera. 
The sudden fame of these works can be estimated 

* See The Burlington Magazine, vol.xiii, pp 9, ff.; (April, 

Would that this rare picture could be secured for the nation 
for ;£i,ooo before it is too late, for the pictures by this master are 
as rare in number as the now unobtainable work of some 
Italian masters of the past. 

in contemporary writing ; then followed a period 
of eclipse as sudden and absolute as that which 
overlook Tiepolo a few years after his death. 

Baudry's famous portrait of Madeleine Brohan 
here exhibited counts among the portraits of the 
century. The painting of the hands and mouth 
is wonderful ; nothing could surpass the luminous 
tones of the flesh ; as yet time has not made in- 
teresting to us the ugly but beautifully rendered 
dress and Castellani jewels or some of the acces- 
sories. I had imagined that Baudry's elegant and 
'militant' portraits might interest me but little; 
that the reverence and affection with which I 
viewed his decorations might fail me in his rather 
restless rendering of the women of his time ; but 
this picture enchants me, and I am appalled to 
think that this great artist is often dismissed among 
faded academicians. 

It is well known that Chass^rieau influenced 
the strange, complex art of Gustave Moreau, but 
this can be overstated. This curious and unequal 
artist is represented by a St. George and the Dragon 
which expresses only one side of the painter's 
bent, where he appears as a sort of enameller or 
weaver of strange patterns in paint. Capable of 
amazing intensity of expression in such works as 
the Hercides and the Hydra ; of a haunting and 
musical vein of invention in his David, exhibited 
many years ago in London, or in that early and 
fascinating picture where a nymph passes holding 
the head of Orpheus, which is one of the gems of 
the Luxembourg, in the St. George he aims at 
the effect of some fairy tale in a picture \vhich is 
sudden and visionary in aspect, but not sufficiently 
fused or melodious. Compared with great painting 
and great drawing, Moreau's work is thin and 
feverish. Compared with what is often accepted as 
good painting and drawing — in the output of 
Courbet and Manet, for instance— it becomes pro- 
foundly sensitive and expressive. I owe to a 
malicious friend the statement that Moreau's later 
years were embittered by some photographs he 
saw of the work of Burne-Jones, in which he 
probably divined a coherence and element of 
fusion in which his work is lacking ; that he raged 
against Whistler and the Impressionists, feeling the 
vacancy of much of their work and the mental 
vulgarity and bigotry which characterize the 
followers of their cult. Moreau, Puvis and Degas 
once were friends ; with time their friendship 
wore badly, and each lived to deplore the blatancy 
of much contemporary painting without realizing 
that art can be good only with a few masters, and 
that the average tendencies are valueless now, as 
they have been in the past. 

The veteran academician Hebert (a pupil of 
Ricard) exhibits three pictures. These are at once 
interesting and unpleasant, though more significant 
than many pictures painted almost yesterday by 
other members of the old Salon. Together with 


The Franco-British Exhibition 

such veterans as J. P. Laurens and L. Bonnat (that 
noble collector of old and modern art) he stands 
far above the exhibits by the conservative section 
of the Salon. E. Detaille, with The Victims of Duty, 
achieves a triumph in all that art should not 
be. In vulgarity of conception, ugly colour and 
paint and nerveless drawing, this is easily the 
worst picture in the entire exhibition. I believe 
that no royalty in Europe has missed visiting 
this painter's studio. One feels that the German 
Emperor would give back the French pro- 
vinces to claim the art of Detaille for the 
Fatherland. Nothing in the English section shows 
so profound an indifference to all that makes for 
art. It is with a sigh of relief that one turns from 
such a work to the wall given over to the Impres- 
sionists. The great quality of fresh instinctive 
painting in the work of Manet was revealed to the 
English public some three years ago at the Grafton 
Galleries ; two important paintings of his (one of 
them a masterpiece) now represent him at Dublin. 
In the Franco-British Exhibition he is represented 
by Le Liseiir, an early and somewhat lifeless work, 
and by a large still-life, La Brioche, which is inky 
in tone — better, but not greatly so, than a good 
Vollon. The Jeanne represents a later phase of 
his practice which has influenced countless painters 
in the Salon. At his best Manet has painted en- 
chanting pictures ; at his worst his work merges 
into the output of a period which he helped to 
influence. Renoir fares better ; all his three works 
are typical, one of them. La Loge, counting among 
his best pictures. If Renoir is the most unequal 
painter of the nineteenth century he is at his 
best less impersonal in his outlook than his fellow 
Impressionists. If Manet saw actual local colour 
in broad sudden patches with something of the 
transposition in their relation which characterizes 
the vision of a man of defective eyesight, Renoir 
broods by preference over bright summer colours 
and sees them like a tangle of coloured silks. At 
the start his work was influenced by Fantin Latour. 
The singularly unequal quality of his output may 
be ascribed not merely to the tyranny of an 
acquired formula which has burdened most Impres- 
sionists but to failing health, some of his canvases 
having been painted of necessity with the left hand. 
The absence of Degas (probably at his express 
wish) renders the discussion of one of the most 
complex and fascinating personalities of the nine- 
teenth century beyond the scope of this article. 
The effect of the Impressionistgroup is unforeseen ; 
each of them, Monet even, seems tranquil in 
aspect when compared with the conventional works 
of the old Salon hanging by. Whatever may be 
the future estimate of the value of this school, both 
in conscious aim and in result, their practice shows 
always a genuine love of their profession and a 
genuine love of nature. The space at my disposal 
does not allow me to analyze and praise other 

quite modern works by friends and contemporaries. 
I can only express a genuine pleasure in seeing 
again pictures that I liked in my youth, such as 
Cazin's decoration and Besnard's charming por- 
trait group of his children. I am delighted to 
praise the St. John of Puvis de Chavannes which 
I admired in his studio, and to be able to state in 
print that it is time to do justice to Baudry. I am 
pained by the practical absence in both sections 
of a picture by a master and friend, A. Legros. 

Despite gaps in representation, errors in prece- 
dence, and the atmosphere of jobbery which cha- 
racterizes all universal exhibitions, there remains a 
fairly sequent series of representative works illus- 
trating the art of France in the nineteenth century. 
These are shown among others that are on the 
mental level with the switchbacks and other 
popular attractions of this show at Shepherd's 

Charles Ricketts. 


The British Art Committee of the Franco-British 
Exhibition, which includes so many presidents of 
different societies, might well have invited the 
directors of our permanent galleries to their 
august councils. Mr. Claude Phillips would 
surely have not been de trap, and Sir Charles 
Holroyd and Mr. D. S. MacColl with their 
wonderful and recently proved capacity for hang- 
ing, apart from their knowledge and sympathies 
in English art, might have prevented certain errors 
of omission and commission. All committees, 
especially in connexion with art, are of course a 
mistake. An ideal committee should consist of 
two persons with power to reduce their number ; 
Caesarism is the only possible alternative. Directors 
should be dictators. The great European collec- 
tions which we admire, whether in a municipal 
building or at an auction room, were formed 
by one man's taste or at one man's discretion. 
Nearer home, in a city seldom held up for a 
model, the admirable tyranny of Mr. Hugh P. 
Lane has brought together the finest public 
collection of modern pictures in existence, with 
the possible exception of those at Birmingham 
and Manchester. But the English rivals devoted 
years where Mr. Lane has given months to his 
objective. Even at Shepherd's Bush the most 
happily chosen group of modern pictures is to 
be found, not in the British Pavilion at all, but 
in the remote and otherwise foolish Irish Village. 
It is quite worth the extra sixpence, however, to 
see what the persuasive talent of Mr. Lane can 
achieve, and ethnologically to realise the un- 
expected Celtic talent in our midst. 

In this more democratic country nothing can 
be done without a committee ; else the public 
might suspect unfairness, prejudice and jealousy, 
characteristically un-English faults confined 

The Franco-British Exhibition 

entirely to other nations. The significant names of 
Mr. Francis Bate, of the New English Art Club, 
and Sir Charles Lawes-Wittewronge, Bart., seem 
guarantees that any mistakes are due not to 
insufficient knowledge of contemporary art, to 
prejudice, internal dissensions, lack of catholicity 
or taste. Wisely perhaps, it has been assumed 
that our French visitors will spend their Sundays, 
when the Exhibition is closed, at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club (in order to correct preconceived 
ideas of English pre-Reformation Art) or at the 
National and Tate Galleries, which fill up fairly 
enough the lacunae in a necessarily exiguous 
display. An invitation to tea with Mr. Herbert 
Trench at Richmond is the easiest way to become 
acquainted with the art of Mr. Wilson Steer, one 
of our leading landscape painters, of whom the 
French may have heard more than some of the 
committee seem to have done. Permission to 
visit the wonderful silk paintings of Mr. Charles 
Conder belonging to Mr. Edmund Davis will be a 
privilege such as the Exhibition does not afford : 
for one of the most original and exquisite English 
artists is unrepresented. 

English painting has always been a Cinderella 
among the schools of Europe. Denied or neglected 
abroad, her treatment at home has hardly been 
creditable to our patriotism. She has been hustled 
by her older and plainer sisters. Religion and 
Literature, who have pulled her ball dress to tatters 
in trying to get it on themselves, and have en- 
larged the glass slippers out of all recognition in 
order to fit their splay extremities. When she is 
allowed to be seen, she has always been arrayed as 
the handmaid of something. She has been a 
'tweeny' in the House of Intellect, the victim of 
kitchen politics below stairs ; she has suffered 
from a want of unity of purpose or singleness of 
aim ; she has had to please too many masters as 
well as herself — sometimes the public, sometimes 
the publican, the dealer, or the nonvcanx riches. She 
was snubbed by the church of the eighteenth cen- 
tury and rescued by the moralitarian in the nine- 
teenth ; and hers is the head on which all the odds 
and ends of the world are flung. No wonder the 
French critics find that our art is odd when it is 
subjected to such odd treatment by those at 

Who does not remember the shocking collection 
of British pictures in the Paris Exhibition of 1900 ? 
The impression left on the French critics was only 
partly modified by the small and rare collection of 
deceased masters at the English Pavilion in the Rue 
des Nations. At Shepherd's Bush we have risked 
a similar eventuality. In the Old Masters section, 
inadequate only perhaps owing to space, there is 
at all events evidence of an individual taste unrav- 
aged by the dissensions of a committee. Here are 
great masterpieces by Gainsborough : The Duchess 
of Cumberland and The Blue Boy, typical with 


others of English painting at its highest. They 
illustrate that Gothic element which Ruskin subtly 
detected in the most Romanesque of our portrait 
painters. Ruskin insists — and the point is not 
so fantastic as you would suppose — that Gains- 
borough is more interested in the faces of his sitters 
than in their bodies, in expression rather than form. 
This is true even of modern artists furthest re- 
moved from any Gothic inspiration ; note the 
portrait of Lord Robeiis by Charles Furse, that of 
a beloved servant of his government rather than 
an ideal general. How true even is it of Watts, 
the torch-bearer of tradition, the Italian tradition 
in English painting ! This was apparent at the 
New Gallery recently, where his picture hung be- 
side the Latin triumphs of France. Here, he is in 
an entirely Gothic environment and seems Latin 
enough by comparison. It is easy to understand 
why the French admire Lawrence so much more 
than we do ourselves ; why we underrate, and why 
they possibly overrate him. V'erlaine once ob- 
served in the course of a lecture that we were still 
Gothic in our art, our literature and our life, while 
France had put the Middle Ages away tenderly in 
a museum. Even S. Paul's — outwardly a Renais- 
sance building, if ever there was one — is con- 
structed on Gothic principles, and the pediment of 
the facade is, I am assured, only a gable. 

It must be remembered that the programme for 
English painting promulgated by Reynolds in his 
' Discourses ' was never carried out seriously ; all 
his recommendations were either ignored or 
actually reversed in practice ; he hardly took the 
trouble to carry all of them out himself. He im- 
plored the students to go to Italy and copy Old 
Masters ; they stayed at home and copied him ; 
or they took Gainsborough as their model and 
studied their own scenery as the Norwich painters 
did. The valuable Latin element in our art, such 
as it is, comes down, however, through Reynolds ; 
but it is a Latinism that has suffered a considerable 
sea change. It must be accepted that the English 
School has no Ingres, no Andrea del Sarto. Those 
conscientious painters who tried to carry out the 
recommendations of the great President failed 
dismally: they were splendidly null without being 
icily regular ; of them there are happily few or no 
examples at Shepherd's Bush, so far as the eigh- 
teenth century is concerned. But if portraiture is 
superbly represented by Hogarth, Reynolds, 
Hoppner and Rom'.ey, and other painters, the by 
no means lesser glory of English landscape is 
hardly allowed to shine. An entirely English 
landscape by Turner would have been more 
apposite than the beautiful Mercury and Herse or 
even than the noble Quillebceuf. The large picture 
ascribed to Cotman, the authenticity of which was 
canvassed when it was shown at Burlington House 
some years ago, is hung too high for examination. 
The Moonlight Scene given to old Crome is by his 

The FrancO'Eritish Exhibition 

son, John Berney Crome.* There is, however, a 
fine Wilson belonging to Mr. Harhmd Peck and a 
particularly excellent Ibbetson, who, in the absence 
of striking rivals, assumes greater importance than 
we should accord him. The Barker of Bath is 
unusually poor ; an opportunity has been lost for 
rehabilitating an undeservedly neglected Old 
Master. Though the large Dcdiiaiii ]^a!e will have 
a particular interest for French artists (who owe, 
traditionally, so much to a painter of whose tech- 
nique they must have hazy notions, if they examine 
the average Paris Constalsle), it was a pity to in- 
clude two smaller works one of which is by a well- 
known imitator, and the other, apparently, by a 
member of the Norwich School. 

If the Canlcibiiiy Pilgrims, by William Blake, 
was going to be hung at all, it should not have 
been skied. There are reasons, indeed, for placing 
it among the Preraphaelites as a kind of link or 
key to the school which owed something to the 
artist's inspiration. But it is, after all, an eighteenth- 
century criticism of mediaevalism, though painted 
in 1 8 ID, and Blake belongs to that century as much 
as the poet Gray. He was simply a Goth who 
woke up before the others ; and his was not a run- 
away knock at Strawberry Hill in the sense that 
Ciiatterton's undoubtedly was. The Pilgtiiiis should 
have been hung beside the Gainsboroughs and 
Keynoldses by way of contrast, in order to empha- 
size the important circumstance that the English 
School is ahvays one of surprises concerned with 
side issues ; anarchic, individual, and attracting 
genius into by-paths without unity of aim. 

The most conspicuous things in the Pre- 
raphaelite room are, symbolically enough, an 
emergency exit (occupying the place of honour) 
and ihe. Golden Slain o{ Burne-Jones, which seems 
a gracious and gentle ladder by which we can 
descend into the arena of contemporary art. But 
before we clutch the bannister let us pay homage 
to certain works — Lc Chant d'Ainonr of Burne- 
Jones, the gorgeous Autnnin Leaves of Millais, 
the radiant YVoik of Madox Brown, and (pretend- 
ing not to see The Blessed Dainosel) the Mariana 
and Bower Meadow of Rossetti — though neither of 
them can be reckoned among the artist's master- 
pieces. The rare and delightful Queen Gninevere 

• Mr. Ross's conclusion is natural enough, for the open texture 
of the piinting, as well as the subject, may seem at first sight 
to be more in (he manner of John Berney Crome than of his 
father. Yet many of those who have followed the career of the 
father and son with attention will feel that the superb painting 
of the orb of the moon and the mills in front of il has just that 
quality which the older man obtains in his happiest moments, 
but of which the son was never able to produce more than a 
rough imitation. The loose handling of the unfinished trees 
and foreground illustrates Crome's study of Gainsborough, 
whose influence is seen in Crome's sketches more frequently 
than in his pictures, which were usually worked up to the current 
ideals of finish. It may be permissible, therefore, to see in this 
Moonlight a noble unfinished study by John Crome, in spite of 
its external resemblance to the facile night pieces of his far less 
gifted son. — Ed. 

of William Morris is shamefully hung too high. 
It is one of the few pictures Morris ever painted, 
and technically it has a particular interest because 
the handling has not any apparent relation to 
Rossetti or Madox Brown. In its very dryness it 
is more mediaeval than any of their pictures, or 
that of the other Preraphaelites, save the early 
Magi by Burne-Jones. Though (to use a hateful 
word pregnant with possible error) it is entirely 
decorative, it has none of the falsehoods with 
which decoration, in its proper sense, must alone 
concern itself. Still, it is perfectly pictorial with 
all the wealth of accessory you find in a picture by 
Carpaccio or some Fleming. 

The Greeks very nearly solved in marble, 
assisted with colour, the problem of unifying 
truth and pattern which Morris has here 
attempted in oil : we are often deceived by 
the verisimilitude of their bas-relief ; but their 
sense of style provoked the necessary and in- 
valuable lie of isocephaly, by which even the 
youths and the horses of the Parthenon have no 
actuality. Pergamene realism, an unconscious 
longing for photography, brought antique art to 
an end long before its destruction by Roman 
connoisseurs. Hence the errors of Renaissance 
sculptors, who were deceived, partly by the 
antiques of a rather late date, and partly, along 
with the painters, by the still dimly understood 
aesthetics of Aristotle. A truth in decoration 
must be a pictorial fib ; or you relapse into 
admiration of views of towns on the more 
atrocious Worcester ware, Tintern Abbey on the 
coal-scuttle, and other examples of 'nature in art.' 
Morris came to believe that all pictures as separate 
entities were a mistake. In Queen GnineTere he 
seems to have been trying to effect a compromise 
by painting an isolated piece of decoration, which 
in another sense every picture becomes, if it be a 
good one. Yet it is a dangerous experiment, and 
its repetition became later on a stumbling block to 
the English School, though few will deny that 
Morris has succeeded delightfully. So-called 
decorati\e pictures painted without any relation 
to some definite place they are destined to occupy 
are usually dismal performances, even when tlie 
archaism and the conventionalism are not excuses 
for incompetence. Unusually well represented is 
another freak of the English School, Simeon 
Solomon, whom Burne-Jones is said to have 
appraised as the 'greatest artist of us all.' One of 
his best pictures, The Mother of Moses (badly 
hung), belonging to Mr. W. G. Rawlinson, when 
exhibited in the Academy called forth in the 
'Cornhiir the admiration of Thackeray, a surpris- 
ing champion. The Loi'e in U'inler, though weakly 
drawn, is also a beautiful example. Too many 
people only know of Solomon's hideous chalk 
drawings, which, executed when he was simk in 
the lowest depths of drink and misery, have no 


The Franco-British Exhibition 

artistic significance or interest. His early pictures 
go far to justify Burne-]ones's opinion of him. 
Though conveniently grouped with the Pre- 
raphaelites he is remote from the principles as 
practised by the brothers or as laid down for them 
by Ruskin ; nor did he follow the advice of the 
poet in the 'Bab Ballads' who took 'nature for 
his only guide.' 

An everyday tragedy in England is that other 
people manage your business better than you can 
yourself. That is why we are a God-fearing and 
interfering nation. Even the Preraphaelite man- 
ner was carried to greater perfection by those who 
were never members of the brotherhood. You 
could not find a better or more typical portrait of 
the school than the Mrs. Stephen Lewis of Frederick 
Sandys, an artist who must be seen in small quan- 
tities. A number of his works recently brought 
together showed that he never fulfilled his early 
promise ; and his recent work, like Solomon's, was 
detestable : he is seemingly ill at ease with his pig- 
ment, though his pen drawings are unsurpassable. 
That he was a Norwich painter gives him an 
historical importance of peculiar interest. 

The marvellous Val d'Aosta of Brett is in some 
ways the most remarkable picture in the room. 
Hardly with exaggeration it may be called the 
most astonishing landscape in the English School. 
It violates with breezy vigour every canon of land- 
scape, and was obviously painted on the eloquent 
prescription of Ruskin. Everything is there : 
nothing is suggested, nothing but the sleeping 
child in the foreground is composed. It 
treats the spectacle of mountain and meadow 
like a section of the human frame in a book 
on anatomy ; it might be a surgeon's note 
of his summer holiday ; or the frontispiece 
for a tract on the prevention of cruelty to 
landscape. Human ingenuity in paint could 
hardly go any further ; though art has often done 
so. At the same time, if we cannot accept it as a 
model of what landscape oughtto be, let us recognize 
its beauty and pay a tribute to the painter for his 
perfect success in what he attempted. He has 
tried what primitives tried charmingly enough 
in the backgrounds of their pictures — more 
especially the Flemings. But Brett's success 
seems to show the futility of the emprise ; he 
does not give us the same aesthetic pleasure 
that we derive from the stammering failures of 
the Old Masters ; this is art in \{s second childhood. 
Moreover, Brett, it must be noted, never followed 
up this daring tour dc force ; or that of the more 
beautiful Stotiebreaker, or the only less clever sea- 
scape, Britannia's Realm, neither of which are 
shown here. He became the commonplace deli- 
neator of sham realistic sea views. Truth, how- 
ever, he undoubtedly achieved, coming nearer to 
that combination of a truth in art and a truth in 
nature than almost any other English landscape 


painter. The great landscape painters willingly or 
unwillingly adjust the balance, faking one or the 
other scale. Wilson, Turner, Cotman and Crome 
and Constable selected, suppressed or emphasized. 
The artist's unalterable prerogative, of which Brett 
refused to avail himself, must not be confused 
with the doctrine of the Impressionists : the error 
of their critics, who complain of their lack of finish, 
or the error of their defenders who, maintain that 
there is nothing more to see or to be recorded. 
When a youthful enthusiast confessed to Ruskin 
that he thought the Val d'Aosta was better than 
Titian he was corrected by the sage, who replied, 
' Different from Titian.' We should compare it 
with such pictures as Crossing the Brook, by Turner, 
and others, where great distances are superbly 
rendered, or with such miserable productions as 
Over the Hills and Far Aicay (hung where Walker's 
Plough ought to have been). It is undoubtedly as 
different from them as from Titian. 

William Dyce's George Herbert at Beinerton is 
another interesting work by an unassociated Pre- 
raphaelite, wrought with greater skill than the 
originators sometimes commanded, always except- 
ing Millais, that great amphibian, who was half 
artist, half academician from his birth. 

No example of Edward Calvert — like his master 
Blake, a side issue in the English school — is to be 
found at Shepherd's Bush. One of his largest 
and most important pictures is at the Luxembourg, 
but he is unknown at the Tate or the National 
Gallery. French critics see in him, with all his 
defects of draughtsmanship, an interesting mani- 
festation of English art synchronizing with their 
own— Fantin Latour and Puvis, whose work he 
could never have seen. He is more Graeco-Latin 
than any Englishman. Again you lament the 
absence of George Richmond, the first English- 
man who could handle religious and historical sub- 
jects in oil (Blake never succeeded in that medium) 
without the insipidity characteristic of post-Refor- 
mation art. Alfred Stevens, our great, perhaps our 
only great, draughtsman, is also unrepresented. 
Since Whistler is included in the Black and White 
section of an exhibition where Mr. Pennell and 
Mr. Sargent are both exhibitors, why are there 
none of his pictures, which liave so profoundly 
influenced the younger generation ? This parti- 
cular omission is inexcusable. 

In the water-colour rooms, where you would 
have thought the committee might have roused 
itself to justify almost the only artistic reputa- 
tion we have in France, the display is quite 
deplorable. Some brilliant Rossettis (notably 
Ophelia's Madness and the superb Paolo and 
Francesca), The Green Summer and Backgammon 
by Burne-Jones illuminate one wall ; and others 
by J. F. Lewis and Ruskin are all worth careful 
study. But the famous early English water-colour 
school to which Britons are patriotically attached 

The Franco-British Exhibition 

Cand generally spoil with gold mounts) like Uncle 
Adam in Stevenson's story make 'an awful poor 
appearance.' There is nothing absolutely dazzling 
by Turner ; the John Robert Cozens is a wretched 
specimen ; Cotman is absent ; and there is only 
one Girtin. We can only goodhumouredly echo 
the hearty laughter of the French visitors over 
this particular section on a day when there was 
nothing much to laugh at. How much better if 
all the pictures had been chosen by Mr. Marion 
Spielmann, whose taste is obvious in such excel- 
lent choice as there is ; or to any ONE member of 
the committee, however much you might have 
deprecated his selection. 

The charming Renaissance of Venus by Mr. 
Walter Crane is a fair haven from which to 
embark on a rapid survey of the modern section 
of British painting. This was first exhibited in 
1877 and became the property of Watts, who 
particularly admired it. The year was an event- 
ful one, because it saw the opening of the Gros- 
venor Gallery, which was destined to be the focus 
of much ridicule, and for many years the home of 
pictures condemned bytheauthoritiesat Burlington 
House, although the Guelphs often hung side by 
side with Ghibellines, and the wise and foolish 
virgins lit their lamps at the same hospitable shrine. 
The Preraphaelites were settling down to a languid 
aestheticism ; Rossetti was never an exhibitor ; and 
the Impressionists were making their first public 
manifesto in London. The more particularly 
esteemed pictures from these schools belong per- 
haps to an earlier date ; but, apart from this, it is 
informing to glance at the catalogue and to realize 
the artists whom Sir Coutts Lindsay on his own 
initiative was able to muster. The gallery con- 
tained no less than seven Whistlers (including the 
Henry living), two masterpieces by Watts {The 
Hon. Mrs. Percy Wytuihani and Love and Death), 
three Albert Moores, eight Burne-Joneses (includ- 
ing Merlin, The Days of Creation, and I'enus's 
Mirror), four Holman Hunts, and other works by 
artists now seen in Shepherd's Bush. And this 
was no retrospective exhibition ; Venus, indeed, 
had risen from the sea ! It will, of course, be 
urged that we cannot replace the immortal dead. 
But I believe that it would have been perfectly 
possible to have filled the galleries at Shepherd's 
Bush with an exhibition of liz'ing artists quite as 
remarkable as the Grosvenor of 1877. 

With all respect to a much-advertised tea, I 
refuse to believe that the leaves of thirty years ago 
are more delicious than those of to-day. Only the 
selection must not be made by a committee, or art 
politics will interfere. W^hy has Mr. MacColl's 
only water colour been placed on a level with the 
visitor's boots ? Why is Professor Tonks repre- 
sented by only one small picture, which is skied ? 
As an official, quite apart from his unique position 
as an artist whose vigorous influence has produced 

such noble results, he was entitled to more honour. 
Where are the Strolling Players :ind Rosamund and 
the Purple Jar? Where 'is Mr. W'ilson Steer's 
Hydrangeas and Nidderdale ? and where, indeed, 
is Mr. Steer's picture at all ? In the catalogue it is 
well named That's for Thoughts. The Doll's House 
of Mr. Rothenstein has lost none of its sombre 
power, and is one of the fine things possible to see. 
Two characteristic and beautiful pictures, the 
Delia of Mr. Charles Shannon and Supper Time of 
Mr. Strang, are so ingeniously placed as to be 
quite invisible. 

Even the Academicians are not too well repre- 
sented, with the exception of Mr. Sargent, Sir 
Laurence Alma Tadema, Mr Alfred East and Sir 
Edward Poynter. From the President's point of 
view, which may not be precisely that of the 
advanced critic or artist, his portrait of Mrs. 
Murray Guthrie is a singularly beautiful picture, 
to which the model has contributed no small 
share. The accomplishment of the painting 
is, as they say, a lesson for all of us. And if 
Atalanta's Race be a trifle empty for its length, 
we may learn from it why the Academy has 
sometimes lost time by stopping to pick up the 
apples discarded by those who are making for the 
goal. From Sir William Richmond should have 
been extracted the splendid Bismarck, or, if that 
was inappropriate for an exhibition intended to 
dazzle the French, his portrait of William Morris 
and A Memory of Sparta, the most poetical of all 
his paintings. Neither the Borgia nor any others 
shown by Kir. Orchardson betray his power for 
conjuring incident into the dimensions of paint ; 
they would hardly explain to a practical French 
visitor his deseived and recent triumphs in the 
auction room. The wonderful precision of Sir 
Alma Tadema is, however, admirably presented, 
and Mr. Alfred East, who never seems quite satisfied 
with his academic flag, by a fascinating landscape, 
The Shepherd's Walk at Windernicie. It is pleasant 
to see the Derby Day of Mr. Frith in its present sur- 
roundings. This is essentially a picture for a popu- 
lar exhibition, a national treasure like the Crystal 
Palace or Osborne. Among artistsa morbid reaction 
in its favour has very properly begun. Though it can 
never occupy the same position in the heads of the 
English critics that it does in the hearts of Eng- 
lish landladies, it is impossible not to admire the 
invention and skill of a painting that is most 
certainly a document in the social, if not the artistic 
history of England. The articulation of gesture, 
the variety of attitude in the figures, the absence 
of monotony, make it a real triumph, not exactly 
of art but of English painting. Intrinsically how 
far more artistic it is than many so-called classic 
and idealistic pictures of the nineteenth century — 
those of Lcighton for example, or rather not for 
example but for instance! Mr. Frith's directness 
and materialism are ever so much more valuable 


The Franco-British Exhibition 

than the false subtleties of fancy painting such as 
you get in Pinweil and Walker, with their Evan- 
gelical aestheticism and wobbly execution. No 
wonder some of the younger men, such as Mr. 
Orpen and Mr. McEvoy, seem to derive more from 
Mr. Frith than from the theatrical properties of 
the pseudo-romantics, the heavy-weights in the 
English School of signed artist proofs. Mr. Orpen is 
seen to advantage in The Valuers ; though his work 
in Mr. Lane's Irish Gallery ought not to be missed, 
where may also be seen Mr. Gerald Kelly's strik- 
ing portrait of the dramatic sensation, Mr. Somerset 
Maugham, and the lovely pictures of Mr. Charles 
Shannon (Mrs. Patrick Campbell and the Hcnncs). 
Of those who in spite of all temptations remain 
English, Mr. Augustus John may be congratulated 
on the finest portrait. Professor Mackay, in the 
whole of the modern section. It is more likely 
to convert waverers to a belief in the artist's genius 
than the wilful and wayward Seraphita, who, how- 
ever, should have been here because of the interest 
she would have had for our French critics with 
their stagey ideas of the English 'Miss' and the 
ordinary Alpine climber en route for Switzerland. 
Here at all events is an artist to whom we 
may point when foreigners remind us that 
Mr. Sargent is an American trained in Paris and 
that English painters cannot draw. However 
glad we may be to see Isabella and the Pot of Basil 
by Mr. Holman Hunt,Tlte Strayed Sheep or The Hire- 
ling SJiepherd should have been secured because of 
their importance in modern English landscape, of 
which they were, in one sense, pioneers. The 
treatment of shadow in The Hireling Shepherd was 
without precedent in English painting. Though the 
Scotch do themselves fairly well, Mr. Hornel has 
been much too modest ; it would have been agree- 
able to see again Tlie Druids and Among the Wild 
Hyacinths shown in that last sensational death-bed 
confession of the Grosvenor Gallery. The cor- 
poration of Liverpool contributes the famous 
Idyll of Mr. Greifenhagen ; and another picture 
which ought never to have been hung in the 
limited space at the disposal of the committee ; 
it is a monstrous work in both senses of the word. 
The section devoted to modern w-atercolour 
can only be described as unrepresentative, and 
that to black-and-white as ingeniously misrepre- 
sentative. There are, however, good things by 
Mr. Pennell, Mr. Muirhead Bone, Miss Airy and 
two atrociously framed Aubrey Beardsleys. 

If English artists are neglected on the continent 
or at home, they always take it out of sculpture, on 
the principle of the child who, itself in disgrace, 
punishes its doll. The images at Shepherd's Bush 
are all arran'ged on the lines of Madame Tussaud. 
French and American visitors will, of course, 
admire Mr. Harvard Thomas's Tencrnm Lycidan 
quo calet juvcntus nunc omnis, and about whom 
the Academy was tepid. The strange, archaistic 

beauty of this work cannot be seen to advantage 
in its present position, but its stylistic qualities 
irresistibly recall the great pre-Pheidian masters— 
the body and shoulders the primitive ' Strangford' 
or ' Omphalos ' Apollos. There are several delight- 
ful statues by Mr. Gotto, whose Sliuger, however, 
seems to have borrowed the feet of a Rodin ; 
Tigers, by Mr. Swan ; and by Mr. W. B. Fagan 
there is a pretty little head (No. 1,274), easy to find 
because it is near a door. With few exceptions, 
'degli altri fia laudabile il tacerci ' in the words of 
the most sculpturesque of poets. 

Robert Ross. 


Among the significant events which remain in the 
popular mind as landmarks, the Great Exhibition of 
1 85 1 has secured a fame comparable to that of the 
Battle of Waterloo ; nor is that fame undeserved. 
The exhibition was a real landmark, and that in 
more worlds than one. In the world of politics 
it was the culminating point of the era of opti- 
mism which grew up with the peace of Europe after 
the fall of the first Napoleon, which was shaken by 
three great Continental wars, and which only the 
gloomy close of the nineteenth century could 
effectually dissipate. In the world of art the 
exhibition was no less memorable. It marked 
the climax of a particular phase of ostentatious 
vulgarity, of a pride in mere elaborate mechan- 
isrn that brought about the great reaction which 
in painting we associate with the Preraphaelites, in 
criticism with Ruskin, and in the field of the 
applied arts with William Morris. 

The development of the applied arts in France 
and England has, however, been conducted on 
separate and divergent lines, as an inspection of 
the ' Palaces ' of English and French Applied and 
Decorative Arts at the Franco-British Exhibition 
will prove. It may be said at once that the display 
is neither as fine nor as striking as might have 
been expected, and that it is almost wholly 
commercial in character, while the lateness of the 
date at which the French sections were ready for 
examination put a serious difficulty in the way of 
comparison. Several of the exhibitors, especially 
among the goldsmiths and silversmiths, have made 
the mistake of trying to show too much, and 
loading their stalls and windows with a mass of 
unremarkable objects, where one or two interesting 
pieces would both have attracted more attention 
and testified more eloquently to the quality of the 
work done by the firms in question. Amid much 
that is uninteresting and some things that are 
unworthy of a place in anything but an ordinary 
shop window, it is possible, however, to form 
some idea of the condition of the applied arts in 
the two countries, and to trace the different 
influences which account for the divergence. 
International exhibitions of any kind do not, 



The Franco-British Exhibition 

perhaps, offer a perfectly fair ground of com- 
parison between nation and nation. They have 
always to be organized on a more or less commercial 
basis, and it is inevitable, therefore, that even in 
exhibits of the decorative arts the influence of the 
man of business should often — perhaps in the 
majority of cases — somewhat overshadow the 
results produced by the artist and the craftsman. 
In this respect neither the French nor the British 
section can claim a decisive superiority. The 
older English firms, it is true, make no very 
reprehensible concessions to the tourist public, and 
the exhibits of Messrs. Elkington, Messrs. Garrard, 
Messrs. Mappin and Webb, and the Goldsmiths 
and Silversmiths Company are as free from the 
appearance of mere window display as are the 
exliibits of two or three of their important French 
competitors such as MM. Christofle or Susse. 

A comparison of the two sections reveals one 
radical difference between the products of the 
two countries. The best English work is based 
entirely upon English designs of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, and in some instances 
this reliance upon past designs goes so far that 
fine pieces of old plate are exhibited side by side 
with good modern facsimiles. Where our plate 
is not based upon these old models (as in the case 
of certain exhibits of sporting trophies and the 
like) it follows the base examples of the Victorian 
epoch, and, though frequently elaborate in 
execution, it is at once put out of court by its 
meretricious pomposity. A large proportion of the 
pieces, however, are reproductions of older models, 
and, since most of those models were in one way 
or another excellent of their kind, the general 
effect is good, even if it be somewhat lacking in 
originality. It was perhaps somewhat unfortunate 
for England that two or three of the independent 
craftsmen, whose work we have from time to time 
admired at the New Gallery and elsewhere, could 
not have been given a prominent place. Such 
work as that of Mr. Cooper, for example, would 
have strengthened the English section considerably, 
even if it had made its appearance under the wing of 
one of the great manufacturing firms, who naturally 
command the most prominent positions. 

We miss, in fact, that element of independent 
craftsmanship which the Arts and Crafts Society 
introduced and has so creditably maintained, and 
are driven to recognize that a large majority of 
our designers are still anonymous workers in the 
employ of great commercial houses. It is thus as 
commercial workers that they have to be noticed 
in any description of the show at Shepherd's Bush. 
Yet if their woik were no more th.ui mechanical 
manufacture it would not deserve mention, and the 
mere fact that it is mentioned, even under a trade 
description, should be taken to imply that in such 
cases the tradesman has not quite overwhelmed 
the artist. 

When we turn to the French section we find a 
somewhat different state of affairs. Here two 
tendencies seem to be at work. First we have to 
face an old, and possibly moribund, ideal of minute, 
skilful finish applied to objects of no artistic 
importance (such as handles for ladies' parasols 
and small trinkets), yet applied to them with a 
certain conscientious perfection that is not without 
merit of a kind. In the combination of pretty 
enamels with highly wrought goldsmiths' work 
the French craftsnieii show" undeniable capacity. 
The designs may not be of a very high order, and 
the work may be no more than rather expensive 
shopwork, but still, in its way, it has a daintiness 
and appropriateness to feminine uses that ought 
not to be underestimated. It is distinctly ingenious 
and pretty, and from the aesthetic point of view is 
perhaps no less meritorious than that rigid absten- 
tion from the ornate which, combined with perfect 
workmanship, is its Bond Street equivalent. 

This, however, appears to be a moribund craft, if 
we may judge from its present representation. 
The more elaborate French exhibits, almost without 
exception, display a very different tendency. ' L'art 
nouveau ' is a phrase vulgarized by advertisement, 
discussion and abuse. It was wholly English in 
its origin. William Morris was its grandfather, the 
Arts and Crafts Society its parent, 'The Studio' its 
foster-mother. In Great Britain its influence was 
on the whole healthy and stimulating, but when it 
once started its career on the continent that career 
speedily became one of riot. Where it came upon 
new civilizations the results, as might be expected, 
were disastrous, and, like Frankenstein's monster, 
it now threatens to overwhelm central Europe 
with its monstrous progeny. 

In France, however, it met with a stable civiliza- 
tion and an organized system of taste just on the 
point of revoltmg from the crude display of the 
Third Empire inlfavour of the barocco elegance of 
the eighteenth century. That reaction was so 
strong that the Arts and Crafts movement could 
not overwhelm it. It was driven to make terms of 
peace, and the French section of the Exhibition 
is everywhere influenced by the resulting com- 
promise. The sweeping curves that in Eastern 
Europe either run wild riot or are contrasted with 
solid masses of Egyptian severity, in France take 
on something of the character of an eighteenth- 
century festoon, and burst everywhere into artificial 
blossom. The result is ornate and sometimes 
extravagant ; it is rarely or never wholly satisfying. 
The easy sweep of the curvature, the skilful work- 
manship of the elaborate leafage, the carefully 
' matted ' surfaces have a mechanical effect. i"'-'y 
would make admirable decoration for the dinner 
table of an expensive hotel, but in a private house 
they would be tiresome. 

If we compare them with fine examples of b rencU 
eighteenth-century work wc shall see m a moment 


The Franco-British Exhibition 

where the weakness lies. That admirable school 
of craftsmanship was permeated from first to last 
by a very real feeling for design and proportion. A 
mount by Caflieri, for example, is not a mere 
exuberant flourish, but a deliberate construction 
carefully calculated to serve the particular end in 
view. In the modern work we no longer see the 
same careful foresight to preserve a just relation 
between plain and decorated surfaces, between 
large curves and small, between the rigid lines 
which make for architectural stability and the 
flowing lines which give energy and life. Every- 
thing has been sacrificed either to exuberant ease 
or to an insensitive simplicity that results both 
in stiffness and emptiness. 

Perhaps the most instructive of all the exhibits 
in this section is that contributed liy the Adminis- 
tration des Monnaieset Medailles. In numismatics 
the French, for a century or more, have been 
immeasurably our superiors. As a race they have 
a certain natural aptitude for sculpture which we 
do not possess. In France an Alfred Stevens 
would be no solitary phenomenon, but would 
appear only as the natural culmination of a wide- 
spread national talent. The early French medals 
are of surpassing interest, whether our inclination 
lead us to linger over the terrible indictment of 
Charles X, over Mary Queen of Scots as wife of 
the Dauphin, over Louis XIV aping Alexander the 
Great, or over the wise Colbert. Later, after a 
period of florid decadence, excellent work is done 
under the influence of classical models, and 
Euainetos is seen to be the true originator of one 
of the most successful of modern coin designs, as 
well as of what is perhaps the most perfect 
Hellenic example. 

Once more, however, as in the case of the 
decorative metal work, ' L'art nouveau ' steps in to 
modify and improve with the most deplorable 
results. The old sense of refined proportion at 
once vanishes under the impulse of the new 
movement, and in no art is refined proportion so 
vital and essential as in that of the numismatist. 
The circular medallic form is discarded for 
honorary purposes in favour of a rectangular 
plaque, on which the design loses all the signifi- 
cance it might have secured by subtle spacing, 
while to make matters worse the actual surface of 
the metal, to which the medallist looks for his 
most delicate gradations, his rarest hints and 
suggestions of modelling or character, is obscured 
by a uniform artificial dulling or roughening, which 
makes the noblest material look like cheap alloy 
or coarse electrotype. The art that could with- 
stand such ubiquitous assaults would indeed be a 
great art ; and nothing proves the essential vitality 
of French sculpture more conclusively than the 
fact that a certain remnant of grace and style 
survives even in these degraded plaquettes. Nor 
is it for us to throw stones. Our own numismatic 


art hab sunk into such a slough of hopeless official 
and commercial conventionality that even these 
misguided French examples seem by comparison 
to have both style and spirit. 

Had the sections devoted to furniture and the 
allied industries in France been in a more forward 
state of preparation, it would have been easier to 
form a fair estimate of their importance. When 
these notes were made it was difficult to see any 
marked indication of originality, either in design 
or manufacture, the principal firms being appar- 
ently content with tolerably skilful reproductions 
of eighteenth-century patterns. Nor among the 
minor English exhibits was there much that 
seemed to call for special notice, while the large 
English manufacturers of furniture do not seem 
to have patronized the Palaces of the Applied Arts. 

The principal interest of the English furniture 
section was thus concentrated upon the objects 
shown by the chief dealers in antique furniture, 
and upon the work of a few firms of decorators. 
The foremost place was undoubtedly taken by a 
series of three rooms, representing the styles of 
William and Mary, of George I and George III. 
These rooms were the joint product of three 
firms, Messrs. Cardinal and Harford supplying the 
carpets, and Messrs. Mallett the furniture, while 
the decoration in each case was carried out by 
Messrs. White Allom. All did their work well, 
but a word of special praise is due to the excellent 
taste which governed the decorative schemes. 
The peculiar serenity of the old panelling was 
most happily caught, its restful quality being 
made doubly pleasant from the contrast it 
provided to the more florid style of eighteenth- 
century France. The carpet in the Chippendale 
room was also attractive. 

On the opposite side of the gallery Messrs. 
Hampton showed a panelled room copied to scale 
from one at Hatfield. It did not, however, 
show quite to the same advantage as the rooms 
previously mentioned ; possibly because a setting 
of solid oak is really best suited to the country, 
to rooms often flooded with sunlight, and to an 
outlook upon green lawns and bright gardens, or, 
in the evening, to the cheerful glow of a log fire 
upon an open hearth. In the glare and bustle of 
an exhibition its homeliness is out of place. If 
the panels are on a modest scale they tend to look 
forlorn, if on a large scale they may seem heavy 
and pompous. The loan collection of furniture 
arranged close by contains some notable pieces, 
among them one of the sumptuous chairs from 
Knole, and an exceedingly curious example of 
Chippendale's carving in the Chinese manner ; 
but its usefulness and interest would be greatly 
increased if the specimens had been properly 
described and catalogued.' 

^Tlie so-called Official Guide sold in the exhibition is even 
more comically inadequate in its treatment of the sections o£ 

The Franco-British Exhibition 

The centre of the gallery, like the sides, is largely 
occupied with loans ; the collection of Old English 
glass and Worcester china being specially good, 
and contrasting strongly with the modern products 
of the same kind shown elsewhere. A curious set 
of parcel gilt plates, engraved after Aldegrever's 
prints representing The Labours of Hercules, also 
deserves notice. The most prominent object in 
this section, however, was the large satinwood 
cabinet made for Charles IV of Spain, lent by 
Mr. R. W. Partridge. Designed by Sir William 
Chambers, painted by Hamilton, and made in 
1793 by Seddon, Sons, and Shackleton, it represents 
an effort, unusual if not unique, in English work, 
though comparatively common among the French 
i'heiiistes, to raise the art of furniture-making into 
the regions of architecture. Had it been their 
national intention to rival the French cabinet- 
makers in their own field, the English could have 
chosen no greater designer than Sir William 
Chambers, and something of the massive grandeur 
of the fafade of Somerset House is evident in his 
design. William Hamilton, too, was admirably 
fitted to second Chambers, and his panels of the 
Four Seasons, of Fire and Water, of Night and 
Morning, of Juno and of Ceres, are as fortunate 
specimens of decorative work as eighteenth- 
century England could show. Like some of its 
French rivals, the piece combines the functions 
of a bureau, a jewel-case and a dressing-table. 
The workmanship without and within is of extra- 
ordinary nicety and elaboration. So elaborate 
indeed is the cabinet that it is only on detailed 
examination that its merits can be properly judged, 
and at Shepherd's Bush it suffers for want of an 
appropriate background. A French piece of the 
same importance would suffer less, for experience 
had taught the French designers the advantage of 
making cabinets compact like a decorated chest. 
Chambers, making a single excursion into an 
unaccustomed field, relied upon his architectural 
experience and, giving free play to his fancy, 
designed not so much a piece of furniture for a 
mansion or a palace as a wonderful building of 
carved and painted wood, unrelated to any scheme 
of interior decoration. 

As we have seen, the decorative arts in England 
are represented chiefly by wise reliance upon past 
models, but one or two specimen rooms indicate 
other tendencies that are at work side by side with 
this skilful antiquarianism. The famous firm of 

Applied and Decorative Art than sucti publications are wont to 
be. In this respect, indeed, the whole exhibiiion compares 
most unfavourably with its primitive fore runners in Soutli 
Kensington. There the official catalogues at least gave a more 
or less detailed synopsis of the principal objects on view, instead 
of devoting themselves largely to what may he termed the swing 
and roundabout departments of the fair. 

Morris & Co., for example, contribute some 
elaborate specimens of their craftsmanship, which 
serve alike to illustrate the development of the Arts 
and Crafts movement in England and to form a 
link with the kindred work tliat is being dime on 
the continent. The exhibit of Messrs. Godfrey 
Giles suggests a possibility of development in 
another direction. Here the scheme of decoration 
seems to be controlled by very practical considera- 
tions, and is carried out with attractive wallpapers 
that can be washed, and cushions stuffed with 
springs instead of horsehair ; in fact it almost 
seems as if the increasing strictness of our views 
upon sanitation and personal cleanliness might 
react in time upon the decorative arts and supply 
them with a fresh stimulus, at least so far as 
dwellings in crowded cities are concerned. The 
word ' sanitation ' does not naturally suggest things 
of beauty, and customs die hard, but if it were 
possible to speculate with any certainty on the 
tendencies of the future, it would not be unreason- 
able to recognize the probability that the next 
development of decorative art for town dwellings 
will take a channel more consonant with the laws of 
healthy life than several past fashions have followed. 
Yet the exhibition as a whole can only be 
described as disappointing so far as the decorative 
arts are concerned. It is not that things rare, 
curious and beautiful are lacking, but rather that 
the good things appear to have come there by 
chance, and not as the outcome of any reasonable 
organized plan. Valuable objects seem to have 
been plumped down haphazard in the middle of a 
cheap bazaar ; sections to be classified without 
principle, and arranged without method. So far 
as it was possible to judge in the midst of this 
confusion, certain important arts, such as those 
connected with textiles, were not represented at all 
in any serious sense of the word ; for such exhibits 
as there were seemed aimed only to catch the 
attention of the people who crowd to 'sales' in 
Oxford Street. Possibly the organizers of these 
shows know their public ; but we cannot help 
thinking that if they had tried to make the arts 
section into an organized and representative whole, 
instead of leaving it in the condition of a slipshod 
emporium, they would have served their public 
just as well and the exhibiting firms much better. 
A combined show of the industrial arts of France 
and England would have been an immensely inte- 
resting and attractive thing. As it is, this section 
is saved from being a fiasco by the enterprise of 
the few firms, who have taken matters more or less 
seriously. We do not perhaps realize how high is 
the average of their taste, till we light upon a 
certain sideboard of specimen woods in the New 
Zealand Palace. 




VALUABLE additiun to the 

National Portrait Gallery has 

recently been niade by the pur- 

I chrise of a small panel portrait 

iof the Lady Margaret Beaufort, 

I Countess of Richmond and 

Derbv, the mother of King 

^______^_ .Henry VII. The Lady Mar- 

g'aret, as she was usually styled, was the only child 
and heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, 
and grandchild of John Beaufort, first Duke of 
Somerset, the eldest of the three legitimated sons 
of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the fourth 
son of King Edward III. The extinction of the 
House of Lancaster in the male line at the death 
of King Henry VI left the Lady Margaret with a 
claim to the crown of England. She was born in 
1441, and at the age of fourteen only was married 
to King Henry Vl's half-brother, Edmund Tudor, 
Earl of Richmond, who died in the following 
year, leaving her with an infant son — Henry, Earl 
of Richmond, afterwards King Henry VII. Three 
years later the Lady Margaret was re-married to Sir 
Henry Stafford, who died in 1472, in which year 
she was married for the third time to Thomas 
Stanley, second Earl of Derby, who was greatly 
instrumental in securing the crown for his step-son, 
Henry VII. In later years the Lady Margaret, 
who was devoted to works of piety and charity, 
took religious vows, and under the influence of 
Bishop Fisher she founded the colleges of St. John's 
College and Christ's College at Cambridge, and 
professorships of divinity at both Oxford and 

Cambridge. She survived her son 



VII, but died only a few months after the acces- 
sion of her grandson. King Henry VIII, in 1509, 
when, as Fisher declared, 'all England for her 
death had cause of weeping.' 

The portraits hitherto known of the Lady 
Margaret appear to be in every case memorial 
portraits, painted for her numerous charitable or 
learned foundations, and representing her in a 
religious habit, with an austere and somewhat 
severe expression. The portrait recently acquired 
for the National Portrait Gallery shows the 
Lady Margaret in a more youthful and more pleas- 
ing aspect. She is seen to below the waist, stand- 
ing or kneeling, in a conventional attitude of 
prayer. She wears a tight-fitting chocolate-brown 
robe, gathered in small pleats across the bosom and 
cut open at the neck withagrey edging, above which 
is a black wimple entirely covering the neck and 
reaching up to but not extending over the chin. 
The dress has grey fur cuffs at the wrists. Over the 
head she wears two (or possibly three) hoods. The 
outer hood is of light brown brocade patterned 
silk, edged with a broad white border on which is 


a bold floriated pattern, and studded with rubies and 
pale blue sapphires along the outer edge. The inner 
hood, or hoods, consists of a light white patterned 
hood, surmounting, or bordered by, a fine white 
cambric hood or veil, which falls over the face, and 
is transparent enough to enable the portion of the 
eye and eyelid over which the veil falls to be seen 
through the tissue of the cambric. The delicate, 
ascetic but still youthful features have an earnest 
look, the eyes being pale grey, and the well-shaped 
lips slightly tinted with pale red. The outer hood 
is lined with a dark brown material covered with 
a criss-cross pattern, which can be seen in the 
shadow above the shoulder. Her hands are clasped 
in prayer, and she wears rings on the first, third 
and fourth fingers. The knuckles and wrinkles of 
the skin on the finger are carefully drawn in a 
somewhat mechanical manner, and the shape of 
the finger nails is carefully outlined. The back- 
ground is dark olive-green with a diaper pattern 
showing the portcullis, the badge of the Beaufort 
family. In the upper left-hand corner are the 
armorial bearings of France and England within 
a borduregobonny,the armsof the Beaufort family, 
in a lozenge-shaped shield denoting a woman and 
an heiress. Round the lozenge has been added at 
an early but later date a dark escutcheon made out 
to carry the inscription, MARGARETA MATER 
The painting, which is in excellent preservation, is 
painted on an oaken panel, measuring about 
17 by 12^ inches. It may have been the wing of a 
diptych, the dexter wing of which may have been 
destroyed at the Reformation. 

A special interest attaches itself to this portrait 
in that it represents a lady of English birth painted 
some time before the close of the fifteenth century. 
The style of painting separates it from the purely 
Flemish school, and leads one to think that the 
portrait is really of English origin. There is a 
directness, a matter-of-fact look, and a sobriety 
about the portrait which suggest an English, as 
opposed to a Flemish, or even a French origin. 
There is no trace, again, of the hand of a miniature 
painter, accustomed to paint in little — a branch of 
the arts which was up to a certain date brought 
to particular excellence by artists of purely Eng- 
lish origin. Considering the quiet, secluded life 
which the Lady Margaret lived, as far removed as 
possible from the turmoil of politics and warfare, 
her mind set upon religion, charity, learning, and 
the welfare of her poorer brethren, it would not be 
surprising to find her also as the patron of artists, 
and the rival therein of her contemporary, another 
Margaret, the famous regent of the Netherlands. 

The picture was formerly in the collection of 
Viscount Powerscourt, and was purchased in 1 883 



A Recent Addition to the National Portrait Gallery 

by Messrs. H. Graves and Co., who resold it 
immediately. It was purchased for the National 
Portrait Gallery at Christie's on January, 27th. 1908, 

at a sale of pictures belonging to the late Mr. 
Edward J. Stanley, of ^Quantock Lodge, Bridg- 


^Jm BY C. J. HOLMES c9^ 

LTHOUGH in England of 
recent years we have become 
familiar with the productions 
of what is commonly called 
I the Romantic movement on 
' the continent, as a nation we 
possess hardly any pictorial 
.documents that bear upon its 
To trace the process of transition from 
the art of the eighteenth century to the art of the 
nineteenth century on the continent, we must still 
turn to the Louvre. At the moment, however, there 
is a picture on exhibition in London which illus- 
trates so aptly the great period of transition between 
the past and the present that it calls for some 
notice quite apart from its intrinsic excellence. The 
Passage of the Ravine by Gericault, which was 
on view in Messrs Obach's galleries last month 
and is reproduced here by their permission, may 
indeed be regarded as a typical example of the 
spirit in which arose the revolution against the 
classical conventions of the eighteenth century 
and all the limitations of artistic enterprise which 
those conventions implied. 

Not that Gericault can be regarded as the 
first revolutionary. From time to time writers on the 
great masters of the eighteenth century have dis- 
covered in one or the other of them the germ of the 
movement which was to be the predominating fea- 
ture of the nineteenth century. Yet even Chardin 
— of all masters perhaps the one whose detachment 
from his age was most complete, whose freedom 
from the grandiose or luxurious ideals of con- 
temporary patronage was most conspicuous — even 
Chardin was not a revolutionary. He was but a 
gifted successor of a tradition, less highly honoured 
perhaps, but in its degree no less firmly established 
than the traditions on which the other painters 
of his age composed their flamboyant heroics, 
posed their self-conscious portraits, or built up 
their enchanting paste-board Arcadias. 

The art of the nineteenth century was also 
to be heroic, but its heroics were the heroics of a 
nation still living and fighting the world for its 
existence, not the heroics of nations that had fought 
for existence two thousand years ago. The true 
beginning of the change was made by Napoleon, 
when he employed Gros, the pupil of David, to 
celebrate his military triumphs. In Gros's return, 
after the fall of Napoleon, to the rigid classicism 
of his master, and in the tragedy which ended 
his career, we seem to have evidence that Gros 

was a revolutionary malgre liii. With all his 
gifts — and it is folly not to recognize that they 
were considerable — he was from first to last a 
follower rather than a leader. Before and after 
his connexion with Bonaparte he was a blind 
slave of David : in the interval he was the blind 
slave of the Emperor. 

Much as Napoleon may have desired to per- 
petuate his personal fame through the grandiose 
formulae by which the triumphs of Alexander or 
the Horatii had been introduced to the national 
imagination, his own dramatic sense constantly 
inclined him to make a warmer and more direct 
appeal to his people. This human, emotional 
element underlies all the dignified phrasing of his 
pulilic pronouncements, and is the inspiration of 
the great series of pictures which Gros executed 
for him. In them the stiffness of the old formulae 
of design is exchanged for life, freedom and move- 
ment ; the colour is made warm and glowing ; 
while the figures themselves are represented in the 
dresses they might actually be supposed to have 
worn, instead of in the togas and buskins of anti- 

It is no wonder that the appeal to the public 
was immediate and forcible, or that, when with the 
return of the Bourbons Gros reverted to the 
manner of David, the reversion was regarded by 
independent minds as a ridiculous anachronism. 
He had opened the floodgates of freedom and 
was overwhelmed by the torrent that poured 

Between Delacroix, the chief of this band of 
liberators, and Gros, the unfortunate pioneer of 
freedom, the connecting link is Gericault. By 
the time he was twenty-one Gericault had proved 
himself not only the foremost of Gros's followers 
in celebrating the military spirit of the Napoleonic 
epoch, but one who brought to the work a fresh 
and vigorous dramatic element, of which the great 
Radean de la Medme, exhibited in 1819, is the 
most important example. In connexion with his 
influence on his successors it must be admitted 
that his dramatic feeling found vent in strong con- 
trasts of light and shade rather than through colour 
— and colour was the real casus belli of his age. 
Gericault, in fact, used colour perhaps more freely 
in his first works under the influence of Gros than 
in those painted after the year 1815, when a visit 
to Italy had given him additional knowledge both 
of life and of pictures. Whether his visit to Eng- 
land and the deep impression made upon him by 


^TJie T*assage of the Ravine'* 

the works of Lawrence, Constable and Ward 
would in the end have brought him to a point of 
view similar to that of Delacroix we cannot guess. 
The accident which brought about his death in 
January, 1824, at the early age of thirty-two, left 
Gericault but little time to profit by his new experi- 
ences ; and the task of carrying on the torch of 
artistic vitality fell to his young studio-companion, 

The works executed by Gericault in his brief 
career are comparatively few, even in the public 
galleries of France. Outside the Louvre there are, 
I believe, only some fine studies at Rouen and a 
portrait at Havre, while at Avignon there is a copy 
of Gros's sketch for the BatniUe de Nazareth, and 
Gericault is said to have paid a thousand francs 
for the privilege of making it. The appearance in 
England of an important picture by so rare a 

master is thus a matter of some artistic interest, 
especially since The Passage of ihe Ravine, dating 
from about the year 18 16, is in every way typical 
of its maker's genius, his military inclinations, 
his love of horses, his forcible but somewhat 
gloomy dramatic feeling, his spirited brush- 
work, and, above all, the exuberant vitality and 
energy of the piece, well worthy of a cham- 
pion of artistic liberty, even though fate decided 
that Gericault was not himself to be the lilierator 
in chief. Yet, standing as he does on the very 
borderline between the art of the past and of the 
present, he is a figure of some historical importance, 
and it may not be amiss to call the attention of 
Londoners to The Passage of ihe Ravine, while 
there is still a chance of seeing it, since even in the 
Wallace Collection Gericault is represented only 
by one small oil study and a water colour. 


LTHOUGH Milanesi had 
given some account of Jacopo 
del Sellaio in his commentary 
on the ' Life of Fra Filippo,' 
which appeared in the edition 
of Vasari published at Florence 
by Sansoni in 1878-82 ;i and 

Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 

had briefly alluded to this master in the Florentine 
edition of their ' History of Painting in Italy' ;- it 
remained for Herr Hans Mackowsky, in a series 
of two articles which appeared in the Prussian 
' Jahrbuch ' for 1899,^ to reconstruct the character 
of Jacopo as a painter, and to bring together a 
number of his minor works which had hitherto 
passed under other names. These two articles 
were reviewed by Mrs. Mary Logan in the ' Revue 
Archeologique,'* and many additional paintings 
ascribed by her to Jacopo, on the authority of Mr. 
Berenson. Since that time the list of his works 
has been largely increased. The purpose of this 
paper, however, is to cast into a synthetical form, 
both those facts of Jacopo's life which have already 
been published, and those which the writer is now 
able to put forth for the first time. Thrown into such 
a form, it will be seen, I think, that our knowledge 
of the painter's career is now sufficient for a com- 
plete stylistic criticism of his works. 

' infinite number of masters ' who, 
to Vasari, were placed in their youth 
with Fra Filippo Lippi were ' Sandro Boticello 
. . . and Jacopo del Sellaio, the Florentine, who 
painted two panels in San Friano, and one in 

'Vol. ii, pp. 642-3. 

-Ed. Le Monnier, 1886, etc., vol. v, pp. 256-8. 

^ Vol. X.V, pp. 192 and 271. 

*L.c., Paris, 1900, sei". iii, vol, xxxv, p. 478, 

Among the 

the Carmine, executed in tempera.'^ Of the large 
number of paintings which came from the work- 
shop of this master, not a few have, until recently, 
been ascribed to Botticelli ; but, although Sandro's 
influence is to be traced both in his design and 
colour, only in rare instances does Jacopo delibe- 
rately set himself to imitate the motives, or the 
sentiment, of his great contemporary. 

It appears from documentary evidence that 
this painter was the only son of Arcangiolo di 
Jacopo, 'sellaio' or saddler, and his wife, Monna 
Gemma. According to the ' Portata ' returned by 
his father towards the close of the year 1469,^ 
Jacopo was then twenty-six years of age ; and 
consequently was born about the same time as 
Botticelli. It is, therefore, extremely probable 
that he worked with Sandro in the ' bottega ' of 
Fra Filippo. In 1469, Jacopo was living with 
his father and mother, his sister, Lucrezia, and a 
cousin named Giovanni, in a part of a house 
which they rented from his mother's sister, 
Monna Piera, in Via San Donato, situated 
behind the church of the Carmine, in an 
outlying part of the city, and known as Cam- 
aldoli. In 1472, Jacopo was already a member 
of the Compagnia di San Luca, and it appears 
from entries in the ' Libro Rosso,'' in which 
he is described as ' Jachopo darchangel° dipin- 
tore Trapellicaj,' that he paid fees to the con- 
fraternity in October, 1473. According to a 
later 'Denunzia' returned by his father in 

5 Vasari, ed. 1550, vol. i, p. 401. , „ r^ ■ 

Tirenze : R. Archivi di State. Arch, delle Decime; 

Quarliere Santo Spirito, Gonfalone Drago ; Campione, 1469, 

No. verde 909, fol. 120 recto. .,,„,. , • j- 

' Firenze : R. Arcliivio di Stato Arch, dell' Accademia di 

Belle Arli, No. 2, fol. 81 tergo and fol. 82 recto. 


1480-1/ Jacopo was still living in the same house 
with his family, which is thus described in this 
document : — ' Archangiolo of the age of seventy 
years. Monna Gemma, my wife of the age of 
sixty-five, Jacopo, my son, of the age of thirty- 
six years : he follows the art of a painter, and is 
a partner for a half share in the rent of a shop, 
which he holds from Francesco di Soldo degli 
Strozzi, situated in the Piazza di San Miniato fra 
le Torri, below his [the owner's] house, etc.; he 
pays for the said half share 12 lire. Filippo di Giul- 
iano pays the other half, namely 12 lire. Francesca, 
wife of the said Jacopo, of the age of twenty-four 
years. Archangiolo, son of the said Jacopo, two 
years old.' The Piazzo di San Miniato fra le Torri, 
which was swept away in the course of the recent 
reconstruction of the old centre of Florence, 
opened out of the Via de' Pellicciai, or Pellicceria 
as it was commonly called, a street which ran 
from the Via Porta Rossa to the south-west corner 
of the Mercato Vecchio. The shop which Jacopo 
rented in this Piazza, in 1480, was in the same 
locality (if, indeed, it was not the same shop) in 
which, according to the ' Libro Rosso,' he was 
working in 1472, ' tra Pellicciai.' His partner, 
Filippo di Giuliano, was also a member of the 
Compagnia di San Luca. His name occurs in the 
' Libro Vecchio'" of that confraternity in an entry 
of the year 1460: 'Filippo di giuliano dipintore 
m cccc" Ix.' Other entries in the ' Libro 
Rosso ' show that he paid fees to the confra- 
ternity in 1472 and 1482 : in those of 1472, he 
is described as ' Filippo di giuliano dipintore 
nel chorsso degli animallj ' — a corrupted form 
of the name, Corso degli Adimari.'" The exis- 
tence of this partnership goes to explain the 
large number of works which have come down to 
us from the ' bottega ' of Jacopo del Sellaio, and 
which are, at least, in his manner, if not by his 
hand ; many of them having apparently been exe- 
cuted subsequently to his death. According to the 
'Denunzia' returned by Filippo di Giuliano, in 
1498, " that master was still working as a painter 
in Florence at that time. He describes himself 
as ' Filippo di giuliano di matheo dipintore popolo 
di santa luciade magnioli.' Jacopo del Sellaio died 
on the 12th November, 1493, and was buried in 
the church of San Frediano.'- His son Arcangiolo, 
who survived him, was also a painter, and a mem- 
ber of the Compagnia di San Luca. He is registered 
in the ' Libro Vecchio ' of that confraternity ; and 

'Kirenze : R. Archivio diStato. Arch, delle Decime; Quarliere 
Santo Spirito, Gonfalone Drago ; Campione, I480, Primo, No. 
Verde 99g, fol. 126 recto. 

"Firenze: R. Archivio di Stalo. Arch, dell' Accademia di 
Belle Arti, No. i, fol. 8 tergo. 

'"L.c, fol. 49 tergo and fol. 50 recto. 

" Firenze : R. Archivio di Stato. Arch delle Decime ; Quartiere 
Santo Spirito, Gonfalone Scala ; Campione, 1498, No. verde I, 
fol. 478 recto. 

" Firenze : R. Archivio di Stato. Arch, di Medici e Speziali, 
No. 247, fol. 53 recto, 

Jacopo del Sellaio 

his name occurs also in the ' Libro Rosso,' '* in 
entries of the years 1504 and 1505. He died on 
the 1st March, 1531, at the age of fifty-two'years. " 

Jacopo :del Sellaio is known to have painted 
several altarpieces for churches in Florence : of 
these five are extant. Since the dates of the execution 
of three of these pictures are to be ascertained with 
tolerable certainty, they afford a clue to the develop- 
ment of his manner and the chronology of his other 
works. An entry in a ' Libro di Ricordi ' of ALatteo 
di Jacopo Domenici da Selva, Rector of the church 
of Santa Lucia de' Magnoli, in Florence, the text 
of which has recently been printed by Signor 
Giglioli, in the ' Revista d'Arte,' '^ throws no little 
light upon the history of the earliest of these altar- 
pieces, which is still to be seen in its original 
position in the church. Done into English, this 
entry runs thus : ' I, ALatheo di Jacopo, record 
how Agnolo di Michele, linaiuolo, for the one 
moiety, and Nichodemo and Batista, brothers 
and sons of Francescho di Simone Nentj, for the 
other moiety, caused a painting on panel and an 
altar to be made in honour of the Annunciation 
of our Lady, and of the lady, Saint Lucy ; 
with their arms, and at their charges, touching 
the altar, the panel and the painting. E.xcepting 
that I paid to Master Jacopo d'Archangiolo, 
painter, one ducat of mine own, for refreshing and 
washing the figure of Saint Lucy, which was, and 
is, the property of our church : and I remitted to 
Master Filippo di Giuliano, painter and partner of 
the said Master Jacopo, two florins which he 
owed to me ; and for the said two florins, he is 
under obligation to make for me a cross of wood 
of the said value.' The writer goes on to state, 
among other things, that the permission to carry 
out these works was given on the understanding 
that the rector of the church should be at liberty 
to renew the 'palchetto ' or ceiling, as well as the 
ornaments, of this altar of Saint Lucy. Finally, 
this 'ricordo' is dated the loth December, 1473. 

The paintings here alluded to still remain over 
the first altar to the left on entering the church of 
Santa Lucia, in the Via de' Bardi. The central 
panel consists of the picture of St. Lucy, which 
Jacopo del Sellaio ' washed and refreshed ' ; an 
almost life-sized figure, at half-length, which in 
spite of its repainted condition appears to have 
been an admirable work by Pietro Lorenzetti, 
e.xecuted in all probability c. 1340, when that 
master was painting in Florence. The two lateral 
panels contain whole-length figures of the Virgin 
and St. Gabriel against backgrounds of feigned 
marble panelling; and together form an 'Annun- 
ciation.' These panels present all the characteristic 
traits of Jacopo's earlier manner, and were first 
ascribed to him by Herr Mackowsky, in the Prussian 

" L.c, fol. 6 tergo and fol. 7 redo. 
'* Vasari, ed. Sansoni, vol. ii, p. ^\1- 
1' Anno 1906, vol. iv, p. 1S8. 

21 I 

Jacopo del Sellaio 

' Jahrbuch,' for 1899."^ We may conclude then 
from this ' ricordo,' that the central panel formed 
the original painting of the altar of St. Lucy, which 
shortly before the date of the ' ricordo,' loth 
December, 1473, had been granted to the family of 
the Nenti, who then caused the lateral panels to be 
added by Jacopo del Sellaio, and the altar itself to 
be re-dedicated to the ' Annunciation.' They are, 
therefore, not later than 1473, and were probably 
painted during that year ; and are amongst the 
earliest works by the master which have come 
down to us. In their general conception they 
recall the two little panels of the ' Annunciation ' by 
Fra Filippo Lippi, Nos. 263 and 264, in the 
Academy at Florence ; and are, perhaps, more 
directly reminiscent of that master's manner than 
any other of his extant works. 

The altarpiece once in the church of the Car- 
mine, at Florence, to which Vasari alludes, has long 
since disappeared ; unless it be one of two large 
panels which are now preserved in the gallery of 
the Uftizi. The other two altarpieces mentioned 
by Vasari are still extant. The parish church of 
San Friano, or Frediano, formerly stood on the 
east side of the Piazza of the same name, which 
lay between the Borgo and the Piazza del Carmine. 
This church, which was one of the twelve ancient 
' Priorie' of Florence, and which since 1514 had 
been attached to a house of Augustine nuns, was 
suppressed in the year 1783, when its fabric was 
converted into dwelling houses, and the church of 
the neighbouring monastery of the Cestello became 
the parish church under the ancient dedication. 
Stefano Rosselli, in his ' Sepoltuario Fiorentino,' 
which he finished in 1657," has preserved some 
account of the two paintings by Jacopo del Sellaio 
which were once in this church, and of the altars 
which they adorned. Above the fourth altar, on the 
right on entering the building, he relates, was ' an 
antique painting on panel of the Pieta, with orna- 
ments of terra cotta, in the manner of Luca della 
Robbia.' This altarpiece bore the arms of the 
Compagnia di San Frediano ; Azure, a latin cross 
between the letters, S and F, gules. Giuseppe Richa 
states more particularly that the picture represented 
'a Pieta with Saint Jerome and Saint Frediano on 
either side,' and speaks of the beauty of ' the 
cherubim in relief ' on the frieze, and of 'the risen 
Christ in the lunette, executed in terra cotta by 
Luca della Robbia.'" According to Miianesi, 
Jacopo del Sellaio was commissioned by the 
members of the Compagnia di San Frediano, 
delta la Bruciata, to paint this picture for the 
altar of their chapel in 1483. He adds that 
the members of this confraternity having renewed 
their altar and adorned their chapel in the year 

'^ Vol. XX, p. 282. 

'' Firenze : R. Biblioteca Nazionale. Cod. Magliabechiano, 
CI. xxvi. No. 22, fol. Ill recto. 

"G. Richa: 'Notizie Istoriche delle Chiese Florentine, 
Firenze, 1754, vol. ix, r- 1/7. 


1520, caused Andrea della Robbia and his 
son, Luca, to execute in glazed terra-cotta ware 
the ornaments of which Giuseppe Richa speaks, 
and also commissioned Jacopo del Sellaio's son, 
Arcangiolo, to retouch his father's picture and 
furnish a new carved and gilt frame at a cost of 
more than lire 60 for gold and labour. Miianesi, 
unfortunately, gives no reference to these docu- 
ments, and I have not succeeded in tracing them.'' 
On the suppression of the Church of San Frediano, 
this painting was sold, and afterwards passed into 
the collection of Mr. Solly, as a work by Domenico 
Ghirlandaio ; Giovanni Cinelli, in his edition of 
the ' Bellezze di Firenze,'*" having alluded to it 
as a work of Ghirlandaio's school, and Richa as a 
work by the master himself. In 1821, it was 
acquired with the rest of the Solly collection for 
the museum at Berlin, No. 1,055, where it is at 
last ascribed to its proper author. 

In the possession of the writer is a fragment of 
a * predella,' which was originally painted with a 
series of stories, divided by feigned, gilt balusters, 
as in the 'predella' of the altarpiece by Botticelli, 
once in the Church of San Marco, and now in the 
Academy at Florence No. 74. The fragment 
in question represents Saint Jerome in the 
wilderness, and may not improbably have formed 
a part of the ' predella ' of the panel, now at Berlin, 
since in none of the other extant altarpieces by 
Jacopo del Sellaio is Saint Jerome represented. 

Above the third altar on the left, on entering 
the Church of San Frediano, records Rosselli, near 
the side-door opening into the Borgo, was a 
painting on panel of Christ on the cross, with 
Saint Laurence on the gridiron.'' This altar also 
bore the arms of the Company of San Frediano ; 
and Rosselli adds that ' the Chapel of San Lorenzo,' 
as the altar was called, ' belongs to the Compagnia 
di San Friano, commonly called " della Bruciata," 
and was erected out of a bequest made by Lorenzo 
di Bartolommeo del Passera, who left all his pos- 
sessions to the said company, which causes office 
to be said there, and also elects the chaplain, and 
pays him three scudi the month. His will was 
executed in 1490. In that will, among other 
bequests, is one whereby a dish of roasted chesnuts 
is given to all the officials of the company, for the 
time being, on the morning of the feast of San 
Frediano ; and from this the said company has, 
perhaps, taken its name, " della Bruciata." ' 

Since the bequest for the erection of this altar 
was not made until 1490, and Jacopo del Sellaio 
died in November, 1493, it is evident that this 
altarpiece was among the last works of the master. 
Indeed, it would seem that he had not received 
payment for it at the time of his death, for it is to 

" Vasari, ed. Sanson!, vol. ii, p. 642-3. 
'"Ed. 1677, p. 162. 

='Cod. Magliabechiano, CI. xxvi, No. 22, fol. 109 recto and 
fol. 113 tergo. 

Jacopo del Sellaio 

this picture, and not to the altarpiece at Berlin, as 
Milanesi supposed, that certain documents cited 
by him must refer.'' According to these docu- 
ments, a dispute having arisen between the syndics 
of the Compagnia di San Frediano and the painter's 
son, Arcangiolo, concerning the price to be paid 
for ' a painting on panel, executed for the chapel 
of the said confraternity by Jacopo, the father of 
the said Arcangiolo, deceased,' the litigants agreed 
on 13th March, 1515-6, to submit the matter to 
arbitration. Giuliano Bugiardini and Kidolfo 
Ghirlandaio, having been appointed arbitrators, 
ordered the syndics, on the 24th of the same 
month, to pay lire 170 piccioli, as the price of the 
picture. These documents contain no other parti- 
culars of the nature of the painting in dispute : 
but it is far more probable that they refer to a 
picture which perhaps remained unfinished at the 
time of Jacopo's death, than to one painted as far 
back as 1483.^^ On the suppression of the old 
church of San Frediano in 1783, the altarpiece 
was taken to the Cestello, which then became the 
new parish church ; and the painting now hangs 
in the sacristy, but without either frame or ' predella.' 
In this work all the idiosyncrasies of Jacopo's 
design are carried to extremes. The attitudes of 
the figures are more constrained, the types of the 
heads with their scowling brows more exaggerated, 
and the draperies more mannered than in the 
earlier panel at Berlin. 

In these three altarpieces, then, which are still to 
be seen in the church of Santa Lucia, in the 
museum at Berlin and in the sacristy of San Fre- 
diano, we have authenticated examples of Jacopo's 
manner at the beginning, in the middle and at the 
end of his career. But in these ambitious works, 
interesting as they are to the student, since they 
afford aclue to the developmentof Jacopo's manner, 
this master appears to little advantage. His re- 
stricted and over-mannered convention, his defi- 
cient sense of beauty of form and of the larger 
qualities of design, are sadly evident in these panels. 
Had he painted nothing else, his work would 
scarcely have been confused with that of Botticelli. 
But in his smaller pictures, and especially in his 
stories of little figures, which he executed chiefly 
for furniture panels, his facility and power of 
improvisation stand him in good stead. In these 
pieces, his convention admirably serves the turn of 
a purely decorative art, and that gift of story-telling 
which he shares with all true Florentines enables 
him to turn even his absurdities to effect. For 

'^Vasari, ed. Sanson!, vol. ii, p. 6423. 

^'Firenzc: R. Archivio di Stalo. Kogiti di Ser Giovanni 
Batista d' Antonio da Terranuova ; Protocollo dal 151531 1517, 
fol. 125 recto and fol. 133 recto. 

him the fables and histories of antiquity were so 
many ' novelle ' which he sets forth with an engag- 
ing naivete and spirit, in the guise of the life 
around him. In such pieces he appears, the 
last, but not the least admirable, of those delightful 
painters of furniture panels in the fifteenth 
century, who have gained a place of their own in 
the history of Florentine art, without entering 
into competition with the great masters, such as 
Botticelli or Filippino, who occasionally executed 
such things. 

Of the two altarpieces by Jacopo del Sellaio in 
the gallery of the Ufiizi, one, No. 1513, which 
until recently was deposited in the church of San 
Jacopo sopr' Arno, at Florence, represents a Pida 
with St. James the Greater, St. Francis, St. Michael 
and St. Mary Magdalene. It closely recalls in 
conception and manner, the Pida. at Berlin ; 
hut is probably of somewhat later date. The 
other, a sadly damaged panel in the magazine of 
the gallery. No. 4642, represents a Coivnation of 
the Virgin, with St. Agatha, St. Benedict, St. 
Andrew, St.Zenobio, St. Romuald and the Baptist ; 
together with various figures of angels playing on 
musical instruments. With the exception of the 
panels in Santa Lucia, it is the most pleasing of all 
Jacopo's altarpieces, and the one in which his 
faults of design are least aggressive. It would 
appear, on internal evidence, to have been exe- 
cuted c. 1480. 

I may here add, that I am unable to agree with 
Mr. Berenson in ascribing to Jacopo del Sellaio, 
two of the three altarpieces which were executed 
in the ' bottega ' of Domenico Ghirlandaio, for 
the church of the Badia a Settimo, in 1479.^' 
Of these paintings, now preserved in the little 
'Museo' attached to the 'Cenacolo di Sant' 
Apollonia' at Florence, that of the Piela recalls 
most nearly the manner of Jacopo del Sellaio : 
but the resemblance, even so far as the forms are 
concerned, is only a partial one ; and I fail to trace 
Jacopo's hand either in the colour or in the tech- 
nique. The other painting which Mr. Berenson 
would ascribe to him, namely, the Adoration of the 
Miigi, is not by the same hand as the Pida, and 
appears to be the work of some more immediate 
follower of Domenico Ghirlandaio. It is true that 
in such paintings as the Pida, at Berlin, Jacopo 
unmistakably betrays the influence of Domenico ; 
but to the last he always preserved his peculiar 
forms, colour and technical methods. The dis- 
cussion of Jacopo's smaller paintings I must leave 
for another occasion. 

^^Vasui, ed. Sansoni, vol. iii, p. 279. B. Berenson : 'The 
Drawings of tlie Florentine Painters,' London, 1903, vol. i, 
p. 72. 



WONDER whether any one 
lelse has ever taken the trouble 
/actually to try and arrange in 
'chronological order a complete 
(or tolerably complete) set of 
) photographic reproductions of 
l«;^the work of Albrecht Diirer. 
J^ii^Truth to tell, it requires a certain 
recklessness, to call it by no worse name, with the 
five stately volumes of Lippmann's reproductions 
of Diirer's drawings, to go to work on them with 
knives and shears, and carve them to pieces. Nor 
does the necessary destruction end even there, be- 
cause if you are really to arrange in order the dis- 
parted sheets, along with reproductions of en- 
gravings and woodcuts and with photographs of 
all Diirer's pictures and photographs of other 
drawings not reproduced by Lippmann, the first 
thing to be done is to bring the whole lot to one 
moderate and easily handled size. A smaller 
series (say, for instance, the works of Antonello da 
Messina) can be dealt about without regard to size, 
as a big dining-room table will more than iiold them 
all. But Diirer's works run into the thousands, and 
practically all are reproduced. Before such a 
mass can be handled there must be a certain 
method decided upon. To reduce all to one com- 
mon size will be found the first essential step. 
This means that the small things must be mounted 
up to that size and the larger ones cut down. 
Those that are bigger than the maximum size fixed 
upon must be ruthlessly cropped into halves or 
quarters and hinged together. Then if a series of 
suitable boxes is obtained to hold the entire col- 
lection, the student will be ready to begin, and he 
will find that he has a very tough job in hand. 
My collection, which is fairly complete, fills fourteen 
boxes, whose internal measurement is 14^ by lof 
by 2^ in., and I take this opportunity of saying, 
after thirty years' experience as a collector of photo- 
graphs, that that is on the whole the best size for 
the boxes, and that 14I by io| in. is about the best 
size for cards on which photos may be mounted 
or otherwise attached. The next thing to do is to 
arrange the dated objects in their order, and then 
comes the wrestle with the undated. 

My own order has been arrived at in a series of 
years with the help of all the published literature 
on the subject, supplemented by frequent experi- 
ments. There are various lists of the engravings 
in chronological order ; none of them, to my 
thinking, is satisfactory, because they are not based 
upon general but upon particular considerations — 
still they are useful and suggestive. The minor 
woodcuts liave interested me less, and I- have not 
troubled much about them ; besides, many of 
them are only poorly reproduced. Few of the 
paintings give rise to much controversy. Many of 
the drawings are hard to place. Some are impossible 

to me. In what follows I propose to give an example 
of the kind of list I wish that some serious Durer 
student would prepare. I am not a ' serious ' 
student of anything and don't wish to be ; but at 
intervals such work is a pleasant recreation, and so 
I have availed myself of it when I felt inclined. 
It is best to insert in the list the chief events of 
Diirer's life as guideposts or milestones of the road. 
AlbrccJit Di'iio, born 21st May, 1471, of a 
H niigarinn failicr and a Gcniian mother. I take 
the Hungarian element in him to have been a 
very important factor in his make-up. It is seldom 

I481. Self-portrait drawing (Albertina, L. 448). 

C.1484. One of the Ten Virgins (Brit. Mus., L.208). 

1485. V. and Cd. with two angels (Berlin, L. i). 

This drawing must be compared with 

the Flemalle master's often-repeated 

picture, of which the version in New 

York Met. Mus. may be the original. 

That picture has some affiliation to the 

H. v. Eyck 'V. and Cd. in St. Bavon's ' 

at Berlin. Flemalle's picture, besides 

being often copied, was imitated by G. 

David, Isenbrandt, and others, and the 

angels in it were widely copied, as, e.g., 

in Louvre (22026) ; J. G. Johnson coll. 

picture attr. to Justus of Ghent ; King 

of Roumania's coll. pict. attr. to Vicente 

Juan de Juanes, and here in this young 

Diirer's drawing. 

i486. Portrait of his father (Albertina). The 

date appears on a poor copy at Schloss 


Diirer apprenticed to Wolgcmut, 50th Xov., 14S6. 

1487. Self-portrait in background of Wolgemut's 

'St. Veit curing lunatic,' Germ. Mus. 

Nuremberg (see Rep. 1908, p. 42.) 

1489. Some drawings of riders: one in Lawrence 
coll. (since lost), also L. 100, and Becker- 
ath coll. (Ex. B.-A. Paris, 1879, Br. 241). 

do. Three pike-men (Berlin, L. 2). 
End of apprenticeship, sotli Nov., i-tSg. 

1490. Portrait of his father ( Uftizi). 

W anderschaft after nth April, 141)0, 
till aftei iSth May, 1404. In 149 --3 /"-' 
li'as at Basel. 
1490-94. Threestudiesof trees (L. 162, 102, 221); 
A quantity of woodcuts ascribed to the 
Master of Bergmann's printing-house. 
1492. Woodcut of St. Jerome. 
c. 1492-3. Christ and the V. (Louvre, D. Soc.) ; 
Woman (L. 346) ; Lovers (Hamburg, D. 
Soc.) ; John Bapt. (B. Mus., D. Soc.) ; 
and L. 345. 

A number of drawings of riders (L. 
209, Ambrosiana Br. 197, Berlin Jahr. Pr. 
Kss. 1897, L. 304), and with these I group 
the engraving B. 81 traditionally ascribed 


T)urer s JVorks in their Order 

to Diirer but taken away from him of 
late by superior persons. 
t493 Woodcut Crucifixion. The following 
drawings : L. 300, 450, and 458 (appar- 
ently connected with a similar drawing 
sold at Dresden in 1862, thus dated on 
the back). 

Some drawings at this time have studies 
of hands, apparently his own hand more 
than once. Such is L. 429 (self-portrait), 
with L. 430, the first study for the engrav- 
ing B. 44, on the back of it. With this 
goes L. 144 and others. The painted 
self-portrait of 1493 is apparently of the 
same age as the Erlangen drawing, 

Here also come a whole series of studies 
for the Holy Family engraving, B. 44. 
They are L. 430, G. Mayer coll. (D. Soc), 
Gathorne Hardy coll. (Vasari Soc), Ber- 
lin Mus. (Gaz. B.-A). With them must 
surely be grouped the engraving itself as 
of 1493-4 at latest. The only reason for 
putting it later is the gondola-like boat 
in the background. Surely he could 
have drawn that without going to Venice. 
The pen-and-ink landscape, formerly in 
Galichon coll., is an Italian copy (by 
Campagnola ?) of the landscape in the 
engraving. Here also I should like to 
introduce the Genovefa engraving, B. 63, 
say c. 1494. It has the same gondola- 
like boat. 
End of DhrcYS Wandcnchaft after iSth May, 

1494. ' Mein Agnes,' L. 457, and the landscapes, 
L. 104 and 4. 
Diirer married yth July, 1494, and soon after 
went aii'ay to Italy, To this journey the following 
drawings are to be attributed, and, as they are 
very important, I quote them at length. I should 
very much like to add to them the Frankfurt 
picture of the Venetian Ebra now almost univer- 
sally attributed to Bart. Veneto, whose work it 
seems to me to resemble only superficially. 

1494. A Brenner town, probably Innsbruck. 

Albeftina, L. 452, 453. 
1494. Boy sketching by Alpine water-mill. 

Berlin, L. 441. 
1494. Trient. Brit. Mus., L.90. 
1494. Death of Orpheus. Hamburg, Diirer 

1494. Copy of Mantegna print. Albertina, L. 


1495. Copy of another do. Albertina, L. 434. 
1495. Copy of a PoUaiuolo drawing. Bonnat 

coll., L. 347. One of the figures sug- 
gested that of D.'s Great Hercules. 
1495. Copy of a L. di Credi drawing. Schickler 
coll., L. 384. 

c. 1495. Pageofskelch-book with figure borrowed 

from antique Cupid bending bow of 

Hercules, lions' heads after a sculpture, 

rape of Europa, etc. Albertina, L. 456. 
c. 1495. Venetian architectural sketches. Berlin, 

L. 13. On the back is 
c. 1495. Man's legs, armadillo, etc. Berlin, L. 12. 
c. 1495. Page of sketch-book, with nude man, 

child (after Giorgione), knight, etc. 

Ut^zi, Br. 962. 
c. 1495. Horses' swimming apparatus. Brit. 

Mus., L. 255. Do. on the back of leaf, 

L. 254. 
c. 1495. St. Catherine in Venetian attire. Cologne 

1495. Venetian woman. Albertina, L. 459, 
c. 1495. Do. and Nuremberg woman. Frankfurt, 

L. 187. 
c, 1495. Venetian woman. Basel, Diirer Soc. 
c. 1495. Italian lake landscape. Erlangen, L. 431. 
c. 1495. Trient. Bremen, L. 109. 
c. 1495. Innsbruck about June or July. Albertina, 

L. 451. 
c. 1495. Landscape with castle. Albertina, L. 

c. 1495. Two sketches of quarries. Bremen, 
L. 106, 107. 

Diirer settled in Ntirembcrg again in i4()S< pi'O- 
bably in the autumn, because his Innsbriick sketch 
(as the snow on the mountains shows) was done 
in June or July. It is natural to assign to the period 
immediately succeeding his return those works in 
which the studies made on the Italian journey are 
used. Such are : — Pupilla Augusta (L. 389) ; St. 
Jerome engr. (B. 61) ; The Apocalypse woodcuts 
(designed doubtless 1495-6), and others. The 
landscape L. 103 is ascribed by the latest authority 
to the days shortly after D's return home. 

Here also I put, though they may be pre- 
Venetian, the Frankfurt drawing Death and the 
Kider (L. 193) and linked with it the Wild Man 
and Woman engraving (B. 92.) It always amuses 
me to note how very like Diirer's biographer, 
Thausing, in his madder moods is this same wild 
man. With this too goes B. 79 and the drawing 
for it (L. 203). Here, too, I imagine come the 
riders : B. 80, the Munich drawing (if by D.), and 
the Berlin drawing (L. 3, dated 1496). The first two 
of these may be pre-Venetian, but the third is 
clearly correctly dated. Diirer got the under- 
bred, long-haired, gay-dispositioned terrier, which 
appears in it, on his return from his first Italian 
journey, and its occurrence suffices to date things 
to the period c. 1496-1503. It turns up indeed in 
the little woodcut Passion, but the designs for 
some at least of that series are very early, even 
c. 1496. The engraving B. 84 (Cook and Wife) is 
contemporary with the Apocalypse designs, the 
same model in both. The Prodigal Son (B. 28), 
and the Lansee pig-monster, and Brit. Mus. 


Durer's JVorks in their Order 

drawing (B. 95) are of 1496, and so, I believe, 
are The Promenade (B. 94), Flirtation (B. 93) as 
well as B. 88, 82, 30, and several of the designs for 
the Great Passion, though some of these things 
may run over into 1497. The big woodcuts (B. 
102, 120, 127, 2, 131, 117, P. 182, B. 128, and the 
great Crucifixion) likewise belong to about this 
time, but some of them may belong to 1498 or 
even 1499. 

Still, to the years 1496-7 belong the portraits of 
Friedrich the Wise and his brother John, as well 
as the Dresden altarpiece painted for them under 
strong Italian influence. I ought to have men- 
tioned earlier the women's bath drawing (L. loi) 
dated 1496, with which the men's bath woodcut 
naturally groups, and somewhere hereabouts one 
must introduce L. 126. 

Of the engravings, B. 85 contains an Italian 
model; B. 83, 86 seem to group with it ; B. 56 is in- 
fluenced by Cima, and may well be of 1496 or 1497 ; 
B. 55 is hard to place, but B. 78 is of c. 1496. 

To 1497 we can, perhaps, assign the landscape 
L.462, the water colour V.and Cd.with the beasts 
(L. 460) and the study for it (L. 134). L. 47 goes 
with these, and so does the woodcut V. and Cd. 
with the hares (B. 102). The sunset landscape 
— not sunrise — (L. 219) and the Weiherhaus 
(L. 220) must be of the same date, and here too we 
must place the V. and Cd. with Monkey engraving 
(B. 42), though the drawing from which the V.'s 
head is taken (Uffizi, Br. 963) may date from the 
first Italian journey. The head in L. 460 is very 
similar. It may, however, be of the date of the 
Four Witches engraving (B. 75), with which goes 
a drawing in the Brit. Mus. MSS. vols, (i, \o\a 
and h) reproduced in my 'Lit. Remains of D.' The 
Dream engraving (B. 76) must also be put c. 1497. 
Here, loo, I group L. 113, 73 and 135, 73 being 
dated 1497, though 135 may belong to the Barbari- 
like group of 1503. Durer's portrait of his father 
is dated 1497, and to that year also belong the 
Furlegerin portraits and the three paintings on 
linen in the Bib. N., Paris. 

The above datings are fairly satisfactory, but for 
one reason. They give to the years 1496-7 a sur- 
viving output about twice as great as what survives 
for the whole of the years 1498-1503. Still, if we 
take away the woodcuts, which may not have 
been cut when they were designed, the dispropor- 
tion becomes less marked, and perhaps a good 
many 1497 things might be carried over into 1498. 

To 1498 I attribute the following : Landscape 
(L. 331) ; self-portrait (Madrid), Imhof portrait 
at Bergamo (Diirer ?) ; Amymone engr. (B. 71) ; 
Knight (L. 461) ; and the Old man's head (L. 227). 

1499 produced the Tucher portraits at Weimar, 
the Man's portrait with Heidelberg landscape 
(Diirer ?), Oswolt Krel, and the Great Hercules 
engr. (B. 73). 

To 1500 we can ascribe the design (if by D.) of 


the Jabach altar, the Holzschuher altar, and the 
other Mourning over the dead Christ at Nurem- 
berg, as well as the Munich portrait-bust dated 1500, 
and the Hercules picture and drawing for it, L. 207 
(based on A. Pollaiuolo's picture). The landscapes 
in the Hercules and the Holzschuher picture are 
clearly related. The drawing at Rennes (D. Soc.) 
may be of this time or a little later. To 1500 I 
prefer to ascribe the famous Diirer self-portrait at 
Munich, which is thus dated with a copy of what 
was probably its original inscription. A compari- 
son between it and the Madrid portrait of 1498 
shows that there is but a small difference of age 
between the two. The supposed relation between 
the hand here, and in the V. and Cd. picture of 1 506 
does not exist. Other works of 1 500 are the cos- 
tume studies (L. 465, 463, 464), and some woodcuts. 

If only one could securely place the queer 
drawing L. no (Bremen), it would be a great 
help, because with it one can group some, at 
any rate, of the copies of the Italian prints of 
virtues, arts, etc. Also L. 9 and 1 1 seem to belong 
to the same date. L. no is connected with Durer's 
Mantegnesque work, and also with Barbari (K. 26), 
and with Diirer's own engraving of 1497 (B. 75). 
The pig in it may be related to that in the Prodigal 
Son engraving of 1495-6. The child in the fore- 
ground reminds us of the child in the Witch 
engraving (B. 67). For these reasons it seems 
possible to place this drawing as far back as 1497. 
It can hardly be placed later than 1500. In 
any case L. 11 cannot be of 1503-6, but must be 
Durer's earliest existing attempt at a proportion 
drawing. The cherub engraving (B. 66), the 
cherub with Pirkheimer'sarms (L. 82), and P.'sbook- 
plate (woodcut, B. Ap. 52) go with the rest of these. 

If readers of THE Burlington Magazine can 
stand any more of this sort of thing I can go on 
again some day with Diirer's work in the sixteenth 
century. All the above is, of course, purely pro- 
visional and subject to criticism and alteration. 
The reader must remember that when a number 
of photographs have to be put together in a box, 
one must lie above another, and therefore some 
definite order has to be adopted. It is so easy for a 
writer to group objects vaguely together as of about 
1 494-1497. That won't help the photograph col- 
lector, who must choose an exact order, whether he 
likes it or not. It has been under this compul- 
sion that my photographs have ranged themselves, 
and I should be thankful to any one who would 
improve their order. To do that, however, the 
whole mass must be considered together, and not 
merely the engravings, or the pictures, or the 
woodcuts separately. 

If space had been less limited I should have 
quoted the many students whose works have been 
suggestive to me ; but those familiar with this 
subject will know who they are, and other readers 
won't care either about them or me. 










t- z 


w Ui 

'-> s 


- u 


•<: 3 



s < 


o s 




tf I 



a z 


<: - 





H Pi 





? K 








The name of Aldegrever has often been recklessly 
bestowed upon pictures and drawings that have 
no resemblance to the authentic productions of 
the Westphalian master, and nothing in common 
among themselves except their anonymity. Any 
fresh attribution of such a work to him 
would be regarded with just suspicion unless 
supported by quite satisfactory evidence. In 
dealing with engravings and woodcuts we stand 
on surer ground, and the signed and dated wood- 
cut at Wilton House (vol. 4, of the collection of 
engravings), which the Earl of Pembroke permits 
me to publish and describe for the first time, forms 
a valuable and welcome addition to our knowledge 
of Aldegrever. 

Woodcuts by this artist are of the utmost rarity, 
and their total number is so small that it is easy 
to summarize in a few lines what is already known 
about them before introducing a description of 
the new subject.' The portraits, fully analyzed by 
Dr. Geisberg, may be neglected here as irrelevant 
to the present purpose. A round woodcut, 
Pyniiniis and Thisbe (P. 2, N. 33, S. 2), of which 
two impressions have been described, at Munich 
and Vienna, differs markedly both in drawing 
and cutting from the rest and appears to 
be earlier. Dr. Geisberg (p. 47) calls attention 
to the reminiscences of South German art in 
this woodcut, and ascribes it to Aldegrever's 
earliest period, about 1528. It is reproduced both 
by Weigel and Hirth-Muther. Next comes an 
upright subject {ca. 142 by 94 mm., B. i, P. i, 
N. 32, S. i), reproduced by Weigel and on p. 45 of 
Dr. Geisberg's book, which exists at Coburg and 
in the University Galleries at Oxford (Douce col- 
lection). It has generally been interpreted, on 
account of the conspicuous tower in the back- 
ground, as St. Barbara being sentenced to death 
by her father, but Dr. Geisberg has shown 
conclusively that it is a subject from the history of 
Joseph, Gen. xxxix. 16-20. Potiphar's wife is 
showing Joseph's garment to her husband, and in 
the distance Joseph is being led away to prison. 
This woodcut bears Aldegrever's monogram, con- 
spicuously placed upon the sky, and in another 
place a date very indistinctly cut, to be read appar- 
ently as 153 — . Dr. Geisberg proposes to interpret 
this as 1532, in which year Aldegrever engraved 
on copper three subjects from the life of Joseph 
(B. 18-20) — viz., Joseph telling his dreams, Joseph 

' See Bartsch, viii, 453; Passavant, iv, 106; Nagler, ' Mono- 
grammisten,' i, 292 ; Schmidt, in Meyer's ' Allgemeines 
Kiiiistlerlexikon,' i, 253 ; Weigel, ' Holz-chnitte beriihmter 
Meister,' Nos. 24 and 43 ; Hirth-Muther, ' Meister-Holzschnitte,' 
No. 96; Geisberg, 'Die Miinsterischen VViedertaiifer und 
Aldegrever,' 1907, pp. 43-51 ; Pauli, article on Aldegrever in 
Becker and Thieme's ' Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden 
Kiinstler, vol. i, p. 243. 

fleeing from Potiphar's wife, and Joseph accused 
by Potiphar's wife. The suggestion is confirmed 
by two new woodcuts of the year 1532, dealing 
with the life of Joseph, which have come to light 
since Dr. Geisberg's book was published. The 
first of these has recently been described by Dr. 
Pauli in his article on Aldegrever in the new 
' Kiinstlerlexikon.' The only impression known, 
signed and dated 1532, is in the Kunsthalle at 
Bremen. I am indebted to the director, Dr. Pauli, 
for permission to reproduce it here. The woodcut 
measures 140 by 94 mm., and represents Joseph 
fleeing from the temptation of Potiphar's wife. 
The dimensions show that it belongs to the 
same set as the woodcut at Coburg (B. 1). 
That is not the case with the subject, hitherto un- 
described, in Lord Pembroke's collection, which 
measures in its slightly mutilated condition 169 by 
125 mm., or 6f by 4I inches. It is thus con- 
siderably larger than the other two, with which it 
is notwithstanding intimately related both in date 
and subject. Aldegrever seems to have projected 
in this year a series of paints on the life of Joseph, 
without coming to any definite conclusion as 
to the number of subjects to be depicted, the 
medium (wood or copper) to be adopted, or even 
the size of the series that he actually commenced 
on wood. 

The interpretation of the print at Wilton 
presents a littls difficulty. The sun and moon 
and the eleven stars and the smaller sheaves 
of corn bowing down to a larger sheaf in the 
midst of them refer obviously to Joseph's two 
dreams, described in Gen, xxxvii. 7 and 9. 
They are represented in a similar manner in 
the contemporary engraving, B. 18, but there 
Joseph himself is standing, telling his dreams, 
while he is also represented a second time in the 
background, asleep in bed and dreaming. He is, 
of course, a beardless youth. Who, then, is this 
bearded and turbaned elder, of portly form and 
lethargic habit, who, in the woodcut at Wilton, 
sits nodding at a table, with jug and glass beside 
him ? It can only be Jacob, meditating on the 
two dreams (Gen. x.xxvii. 11, ' His father observed 
the saying '; in the Vulgate, ' Pater vero rem tacitus 
considerabat'). Pharaoh's butler, of whom one 
would otherwise be tempted to think, is excluded 
by the subject of the dreams. 

The monogram will be observed on the shaded 
side of the bench on which Jacob sits. His 
attire, the German stove in the corner of the room, 
the washing apparatus, towel and brush, the 
coffered ceiling and the column with a skull in 
antique taste upon its base are all drawn and cut 
with admirable firmness and sense of texture. 
The impression, though damaged, has been origin- 
ally a fine one, sharp and early. 

The Bremen woodcut has the advantage in the 
matter of good preservation. 

Campbell Dodgson. 


May 4, 1812. 

June 30, 1812. 
Aug. 3, 181 2. 

3 Seve Porcelaine Vases blue and 
gold . . . ;£io5 o o 
Do. Dejeune painted in figures 

£ll> 10 o 
Do. Dejeune painted in birds 

^63 o o 

2 SSve Porcelaine Vases green and 

gold fluted . . ^£78 IS o 

2 Seve Porcelaine Vases blue and 

gold ground with heads 

^157 ID o 
2 do. less Vases gilt patras 

;£l26 o o 

I do. larger Vases figures Vernet 

;£l26 o o 

The last item might be presumed to mean that 
Vernet was the painter of the figures, though in a 
later bill two vases are described as ' painted after 

Djc.26, 1812. 

Notes on Various Works of Art 


The gross extravagances, as they were then Aug. 19, 1812. 

deemed, of George IV, and the unpopularity „ , „ „ 

which ensued, are well known. Those who live Sept. 28, 1812. 

now and who cherish a love for and appre- 
elation of art are profoundly grateful for that Oct. 24, 1812. 
part of the Prince Regent's extravagance which 
resulted in the acquisition of many of the artistic 
treasures at Windsor Castle at what are now ridi- 
culously low figures. It has been my good fortune 
to find at the Public Record Office the original 
bills for many of the objects acquired by 
George IV, and these include a number of bills 
for a considerable portion of the royal collection 
of Sevres porcelain. Those who are fortunate 
enough to possess the sumptuous catalogue com- 
piled by Mr. Laking will doubtless be glad to 
know the prices paid for many of the specimens. 
The purchases of the Prince Regent would seem 
to have spread over about five years— between 
7th May, 1 810, and loth October, 1815. One 
Robert Fogg, of Warwick Street, appears to have 
supplied the bulk of the porcelain. The earliest 
bill is for a 'fine Seve porcelaine Desert Service 5 July, 1813. 

as pr. statement deliver'd to His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent May 7th, 1810, ;£526 15s. 4d.' 
This service, though ordered on that date in 18 10, 
was not delivered for more than two years later— 
namely, on 30th June, 1812. It probably refers 10 Oct., 1813. 

to No. 343 in the catalogue, and the fact that it 
should not have been ready for that length of time 
perhaps throws some light on Mr. Laking's remark 
on page 186 that 'it is even possible that the 
ser\'ice itself was not made at the Sevres, but at 
some other French factory.' The details given in 
the bills are so meagre that identification is im- 5 July, 18 14. 

possible in most instances. The next item is for 
' 2 Seve Porcelaine Vases blue ground Lapis 
Lazule, bird handles, ;£i26.' One of these is 
probably the vase on plate 43. 





2 Seve Porcelaine Vases larger 
purple ground . ;£3i5 o o 

66 Seve Porcelaine Plates 2 paterns 
at 31S. 6d. . . ;£i03 19 o 

2 Seve Vases, Arabesque finely 
mounted . . ;£i57 10 o 

A fine Seve Vase blue ground with 
Medallion Louis XV ^£63 o o 
Do. do. green ground ;£63 o 
Do. green ground Medallion 
flowers with handles ^£63 o 
Do. with a Cover . -£52 10 
Do. blue ground painted Cupids 
with handles goats' heads 

i^l 5 o 
Do. white ground gold and birds 

£^^ o o 

3 fine Seve Porcelaine Vases blue 
ground painted in figures 

^241 10 o 
A Sfeve Porcelaine Dauphin Cup 

and Saucer . . £\o 10 o 
A do. Cup and Saucer painted in 

flowers red ground £^ 8 o 
Three fine Sdve Porcelaine Vases 

green ground painted in Figures 

and Cupids . . ^Z^'] 10 o 
One larger do. painted in figures 

Three Seve Porcelaine Vases fine 
blue ground and painted in 
Mythological subjects 

^346 10 o 

A pair of do. mounted in Ormolu 
and painted in birds 

^"126 o o 

A Seve Porcelain Basen with 
cover and plate fine blue and 
gold ground, Vernet ^£36 15 o 

3 Seve Porcelaine Vases fine blue 
and gold ground painted Medal- 
ions Figures . £i'i'}) 10 o 

2 do. painted after Vernet 

;4"'57 10 o 
I do. larger Cupids after Boucher 
^102 7 6 
A Cup and Saucer fine blue ground, 
enamelled birds and rubies 

^31 10 o 
Do. fine blue and gold, after 

Vernet . . • ^n 
Do. do. garland flowers £(> 
Do. do. roses . . £<^ 
Do. sky blue cupids . £9 
Do. Less white ground flowers 

;C3 3 o 
A Basen with cover and plate fine 

blue and gold, Vernet ;^3 1 10 o 
A Basen and Ewre sky blue ground 

find flowers . . ;r23 12 6 



The Sevres Vorcelain at Windsor Castle 

A Sugar Cup with cover do. 

£7 17 6 
10 Oct., 1 814. A Seves Porcelaine Basen and 
Ewre painted in flowers 

£5 5 o 
Do. do. sky blue ground and 

flowers . . . ^25 4 o 

Do. Cup and Saucer sky blue 

ground ornamented with pearls 

£4- o o 

Do. Cup and Saucer Chocolate 

ground ornamented with pearls 

£-\^ o o 

Do. Egg shape mounted Cup fine 

blue ground ornamented with 

pearls . . . £2i(> 15 o 

5 April, 18 1 5. 72 Seve Porcelaine Plates, at 

3 IS. 6d. each. 

33 do. at 3 IS. 6d. each. 

17 do. Compoteers, at 31s. 6d. each. 

2 do. Tureens . . ^^12 12 o 

3 fine Seve Porcelaine Vases 

-^300 6 o 

10 Oct., 1815. 2 Seve Porcelaine Vases fine blue 

ground painted Figures Vernet 

£34(> 10 o 

2 Seve Porcelaine Vases Etruscan 

shape do. . . ;£2io o o 

2 do. Strolling Players _^i89 o o 

2 do. black and gold ground 
imitation of Japan £iS7 ^o ° 

3 do. fine blue ground painted 
Soldiers. . . ;£252 o o 

4 do. Flower Pots oval form sky 
blue and figures . ;^'i47 o o 

I do. Coffee Pot fine blue ground 
painted figures , ^42 o o 
I do. Cup and Saucer fine blue 
ground enamelled in pearls 

i.42 o o 

I do. Vase and Cover finely 

mounted in ormolu painted 

fruits and flowers . £63 o o 

There is another bill, dated the quarter ending 

5th January, 1815, with the name, F. Benois, but 

without an address. Can this be the M. Benoit 

referred to by Mr. Laking as a confidential French 

servant, and formerly pdtissicr to His Majesty, 

upon whose knowledge and guidance George IV 

accumulated 'valuable and authentic specimens 

of almost contemporary art ' ? This bill is as 

follows : — 

A large Seve Porcelaine Vase fine blue and 

gold ground .4*^5 

A large Bowl ^5° 

A vase oval form blue ground richly mounted 

in Bronze ....•• i^9° 

A Cup and Saucer fine green ground orna- 
mented in pearls £3° 

2 oval Flower vases sky blue ground . . ;^28 
2 round do. painted birds and flowers 

mounted in Bronze ^45 

A large Cup with cover blue ground . ' £^S 
A small Vase green ground mounted in Bronze ^^'20 
A Basen painted in Birds sky blue . . ^7 

Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., according to their 
bill of 5th January, 1814, supplied the Prince 
Regent with ' a pair highly gilt Candlesticks of the 
old Seve Porcelaine Seavce, £2^.' 

In a future note I hope to publish some details 
of the prices paid for other works of art at 
Windsor Castle : pictures, furniture, plate and 

E. Alfred Jones. 


A LINK of some interest with the past has just been 
swept away in Venice by the demolition of the 
Warehouse of the Persians (the ' Fondaco dei' 
Persiani') which stood between Rialto and San 
Gian Crisostomo. Here at the left-hand corner 
of the Ponte dell' Olio a stone passage led into a 
wooden-lined, square building, where a succession 
of floors looked out from open verandahs into a 
dark court, and a wooden staircase led in turn to 
each of these many floors. It was in sooth a 
shut-in, gloomy spot, and yet the heavy air and 
dim light seemed in keeping with the Eastern 
associations which haunted it, while it required 
no play of fancy to clothe those wooden walls 
with the carpets and hangings that Persian mer- 
chants brought in olden times to Venice to sell, or 
to exchange for wares that were chiefly to be 
found in Western markets. A few voices were 
raised to protest against the destruction of the 
' Fondaco,' but the greater part of the Town 
Council pleaded for its removal on the grounds 
of hygiene and safety, and their plea has prevailed. 
They urged that the woodwork of the warehouse 
was in so rotten a condition that unless it were 
pulled down it would collapse of itself and doubt- 
less cause much damage ; they also represented 
that in case of fire this old wooden building would 
prove a source of untold danger to the whole 
neighbourhood ; and that it possessed neither 
beauty nor historical associations sufficient to 
warrant its preservation. So a clean sweep has 
been made, from the ' Calle of San Gian Crisos- 
tomo ' right away to the Grand Canal, and a ' fine 
modern ' house is to replace the old wooden ware- 
house where in the Cinquecento Persian mer- 
chants found a ready market for their goods, and 
doubtless drove many a bargain with the colour- 
loving, gaily-clad and, withal, astute merchants of 
Venice. It was hoped that some treasures of art 
might have been found in the building, but the 
only thing that has come to light is a very fine 


Notes on Various Works of Art 

well-head of Istrian stone, in excellent preservation, 
which will be set up in the courtyard of the new 
house about to be built. Alethea Wiel. 


There are certain questions in art of which it is 
safe to predict that they will not find their rest till 
some one finds their document. One such question 
is that of the date of Donatello's Annunciation in 
the right aisle of Sta Croce in Florence. Albertini, 
the first to mention it, assigns no date. Vasari, 
who claims for it that it first brought fame to 
Donatello, describes it as a work of his youth. 
Some writers, with Cavalucci, have gone so far as 
to place it in 1406, when Donatello was twenty 
years old. Schmarsow, while combating this 
theory, yet gave to the work a date nearer to that 
of the Or San Michele statues ; Burckhardt in 
'Cicerone' names 1430 — I'.f., before the second visit 
to I Rome, ' at latest.' Von Tschudi, Schottmuller, 
Reymond, C. Perkin (who estimates it slightly), 
and many others place it after, and at varying dis- 
tances from, the return from the second Roman 
visit in 1433. Where document fails us, any light 
that may come to us from secondary sources 
becomes of value. In the work of Bernardo 
Rossellino I believe that we may find evidence 
which will at any rate suggest limits within which 
Donatello's Annunciation must fall, without 
claiming for it more than that. In the Misericordia 
Church (Santa Maria dei Scolopi) at Empoli in 1447 
Bernardo completed a group of {\\q Antiunciation. 
It is impossible to look long at the figure of the 
Madonna without becoming aware of the strong 
Donatellesque inspiration which pervades it. 
The Santa Croce Madonna at once rises to the 
mind. In the latter figure the movement, quite 
new in the treatment of that subject, is arrested at 
the precise moment when it expresses most com- 
pletely a condition of mental emotion. The 
Madonna has been reading, the book is still held 
open in her hand. She has risen suddenly at the 
appearance of the angel, and has turned, by 
impulse, to go — the position of the right knee, 
already bent to take the first step, is to tell us this ; 
the left foot, planted firmly on the ground, has not 
yet been moved. With her right hand she hastily 
plucks her mantle, which had dropped from her 
shoulders as she sat, across her breast. All this 
expresses the first emotion produced by the 
message of the angel. The lovely pose of the 
head turned downwards towards the angel, and 
away from the direction in which her step was to 
have been taken, alone tells us that the enthralling, 
mysterious message is yet holding her spellbound. 
Whether we put the Santa Croce group amongst 
the sculptor's earliest works or no, we can find no 
similar treatment of the theme which can be held 
to have preceded it. 

Now, if we turn to Bernardo's Empoli figure of 
the Madonna (1447) we shall find the same treat- 
ment used, though in a less expressive, less vital 
form. The previous emotion is less visibly 
declared, the present absorption in the words of 
the message less movingly enforced. But the 
means employed and the result obtained are still, 
to a great extent, similar to those of the Santa 
Croce group. At Empoli Bernardo's Madonna has 
also been reading, and the left hand presses the 
opened book to the body with precisely the same 
action. She has risen from her seat and is preparing 
to move to her left, but here the movement is not 
nearly so emphatic as that of the Santa Croce 
figure. Bernardo's Madonna stands more erect 
and in a quieter attitude, and the fall of the 
drapery naturally expresses this fact in the less 
involved cast of the folds. Her right hand does 
not grasp the mantle, but is raised as if for a 
moment to deprecate the message, her head being 
turned at the same time, as in Donatello's figure, 
sideways and downwards to the kneeling angel. 
The motive is one and the same. To visit the two 
groups on the same day is to be convinced upon the 
point. It will not be forgotten that the date of the 
Empoli group is 1447, and that in 1444-5 Bernardo 
had been engaged on the tomb of Leonardo 
Bruni, which is seen to-day close by the Cavalcanti 
group in Santa Croce, and must during the setting- 
up of that monument have had daily opportunity 
for loving study of Donato's work — not that we 
need dwell on such an opportunity, since every 
Florentine artist had it before his eyes whenever 
he chose to enter the church. But the Empoli 
Madonna, completed in the years immediately 
following on the Bruni tomb, may perhaps be the 
outcome of strongly renewed impressions. 

Accepting the view — which I hold to be indisput- 
able — that the Empoli Madonna derives from the 
Donato group, we get the latest limit to the possible 
date of the latter at 1447. But the limitation at that 
end is the less valuable of the two, since hardly any 
writer has suggested the placing of it at a later 
date in Donatello's career. What would be, fail- 
ing a definite documentary date, more valuable 
would be if we could fix the early limit. Let us 
see if in the work of the same Bernardo Rossellino 
we can find, at any rate, a strong suggestion. 

In the inner sacristy of the Duomo of Arezzo is 
a terra-cotta altarpiece with the Annunciation, 
and a predella beneath it. It bears the date 
MCCCCXXXIII and was made by Bernardo for 
Mariotto d'Angelo, canon of the cathedral. Ber- 
nardo was born at Settignano in 1409, and this 
work is the first which can be traced to his hand, 
the Misericordia lunette following by contract of 
March 27, 1434. The sacristy tabernacle is a very 
sweet and simple work, the effort of an unformed 
artist with a strong sense of beauty, who in his pre- 
sentation of this scene looks back to the long array 














Ill K I.AliY 1)1- rirV. KY BKKXAKIKl 




T^onatello s ' Annunciation ' 

of the successors of Giotto and of Andrea Pisano 
and, nearer to liis own day, to Luca della Robbia 
more than to Donatello — speaking, that is, merely 
of his rendering of this Annnnciation. One sees 
at once that this is the work of a young modeller 
who had derived no inspiration from the Cavalcanti 
group : I argue that he had never seen it. Certainly 
if it already in 1433 had existed in Santa Croce, 
Bernardo must have seen it very often. The 
Madonna in the Arezzo Duomo is seated, and 
bends her head humbly forward, her hand upon 
her heart, to receive the message. It is a vision of 
humility, innocence, purity. But whereas in the 
Donatello Annunciation there is something of 
strength — out of the strong there has come forth 
sweetness — here in Bernardo's early conception 
strength has not yet been added to sweetness. 

There is no attempt to express a contrast of 
emotions — or, indeed, strong emotion of any kind. 
The conviction comes to one as one looks at it 
that Madonna of Santa Croce had not yet come 
within the range of Bernardo's vision in the year 
1433. If this conviction be warranted, we get 
that year as our early limit. We must not claim 
any more from the argument. 

It was in that year that Donatello returned to 
Florence from Rome, where he had lately finished 
the little tabernacle in S. Peter's, which is now in 
the sacristy. The connexion between this work 
and the Santa Croce Annunciation has been 

recognized by several writers, though some have 
given the precedence in point of time to the latter, 
placing it before the second visit to Rome. In 
both cases Donatello's desire to satisfy his colour- 
craving by the use of special material is strongly 
in evidence. In the Roman tabernacle a soft 
grey marble has been introduced in parts, and 
originally it was enriched with gilding. The 
experiment is carried further in the Santa Croce 
work by the use of Macigno stone and gilding, 
while the wooden putti above gave further colour 
variation. I do not know whether attention has 
ever been drawn to the fact that in the decoration 
of these two monuments occurs an ornament 
which in this shape is never again found in 
Donatello's work — I mean the shallow, saucer-like 
palmette or rosette with radiating ribs, set at 
intervals in the Roman, close together in the 
Florentine example. This ornament seems to have 
been suggested by the patera so often found in 
classical work — as for example in the Ara Pacis 
relief, and in the temple of Vespasian. To myself 
the Santa Croce Annnnciation in its ornament 
suggests work carried out by Donatello while his 
Roman impressions were still strong upon him — 
that is to say, within a year or two of 1433 — a date 
which, of course, has already been largely 
accepted, though I do not know if the points set 
forth in the early portion of this paper have been 
taken into consideration. Gerald S. Davies. 



To ilic Editor of The Burlixgtox Magazine. 

Sir, — In the April number of your magazine. Sir 
Charles Hoiroyd mentions two new acquisitions 
by the National Gallery, one of which. No. 2163, 
is the portrait of a lady as a Magdalen which he 
attributes to Mabuse. 

I cannot agree with Sir Charles in attributing 
this picture to Mabuse, owing to the entire absence 
of the tender soft greenish violet shades in the 
face and hands which are a peculiar characteristic 
of this master. 

I venture to express my opinion that the painting 
in question is the work of Jan van Scorel, though 
the influence of Mabuse is undeniably present m 
the picture. 

The clear white light on the face with the 
brownish shades, and the fat hands with the 
pronounced bony finger-joints, so characteristic of 
Scorel at his best period, are very noticeable m 
this picture. 

Yours faithfully, 

J. O. Kronig. 

The Hague, 

12th June, 1908. 


Drawings by Goya in the Prado at Madrid. 

Part I, ' Les Caprices.' Rome : D. Anderson. 

There are few artists who are so steadily advanc- 
ing in the estimation of artists, art critics and art 
historians, each in their own respective line, as 
the great Spanish painter and draughtsman, 
Francisco Goya y Lucientes. To artists Goya 
can never fail to be interesting for his technical 

and individual skill as a painter, and especially as 
a painter-etcher. To critics he is interesting as a 
study of temperament, and as an exponent of 
direct nationality in art. To historians Goya is 
interesting from the unique place which he holds 
not only in the history of Spanish art but of art 
in general, and from his being the connecluig 
link with the bygone art of Velazquez and that of 
the modern French school and of such artists as 


Art Books of the Month 

Sorolla y Bastida and Zuloaga in modern Spain. 
To understand Goya, however, it is necessary to 
have some knowledge of Spain and the Spanish 
character, a knowledge which it is downright 
impossible to acquire outside Spain itself. It is 
also necessary to have some slight acquaintance 
with the history of Spain during Goya's lifetime, 
the troubled reign of Charles IV, the escapades of 
Queen Marie Luisa, the ascendancy of Godoy, 
Prince of the Peace, the Napoleonic invasion, and 
the crushing of Spain beneath the conqueror's heel 
leading to the tragedy of the Dos de Mayo (2nd May, 
1 808)." The cruel, almost savage experience of these 
disastrous years inspired Goya to produce two of the 
greatest series of etchings that any artist's mind ever 
gave birth to, ' Les Caprices ' and ' Les Desastres de 
la Guerre.' In these etchings humour, satire, bitter 
rancour, coarseness, and yet in some cases the 
pathos of the artist's mind, are poured forth in 
profusion. The meaning of the ' Caprices ' is at 
this day very obscure, as so many subjects refer to 
local matters of ephemeral interest. They are, 
perhaps, more intelligible in the drawings preserved 
at the Prado in Madrid, and now reproduced in 
facsimile by Signor D. Anderson at Rome. With 
the drawings is preserved a manuscript statement 
by Goya as to the subjects, but the explanations 
are obviously so worded as to evade any charge of 
personal or political libel or of blasphemy. The 
subjects of the 'Caprices' have been elucidated 
by M. Paul Lefort in the 'Gazette des Beaux Arts' 
{1867), vol. xxii, p. 194, etc., and it is on M. Lefort's 
work that the text of the present publication is 
based. Where the original drawing from the 
etching is missing at the Prado, the gap has been 
filled by a facsimile of the etching itself. 

The reproductions by Signor Anderson are in 
every way worthy of his high repute as a photo- 
grapher. Students of art cannot fail to be grateful 
to him for bringing this important series within 
their reach, and will eagerly await a second set to 
include ' Les Desastres de la Guerre.' L. C. 

Die Niederlandische Holzschnitt-Passion 
Delbecq-Schreiber. Von Dr. W. Molsdorf. 
Strassburg : Heitz, 1908. 35 marks. 
This is a recent addition to the valuable series 
of reproductions of fifteenth-century woodcuts, 
chiefly specimens preserved in the smaller public 
collections of Germany and Switzerland, which 
owes its existence to the initiative of Herr Paul 
Heitz. Dr. Molsdorf of Breslau has written a 
succinct and useful introduction to a rather 
remarkable series of twenty Passion woodcuts 
which belonged, early in the last century, to 
Van de Velde of Louvain, then to the famous 
collector Delbecq of Ghent (1771-1840), and 
are now the property of Professor W. L. 
Schreiber of Potsdam. Alike from internal evi- 
dence and from what is known of the manu- 


script in which they were formerly inserted, there 
can be no doubt that they are of Flemish origin, 
and Dr. Molsdorf dates them with great probability 
about 1480-90. In two of them certain figures are 
copied from engravings by Schongauer and the 
master I A M of Zwolle, and there are several 
cases of borrowing from the blockbook, ' Speculum 
humanae salvationis.' The author of the Passion 
was no first-rate artist, but yet above the average. 
The colouring of the originals is reproduced, as is 
the case throughout this series, by hand. The 
use of modern pigments inevitably gives a modern 
appearance to the facsimile, and defeats the pro- 
posed object, while it adds largely to the expense. 
Many serious students would prefer a collotype 
reproduction without any hand-work, until colour- 
printing processes are so far developed as to be 
applied to this class of subject without prohibitive 
expense. C. D. 


Aus MiiNCHE.\ER Privatbesitz. Herausgege- 

ben von Georg Leidinger. Strassburg: Heitz. 

1908. (Studien zur Deutschen Kunstges- 

chichte, Heft 95.) 8 marks. 
Dr. Leidinger, who is making known in other 
publications of the same Strassburg firm the rich 
stores of fifteenth-century cuts on wood and metal 
in the Munich library, reproduces here a series of 
forty small dotted prints of New Testament sub- 
jects lately in private ownership at Munich, and 
now in the market. Some of them exist in the 
Paris collection, and have been published by 
Bouchot, while others are represented in the 
public collections at Munich ; but twenty-six of 
the forty are undescribed, and for that reason 
alone this complete publication, accompanied by 
a scientific commentary, is welcome to students, 
though the artistic merit of the series is not great. 
Several of the subjects are unusual, and possess, 
for that reason, a special iconographical interest. 
The reproductions in half-tone are quite adequate 
for purposes of study, and preferable to hand- 
coloured ' facsimiles,' which always excite sus- 
picion. C. D. 

Theodor Schreiber. Munich : F. Bruckmann. 
In the introduction to this handsome volume 
Dr. Schreiber traces the gradual growth of the 
Leipzig Gallery from its foundation in 1837. Then 
follows a detailed account of the eighty-four works 
selected for illustration, in collotype, on a scale 
which admits of the details being properly studied, 
the frontispiece, after Max Klinger's The Blm Hour, 
being reinforced with colour. Bocklin, Klinger, 
Thoma, Lenbachand Meunier among the moderns 
are specially well represented, and there are some 
interesting works by various Old Masters ; but the 

gap between the old art and the new is filled by 
German painters of the early part of the nineteenth 
century in whom for the most part the world has 
ceased to take an interest. The works of the earlier 
painters are preceded, not unjustly, by a portrait 
of Consul Schletter, whose bequest to Leipzig in 
the fifties first made the collection a thing of some 
importance. Of the two works connected with 
Van Eyck, the second, The Love Charm, though 
not from the master's hand, is in some respects 
the more interesting, since it reflects a side of the 
painter's work — the painting of nude figures— of 
which a curious echo was discovered in the picture 
by Haecht exhibited last year at Burlington House. 
Three Cranachs, of which the Sleeping Nymph is 
the most attractive, and an imposing Crucifixion 
by Georg Lemburger, with a curious inscription, 
lead the way to examples attributed to the school 
of Bastiano Mainardi and to Bissolo, which are 
the sole representatives of the art of Renaissance 
Italy. The Dutch masters are more important, 
Rembrandt, Steen, Van Ostade, Wouvermans and 
several others being illustrated by more or less 
characteristic works. The St. Jerome of the 
Burgos painter, Mateo de Cerezo, is an excellent 
example of an artist whose works occur occa- 
sionally in continental galleries, but who is not, 
we believe, represented in any English collection. 

Papers of the Society of Painters in 
Tempera, 1901-1907. Edited by Chris- 
tiana J. Herringham, London : Printed for 
private circulation. 
The revival of the practice of tempera painting 
has an interest for the critical public as well as for 
working artists, in that the method is responsible 
for a considerable proportion of the most beauti- 
ful pictures in the world, and those pictures 
cannot be satisfactorily studied except by those 
who have some knowledge of the processes by 
which they were produced. 

The treatise of Cennini has been and will con- 
tinue to be our chief guide on the subject, but his 
statements are often obscure, and it is well to have 
them supplemented by the experience of living 
artists, the more so because it is clear that the 
possibilities of tempera are by no means exhausted. 
Altogether this book, which, by the way, is admir- 
ably printed, is a most useful and practical contri- 
bution to technical literature, the more so because 
its scope includes fresco painting as well as 

MODERNE KULTUR. Vol. II. By Dr. E. Heyck 
and others. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stutt- 
gart. 15 marks. 
The first volume of this handsome work was re- 
viewed in the August number of The Burlington 
Magazine. The second and final volume now 
before us completely fulfils all our expectations of 

Art "Books of the Month 

this 'Manual of Culture and Good Taste.' The 
main theme is ' Personality and its Circle,' and 
the first section, which bears the same head- 
ing, is by Marie Diers, the well-known German 
novelist, who here discourses on ' Love and 
Marriage,' ' Woman and the Woman Question,' 
The Relation to the Child,' etc. Other contribu- 
tions to this volume are : ' Society,' ' Culture in 
Personal Appearance,' 'The Art of Eating' (W. 
Fred), 'Books' (Hermann Hesse), 'The Theatre' 
(Karl Scheffler), and, last but not least, 'The Wis- 
dom of Drinking ' and ' The Art of Travelling ' 
by the editor. Dr. Ed. Heyck, himself — the aim of 
the entire work being to show that culture, to be 
true and lasting, must be every-one's affair. The 
ninety-five illustrations, which range from Botti- 
celli's Spring and Mr. Charles Shannon's The Toilet 
to examples of Mr. Von Gloden's Sicilian photo- 
graphs, are well reproduced and add considerably 
to the attractions of the book. 

Ballads and Hymns of Love. Edited by Frank 
Sidgwick : Illustrated after Byam Shaw, R.I. 
London : Chatto and Windus. 6s. net. 
This selection from Percy's ' Reliques ' makes 
pleasant reading, and the pictures will be familiar 
to those who saw Messrs. Dowdeswell's recent ex- 
hibition of Mr. Byam Shaw's drawings. Spirited, 
clever and gay as the originals were, they have 
suffered less by this process of reproduction in 
colour than good drawings are apt to do. Some 
indeed may actually think the reproductions in 
certain cases look better than the originals. Mr, 
Byam Shaw has a taste for opposition of sharp 
colours which even on the modest scale and in the 
decorative treatment of the exhibited drawings 
might not be every one's taste. The reduction in 
scale which the book necessitates is thus all in his 
favour, and even those who found the originals too 
bright will hardly be able to deny that the repro- 
ductions are among the most fresh, vigorous and 
successful illustrations that the modern colour 
process has achieved. 

Of the nine pictures, that illustrating ' The 
Gaberlunzie Man ' was perhaps the most striking, 
and it loses none of its fire and vitality in the book. 
Altogether Mr. Shaw has never shown to better 
advantage, and the book, as we have said, is full 
of good things to read. 

The Red Lily. By Anatole France. Translated 
by Winifred Stephens. London : Lane. 6s. 
The making of an edition of the works of Anatole 
France in English is a delicate problem, and Mr, 
Frederic Chapman, who is responsible for the 
literary standard of the present series, had no light 
task before him. The publisher has started the 
undertaking handsomely, for the volume is 
exceedingly cheap considering the excellence and 
i^ttractiveness of its printing and binding. Whether 


Art Books of the Month 

any perfect English substitute for the French of 
a master stylist can ever be offered is another 
question, and one which falls outside our imme- 
diate province. The translator of 'The Red Lily' 
has done her work conscientiously, yet sentences 
such as ' But him whom you shall love . . . 
will be your enemy' (p. 179) surely called for 
editorial revision? 

Royal Academy Pictures and Sculpture, 1908. 

London : Cassell. 5s. net. 
With their customary promptness Messrs. Cassell 
have issued their annual souvenir of the exhibition 
at Burlington House. The pictures chosen admir- 
ably represent the popular side of the exhibition, 
and will doubtless appeal to many visitors who 
wish to revive the hasty impression gained by a 
single visit. We note that sculpture is somewhat 
scantily represented, while the absence of any works 
by Mr. Sargent and of Sir Hubert von Herkomer's 
large portrait group is perhaps a more serious defect. 
The frontispiece is an excellent reproduction 
of Mr. Clausen's large picture. The Boy and the 
Man, which gains considerably in effect by the 
great reduction in scale. 


We have received from the publishers, Messrs. 
A. and C. Black, the edit ion dc Itixe of the pamphlet 
on ' The Edinburgh Parthenon of the Scottish 
National Gallery,' which we reviewed in June, 1907. 
A very handsome volume, illustrated in colour. 
•Bound in various styles or enclosed in a case, it may 
be obtained of Mr. Bernard Quaritch. 

Folklore as an Historical Science. By 
George Laurence Gomme. (The Anti- 
quary's Books.) Methuen and Co. 1908. 
7s. 6d. net. 

This book ' supplies a long-felt want ' — and never 
was a hackneyed phrase more inevitable. Folk- 
lore, as a science, has scarcely attained its first 
centenary ; the very word is only some sixty years 
old. Mr. Gomme, who outlined the present book 
in articles contributed to the ' Folklore Journal ' 
in 1885, is doubtless by no means the only folk- 
lorist who '^has seen the necessity for guidance in 
correlating' this, the youngest of the sciences (ex- 
cept perhaps recent developments of psychology), 

with other branches of research. ' It is not,' he 
says, ' because it consists of traditions, superstitions, 
customs, beliefs, observances and what not, that 
folklore is of value to science. It is because the 
various constituents are survivals of something 
much more essential to mankind than fragments 
of life which for all practical purposes of progress 
might well disappear from the world.' On this 
Mr. Gomme bases his argument, and the validity 
of his plea cannot be gainsaid — that it is high time 
that the value of folklore as an adjunct to histori- 
cal research should be recognized. ' It cannot be 
studied alone ' — no more than can any other 
science be properly considered without reference 
to others. Mr. Gomme therefore treats of folklore 
in reference to the psychological, anthropological, 
sociological and ethnological conditions in the 
' culture-area ' represented by the British Isles ; he 
gives also the discussion of European conditions 
necessitated by the clash of Christianity with the 
original native religions. In each point, so skilled 
a folklorist as Mr. Gomme has, of course, apt illus- 
trations and parallels at his fingers' ends ; he has 
also a happy and straightforward style of setting 
forth his matter which is not common, at least 
among folklorists. The result is that the book is 
both intelligible to the amateur and satisfactorily 
stimulating to the connoisseur in folklore ; the 
footnotes everywhere assist the specialist to find 
particular material ; and the illustrations are well 

It is scarcely more than a quarter of a century 
since the fundamental parallelism between phylo- 
genesis and ontogenesis was first demonstrated — 
that is to say, that the growth of an individual is 
an accelerated repetition of the growth of the race. 
The paradox appears to lie in the fact that interest 
in genetic principles is of late growth ; and just as 
the study of individual youth is now developing 
into what will probably prove a new science, so 
its phylogenetic counterpart, the study of the 
youth of our race, has but just recently begun on 
scientific lines. Where new ground is broken, 
fools will rush in ; but here they will have in Mr. 
Gomme's book a trustworthy signpost to guide 
their steps on the right path. Students of any 
branch of history must henceforth acknowledge 
folklore as an indispensable handmaid to then- 
Muse, and this as a most useful handbook to their 


Frank Sidgwick. 


The Louvre has two new acquisitions of the very 
first importance, a portrait by Francois Clouet 
and a portrait by Memlinc. The Clouet, which 
was the generous gift of the Societe des Amis du 
Louvre, is the only signed portrait by the artist at 


present discovered. It was found at Vienna by 
M. Moreau-Nelaton, who bought it for a little less 
than ^2,000 (a sum certainly far below its market 
value) and transferred it to the Amis du Louvre 
at the same price. The portrait, which is three- 
quarter length and life-size, represents a man with 





Art in France 

a Charles IX beard, dressed in a doublet of black 
terry velvet with lace insertions of the same colour 
and a narrow collar and cuffs in point de Venise ; 
he has a book filled with dried plants open before 
him. At the bottom of the picture on the left of 
ttie figure is the inscription : — 





Francois Clouet signed ' Janet,' the diminutive 
of his father's name Jean, in accordance with a 
custom common at the time. The subject of the 
portrait has been identified with certainty by M. 
Henri Stein as the result of researches in the 
archives of the Ecole de Pharmacie. He is a 
Parisian grocer and apothecary named Pierre 
Quthe, who had a great reputation between 1550 
and 1585 ; one of the reasons of his celebrity was 
the fact that he possessed one of the finest gardens 
in Paris, hence the book with the botanical speci- 
mens. Quthe was an intimate friend and a neigh- 
bour of Francois Clouet ; they lived a few doors 
from each other in the rue St. Avoye, near the 
Temple, in what is now the 3rd arrondissement. 
The street has disappeared, but there are still an 
impasse and a passage St. Avoie. By the presenta- 
tion of this profoundly interesting work the Society 
des Amis du Louvre has added one more to the 
many invaluable services that it has rendered to 
the gallery. 

The portrait of an old woman by Memlinc ^ was 
already well known, and M. Leprieur has desired to 
acquire it for the Louvre ever since it was exhibited 
at Bruges in 1902. It was then in the possession 
of M. Nardus, who was at that time unwilling to 
part with it, but it has since passed into the hands 
of M. Kleinberger, from whom the Louvre has 
acquired it for the sum of 200,000 frs., which can- 
not be considered at all an exaggerated price. 
M. Kleinberger had already been the means of 
placing in the Louvre the suberb Homme an verve 
lie vin, formerly attributed to Fouquet, so that he 
lias provided the gallery with two of its most 
precious possessions. This portrait of an old 
woman was the earliest and the finest of a series of 
portraits of unknown persons included in the 
Bruges exhibition, and is one of the most remark- 
able of Memlinc's works. It originally formed 
part of a diptych ; the other half, representing the 
old lady's husband, is in the Berlin museum, to 
which the portrait now in the Louvre was lent for 
some time by its late owner, M. Nardus. Both 
portraits were formerly in the Meazza collection 
at Milan and were included in the sale of that 
collection in 1884. 

We must hold over till next month our notes 
on other changes and acquisitions, 

^Reproduced on p. 231. 


The theatrical exhibition at the Mus& des Arts 
Dccoratifs is an interesting and amusing show, 
although it does not quite come up to one's antici- 
pations. Its scope is wide and ranges from such 
exhibits as the chair of Moliereor the penholder of 
Rachel to the remarkable collection of Greek and 
Roman antiquities connected with the theatre which 
is lent by M. Jules Sambon. M. Sambon's collection 
of theatrical objects, which is unique, is the back- 
bone of the exhibition. His antiques compose the 
whole of the first section and consist of 392 pieces 
of various kinds, besides a series of 134 coins and 
133 medals decorated with theatrical subjects. 
The collection of masks and of statuettes of actors 
and musicians is remarkable ; there are also musi- 
cal instruments ; vases and lamps decorated with 
theatrical subjects and various miscellaneous 
objects, besides the coins and medals already men- 
tioned. It is to be hoped that this collection, 
invaluable as it is to the students of the Greek and 
Roman theatres, will one day find its way into a 
public museum. But M. Sambon's collection is 
not confined to antiquities ; it forms a large part 
of the other sections of the exhibition. For 
instance, all the faience and porcelain belong to 
him, with the exception of the biscuit porcelain 
from the museum of the Sevres factory, a beautiful 

It is impossible in these notes to give any idea 
of the variety of the exhibition. One of the most 
interesting sections is the long series of models 
of theatrical scenery. The collection of marionettes 
includes figures from Japan, Turkey and Java. A 
case without a number, which I could not find in 
the catalogue, contained a series of remarkably 
clever satirical figures apparently dating from the 
early nineteenth century. Much of the porcelain 
and faience exhibited is of fine quality, and there- 
fore interesting apart from its theatrical associations. 
The costume section is perhaps the weakest part 
of the exhibition. There is much to be noticed 
among the busts and statuettes. 

The paintings, drawings, pastels, miniatures, etc., 
which form a large part of the exhibition, have 
naturally not been chosen for their artistic value, 
but they include a considerable number of 
interesting pictures, though they might have been 
more representative. Among the portraits which 
specially attracted one's attention in a rather hasty 
survey were those of the famous Italian .actor of 
the seventeenth century, Guiseppe Biancolelli, 
attributed to Annibale Caracci ; of Malle Duclos, 
by Largilliere ; of Quin (the English actor of the 
eighteenth century) ; of Duels by Baron Gerard ; 
of Pottier by Vernet ; Chenard by Louis David ; 
Dejazet by Deveria, and a fine jiastel portrait of 
Lekain by Lenoir (1767). It is strange that tliis 
e.xhibition of theatrical pictures contains not a 
single example of Degas. 

Art in France 

Unfortunately, the exhibition has not the inter- 
national character that it was intended to have. 
With the exception of the Greek and Roman 
antiquities, the exhibits are mainly French. I 
understand that the almost entire absence of any 
representation of England is due to the fact that 
the English committee resigned owing to its dis- 
satisfaction with the arrangements made. It must 
also be added that the attributions of some of the 
portraits in the retrospective section are, both as 
regards subjects and painters, extremely rash. 

The exhibition of the hundred pastels at the 
Georges Petit Galleries has been a great success 
financially ; the receipts for admission amounted 
to about ;f 3,300, although the exhibition was open 
only three weeks and three days. The Croix 
Rouge will, therefore, benefit considerably. Artis- 
tically the exhibition was extremely interesting, 
and it contained a great many fine pastels, but the 
organizers were too lenient in regard to doubtful 
and more than doubtful works ; had a more 
severe standard been adopted nearly one-third of 
the pastels exhibited would have been excluded. 
Far greater severity ought to be used in exhibi- 
tions of this kind, for the fact that a picture has 
been shown in an important exhibition is not 
infrequently used as a commercial asset when the 
picture comes to be sold, and this not alone by 
professional dealers. 

The Georges Petit galleries are now entirely 
filled with the works of Gaston La Touche ; 
the exhibition, which is a complete history of 
the painter's artistic life, is well worth a visit 
It will continue until 13th July. The 'Salon 
de Mobilier' will open at the Grand Palais in 
the course of July ; it is announced that it will 
contain a fine art section, presumably pictures of 
furniture and interiors, unless indeed it is a refuge 
for the unhung. 

The medal of honour for painting in the Salon 
has been won by M. Marcel Baschet for his por- 
trait of Henri Rochefort ; he obtained 261 votes 
against 123 for M. Guillemet in the final ballot. 
M. Jean Boucher gained by an overwhelming 
majority the medal of honour in the section of 
sculpture for his monument to Victor Hugo. It is 
doubtful whether either of these decisions would 
be confirmed by many critics, but critics and 
artists proverbially differ. The jury awarded no 
medals of the first class in the section of painting ; 
among the fourteen recipients of medals of the 
second class were an Englishman, Mr. Hughes- 
Stanton, and an American, Mr. Robert Mac- 
Cameron. Mr. Craig, Mr. Swinson and Mr. Adams 
were among the twenty-six medallists of the third 
class. Mr. H. H. Brown, Mr. Carter, Mr. 
Hartshorne, Mr. Redfield, Mr. A. Jacob, Mr. Hay, 
Miss Clarke and Miss Morgan received honourable 
mention. Mr. Fry and Mr. Ward received medals 
of the third class in the section of sculpture. 

The sales this month have again been lacking in 
interest and importance, and the season, which has 
been the dullest known in the Parisian auction 
rooms for many years, is now nearly at an end. 
Two of the most important pictures that have 
turned up had a sale to themselves on 5th June. 
One was a painting attributed to Fragonard, Le 
Coiitrat, the other a picture by Corot, Castel Gandolfo ; 
although no owner's name was mentioned, it was 
known that the pictures came from the estate of 
the late Marquis d'Hautpoul. Le Contrat was no 
doubt bought in at the sale of the d'Hautpoul 
collection in 1905, when it was knocked down at 
29,000 frs. On 5th June the highest bid was only 
26,000 frs., and the picture was sold at that price 
plus the usual commission. The explanation is 
that the picture was probably mainly or even 
entirely the work of Fragonard's pupil. Mile. 
Gerard. The Castel Gandolfo of Corot, on the 
other hand, fetched the high price (including com- 
mission) of 110,110 frs., the expert's demand 
being only 60,000 frs. This picture was bought 
in 1865, at the sale of the Gros collection, for 
1,540 frs. 

The collection of the late Madame Debacker 
contained very few pictures of importance, but a 
gouache by Claude Hoin, Portrait de Mine. 
Diigazon dans le role de Xina on la Folk par amour 
(signed and dated 1786), fetched the enormous 
price of 50,600 frs., more than double what the 
expert asked for it. The price is the more extra- 
ordinary since there exist several versions by Hoin 
of this subject ; one such fetched 20,900 frs. at the 
Goncourt sale in 1897, ^""^ another 25,300 frs. at 
the Muhlbacher sale in 1899. A Diaz, Une 
Clairicre, fetched 16,500 frs. Some of the objets 
d'art, many of which were good, sold well, and the 
tapestries fetched high prices. A single Beauvais 
tapestry, one of the series known as la Noble 
Pastorale designed by Boucher, and representing 
les Plaisirs de la Peche, was sold for 132,550 frs. 
— less, however, than the expert's demand. A 
Brussels tapestry after Teniers fetched 27,500 frs. 
The pictures belonging to the late M. Reitlinger 
were for the most part very poor stuff, and fetched 
low prices, the total (for 214 lots) being only 
81,592 frs. plus the ten per cent. The only interest 
of this sale was that it confirmed the marked rise 
in the price of pictures by Courbet. A picture by 
this artist called Les deux amis, which was merely 
a replica of part of the large picture formerly in 
the Zygomalas collection, fetched no less than 
12,650 frs., nearly 4,000 frs. more than the 
expert asked for it. A Marine by Courbet was 
sold for 6,710 frs., rather less than the expert's 

The sale of the collection of modern pictures 
belonging to the late M. de Porto-Riche had 
excited in advance a certain amount of interest, 


Art in France 

which turned out to be hardly justified. The 
collection also included furniture and ohids d'ait, 
not of first-rate importance, and the prices were 
low as a rule. The highest price was 20,350 frs. 
for La Marc en forct, by Diaz, which realized 
16,500 frs. at the Garnier sale in 1894. 

At the sale of the Helene Chauvin collection a 
proof of the portrait of Edouard Dagoty, by 
Lasinio, sold for 8,360 frs., and a proof before 
letters of ]. R. Smith's Promenade at Carlisle House 
for 7,062 frs. 

The collection of the late M. E. Coudray, sold on 
12th and 13th July, consisted of modern paintings, 
water colours, pastels and drawings. The highest 
prices were 19,800 frs. for a Venetian picture by 
Ziem, quite of the ordinary type ; 14,300 frs. for 
L'Efang by Corot ; 14,300 frs. for Biblis, a single 
female figure by Henner ; 14,300 frs. for Le Berger 
el son tronpeaii by Charles Jacque, whose pictures 
keep up in value ; and 10,780 frs. for a portrait of 
J nana Roman i by F. Roybet. The sale was 
chiefly remarkable for the high prices paid for 
water colours by Ziem — 5,830 frs. for Bragozzi et 
gondoles stir le Grand Canal; 5,170 frs. for La Cara- 
vane partant da Caire pour la Mccqne ; 4,950 frs. 
for Lc Bord des etang en Cantargnc ; 3,355 frs. for 
a Venetian Soleil concliant. A water colour by 
Fantin-Latour, Le Jitgenient dc Paris, fetched 
8,030 frs., and the water colours by Chaplin, Har- 
pignies, Charles Jacque, Leon Lhermitte and 
Gustave Moreau sold well. 

At a sale of modern pictures of no special import- 
ance, held at the Hotel Drouot, on June i6th, fairly 
good prices were obtained. MM. Bernheim jeune 
paid 8,800 frs. for a picture by Cazin, La Lecture, 
in the form of a fan. 


M. Charles-Edouard Steinheil, whose terrible 
murder by burglars has been a sensation of the 
month, was a rather well-known painter of his- 
torical and genre subjec^ts. He was born in 1850 
and first exhibited at the Salon in 1870. In 1890 
he followed his cousin, Meissonier, to the New 
Salon, but returned to the Old Salon five years 
later. His father, Louis Steinheil, was celebrated 
for his restoration of mediaeval wall-paintings and 
stained glass, and worked a great deal for Viollet- 

A monument to the dramatist Henry Becquc 
has been placed at the corner of the Boulevard de 
Courcelles and the Avenue de Villiers. The bust 
of Becque is the work of M. Rodin, and the 
architectural part of the monument is designed by 
M . Nenot. 

M. Naudet, the architect of historical monuments, 
has discovered in the Palace of the Popes at 
Avignon the remains of the entrance to the great 
chapel of the palace, known as the Chapel of 
Clement VL The entrance consisted of two 

doors, the archings of which are almost intact, as 
is the base of the pier dividing them. The bases 
of the pillars are decorated with very fine sculptures 
of the fourteenth century, and in the niches above 
one statue remains, but the head and hands are 
missing. The entrance was covered by modern 
masonry. The ancient pavement of the Salle de 
I'Audience has also been discovered, and this hall 
will be restored to its ancient proportions ; when 
the palace was turned into a barrack the floor was 
raised by about four feet. It is to be hoped that 
the restoration of this superb monument of the 
middle ages will not be carried too far, as in the 
case of Mont St. Michel. 

The burglaries in churches continue : Chartres 
Cathedral and the church of St. Jacques at Dieppe 
were recently broken into and, although little or 
nothing was stolen, a superb window was broken 
at Chartres in order to effect an entrance. At 
Limoges Cathedral, the latest to be pillaged, the 
burglars were more successful ; they carried off a 
number of ancient enamels, scheduled and inven- 
toried by the Ministry of Fine Arts, and valued 
at ;^'4,ooo. Meanwhile it is announced that 
Thomas, now undergoing imprisonment, has made 
fresh statements which have decided the magistrate 
at Clermont-Ferrand to summon once more cer- 
tain Parisian dealers who were examined at the 
trial. It is possible that there may be interesting 
developments. In any case it is high time to take 
some steps to protect the art treasures in the 
churches ; if they cannot be protected where they 
are, they must be placed elsewhere. The Limoges 
affair may convince the Government of the neces- 
sity of proceeding with the measure drafted by M. 
Briand when he was Minister of Fine Arts, which 
has up to now slumbered in a pigeon-hole. 

The following is the somewhat meagre official 
description of the objects stolen from Limoges, 
which it may be useful to publish in case any of 
them should turn up in England: — 

Two ' pax ' in painted enamel of the fifteenth century, one 
representing the seven sorrows of Our Lady, and the other 
scenes in the Passion. 

Three 'altar cards' in painted enamel of the seventeenth 
century, by Nicolas Laudin, considered to be among the finest 
works of that .irtist ; the Crucifixion is represented on the central 
panel ; on one of the others are the sacrifice of Abraham and 
the death of Abel, and on the third the adoration of the Magi, 
the marriage at Cana, and the four Evangelists. 

Two Greek crosses for use by canons, in enamelled silver with 
representations of St. Martial and St. Stephen. 

Two pyxes in parcel-gilt ; a monstrance in p.ircel-fiilt ; a 
chalice in parcel-gilt; a chalice enriched with enamels and 
precious stones ; a chalice in parcel-gilt with decorations of 
gold in different shades; three chalices in silver-gilt; two 
chalices in silver ; two pyxes in silver ; two Kirgc pyxes in 
parcel-gilt ; two other pyxes surmounted by a small Lalm cross 
screwed into a globe ; an Ai^iiiis Oct with the legend, 'Anunam 
suam dat pro ovibus ' ; a box for the holy oils. 

A portable candlestick (used for pontilical functions) in parcel- 
gilt ; an ewer in parcel-gilt bearing a plateau with the arms of 
Mgr. Buissas, formerly Bishop of Limoges ; a canon's cross in 
silver and enamel ; an enamelled morse (clasp) for a cope. 

R. E. D. 




HE Goethe Museum has been 
thoroughly rearranged, with a 
view to reinstating the condi- 
tions which obtained at the 
time of Goethe's death. Ex- 
cepting his study and the 
room in which he died — these 
two never having been altered 
in the least since 1832 — many objects which bore 
upon Goethe and his works have gradually found 
their way into the museum. The great poet's fine 
art collections were, however, considerable enough 
to warrant the attempt to show the public just 
what Goethe had delighted in and into what 
special channels he had turned his collector's 
interests. This end has been achieved by the 
new rearrangement, which extended only to 
those rooms of the house which Goethe actually 
lived in. 

A catalogue, the need of which has often been 
felt, has just appeared. It describes scientifically 
the 1,070 paintings in the Bayerische National 
Museum at Munich, and was compiled by Prof. K. 
Voll, H. Braune and H. Buchheit. The museum 
contains, as is well known to specialists, very many 
important works of the early Bavarian and Suabian 
schools, which have never before been satisfactorily 
reproduced or even catalogued. 

The municipality of Venice has honoured Franz 
von Stuck, the well-known Munich painter, with 
a special invitation to arrange as complete an 
exhibition of his life-work as possible for the 
International Fine Art Exhibition, to be held there 
in 1909. 

The Markische Provinzialmuseum has been 
reopened in a new building designed by Ludwig 
Hoffman at Berlin. This collection is excellent, 
having many points in common with the Musee 
Carnavalet at Paris, but it covers a mucli wider 
field, since it embraces art, archaeology, science, 
natural history and civilization of the Province 
Brandenburg and its capital Berlin. The collections 
for years have not really been on view, as only a 
small part of them were shown in temporary 
quarters while the present structure was in course 
of erection. This new building is, owing to the 
site, rather irregular in plan, and when one visits 
it one is rather bewildered by the multiplicity of 
rooms and corridors ; even an expert will lose his 
bearings. In other respects, however, the museum 
is well adapted to the collections which it contains. 
It is built in the North-German Gothic style of red 
brick, near the Jannowitzbriicke at the east end of 
the town, rather inconvenient for strangers, but 
very wisely located for the fulfilment of its real 
purpose, which is that of being a people's 

The art collections are varied and important. 
There are a good many early paintings, removed 
thither from old churches and chapels ; further, 
many interesting portraits and an extensive collec- 


tion of prints by local artists, of whom Chodowiecki, 
Meil, Cunningham and G. F. Schmidt are four 
of the most important. The topographical collec- 
tion, plans and views of Berlin, is hue, and it is 
most interestingly supplemented by caricatures 
and types of Berlin life. Those dating from the 
middle of the forties to the middle of the seventies 
— the time during which Berlin gradually changed 
from an overgrown village into one of the world's 
capitals, and was given to surprise and witticisms 
over its own growth — are particularly amusing. 

One room is devoted to the guilds, another to 
the old porcelain and pottery manufactures. 
There are several rooms illustrating the customs 
and manner of living of the Spreewald peasant ; 
again, several interesting rooms showing what the 
house of the average Berlin citizen in 1830 or 
thereabouts looked like. 

The Provinzialmuseum is certainly one of the 
most interesting of the numerous line Berlin 
museums, and should receive attention at the 
hands not only of the student of manners and 
customs but also of fine and applied art. 

At Aix-la-Chapelle new researches and excava- 
tions are pending in Charlemagne's old cathedral 
church. The floor of the octagon is to be 
examined with a view to ascertaining the exact 
location and form of Charlemagne's grave ; 
further, it is proposed to establish, and possibly 
restore, some of the most ancient parts of the 
structure, as they were originally planned. In the 
course of centuries great changes have, of course, 
taken place : floors have been raised and lowered ; 
the atrium, which was once open, has been 
walled up, etc. It is expected that excavations 
may bring some interesting archaeological rem- 
nants to light. 

The magnificent portrait of Scnora Cean 
Bermudez by Goya, lately reproduced in THE 
Burlington Magazine,' has been acquired by 
the Hungarian Government for the National 
Gallery at Budapest. The Museum at Basle has 
purchased a large, interesting canvas by the quaint 
Swiss painter Albert Walti, who is also well known 
as an etcher, and who has for years been living 
at Munich. The picture is called The Three 

Kiel, the home of the German Marine, is to 
have a new Museum of Asiatic Art. The collec- 
tion formed by Professor Adolf Fischer during 
his sojourn in Japan and China will form the 
foundation of the new collection. At Neuss the 
widow of Dr. Sels has left an important collection 
of old paintings, principally genre pictures of the 
Dutch seventeenth century, portraits of historical 
interest, some works by the Master of St. Severin 
and other early Cologne artists, to the town. 

The Kaiser-Friedrich Museum at Berlin has 
received a Netherlandish Christ Taking Leave of His 

Vol. xiii, p. gS (May, 1908). 






. ^ 

— ^ 








6 < 

gv^ ^-r^^l 

- X 

y. C- 

Art in Germany 

Mother as a present from Mr. M. Kappel. The 
picture, which was formerly in an Enghsh private 
collection, is ascribed by Dr. Friedlander to the 
same artist who painted the altarpiece of St. 
Mary in St. Catharine's Church at Liibeck, and 
the Magdalen altarpiece in the Royal Gallery at 
Brussels. He belongs to the school most of the 
works of which have heretofore been connected, 
rather indiscriminately, with Herri Met de Bles, 
and he certainly hails from Antwerp, about 1518. 
Among the Italian bronzes recentlyacquired by the 
same institution is the statuette of a young man, 
apparently fleeing, by Francesco da Sant" Agata, 
and another of a young woman playing a flute, 
which apppears to be of somewhat later date. 
The National Gallery at Berlin has come into 
possession of a portrait bust of Goethe by M. J. 
Klauer in terra-cotta. 

The Imperial Picture Gallery at Vienna has 
received some important gifts from Mr. G. 
Benda. They em.brace one of the scarce religious 
pictures by G. Metsu and an Ainiitiiciation by H. 
Suess von Kulmbach (these two formerly in the 
Oppolzer collection at Innsbruck) and a delicate 

landscape by Gillis d'Hondecoeter. The so-called 
Oesterreichisches Museum there has succeeded in 
making a most extraordinary acquisition — viz., the 
tapestries of the convent of Goess, near Leoben, 
once the oldest and richest convent in Styria. 
They date from the foundation of the establish- 
ment, about the year 1000 a.d. The most 
important item is the Antependium, with the 
representation of the Aniiitnciatioii, etc., upon 
which occurs what is said to be the earliest men- 
tion of the names of the three Magi — Melchior, 
Balthasar and Caspar. 

The Kunsthalle at Bremen has bought and 
received as gifts many works which were to be 
seen in the recent exhibition held there. Among 
them there figure M. Lieberman's IVoiiian Tending 
a Cow (1872), Count Kalckrciilli, Snninier, still-life 
pictures by Ch. Schuch and A. Lang ; others by 
W. Triibner, K. Hofer, G. Kolbe (bronzes) and 
Gauguin. The Municipal Gallery at Wiesbaden 
has come into possession of an early landscape by 
the Diisseldorf painter Deder, and a painting 
called Coinuiunion by Ad. Hoelzel. 

H. W. S. 



Early in the sixties, when Japanese colour-prints 
were first imported into France and England, they 
aroused in the artistic world an immediate but 
not a very discriminating enthusiasm. Gradually, 
however, the interest in them became more intelli- 
gent, and the Japanese, finding an appreciative 
market, began to send over their finest prints. In 
time many important collections were formed, 
composed almost exclusively of choice impressions 
representing the highest phases of this art, but the 
prints illustrating the early tentative efforts of the 
various masters, having less artistic finish than 
their more mature work, were relatively ignored. 
Mr. Francis Lathrop of New York, appreciating 
the need of acquiring such prints for a collection 
in which the student would be able to trace, step 
by step, the development of the art, has for many 
years devoted much energy to the task. With a 
rare feeling for beauty and a scientific thoroughness 
even less common, he has formed a large collec- 
tion. It is so rich in material for the elucidation of 
the history of Japanese colour-printing that, when 
it is thoroughly studied, we may expect important 
results. Mr. Lathrop's collection contains about 
five thousand colour-prints, over seven thousand 
in black-and-white, and nearly four hundred 
paintings and drawings for the subsidiary illustra- 
tion of the work of the different artists. His 
many albums are also of great historical importance, 
for it is from the dates in these illustrated books that 
we are enabled, through a study of the continual 

change of fashion, to arrange the prints of each 
artist in chronological order. 

Having made a study of the prints in Mr. 
Lathrop's collection — several of which are repro- 
duced for this article — I shall endeavour to sketch 
the evolution of the art of Kiyonaga, who is 
acknowledged to be among the greatest designers 
of colour-printing. The extraordinary develop- 
ment of this art in Japan during the eighteenth 
century is due to the peculiar conditions which 
then prevailed. There was a highly civilized 
society in which for generations painters had been 
trained to ignore light and shade. During cen- 
turies a pictorial art had flourished whereiii all 
objects were represented by symbols— sensitive 
expressive outlines filled in with washes of colour. 
Thus, when colour-printing first came into practice, 
the conventions of Japanese art were most favour- 
able to its rapid development— one block being 
used to print the outlines, others for the different 
colours. Such a tradition tends to make a race 
most sensitive to beauty of contour and to the 
harmony of broad masses of colour, and is essen- 
tial to the logical development of any graphic art 
not primarily suited to realistic representation. 
Rather than use an abstract symbolism, our 
Western civilization has shown a tendency to strive 
to reproduce the actual appearance of things. 
This tendency became very strong among the 
painters of Imperial Rome, but, having no means 
of expression sufficiently plastic, their success was 
small. After the Fall of Rome, the earlier sym- 
bolism was frankly accepted— light and shade again 


Art in America 

being ignored. Tlie pure colour in the mosaics 
of Ravenna and the brilhant stained glass of 
Chartres, with its leaded outlines, became possible. 
But with the Revival of Learning in the fifteenth 
century the desire to paint things as we see them 
in a mirror led to the general adoption of oil 
painting as a medium which would fully satisfy 
the demand for chiaroscuro. So it was that when, 
a hundred years later, colour-printing was first 
practised in Europe, the new art, although not 
adapted to realistic representation, was placed 
under the necessity of portraying effects of light 
and shade. The limitations thus imposed were 
accepted by Ugo da Carpi and the other contem- 
porary masters of the art. They felt the impossi- 
bility of successfully using strong colours which, 
in the high lights, would be wholly inadequate 
and, in the shades, would be rendered ineffectual 
by the superposition of dark tones. So they 
resorted to monochrome, using in each print 
several different values of a neutral colour, such as 
buff or olive. This was fatal to the complete 
development of the art. 

Concerning the life of Kiyonaga very little is 
known. He is said to have been born in 1742, 
and was the son of a bookseller. He studied 
under Kiyomitsu, from whom he received the 
traditional instruction of the Torii school. After 
the death of Kiyomitsu, in 1785, he designed a 
series of theatrical posters in the style of his 
master, which he signed ' Kiyonaga the fourth 
Torii.' The greater part of his work, however, 
shows none of the Torii influence. The years 
from 1765 to 1782 mark the slow gradual develop- 
ment of his art ; 1783 to 1787 the height of his 
achievement; 1788 to 1795 his decline. He did 
but little work after the year 1795, and is supposed 
to have died in 1814. 

To understand Kiyonaga's place in Japanese 
art it is necessary to follow the gradual evolution 
of the traditions of pictorial representation. He 
was in no sense an iconoclast, and never broke 
away from the conventions of his time. A lover 
of beautiful form, Kiyonaga expressed the domi- 
nant thought of his epoch more completely than 
any other artist. In the development of the art 
of the extreme orient this respect for tradition 
has had an importance which it is difficult for 
us to comprehend. Except during periods of 
decadence, there has been a continual concentra- 
tion of effort to add to the store of technical 
knowledge. The new discoveries became a part 
of the common inheritance of succeeding genera- 
tions, replacing certain of the older conventions 
which had ceased to be vital. The talents of the 
pioneers were directed by such traditions, so that, 
being familiar with the principles of art, they 
could devote their entire energies to the expression 
of personality. The first traditions of Japanese 
painting are derived largely from an earlier 


Chinese school of religious art. Throughout the 
middle ages in Japan, as in Europe, most of the 
great artists, many of them priests, were devoutly 
working for their religion. From the beginning 
of the sixteenth century the master-painters were 
almost all employed in decorating the luxurious 
palaces of the nobility, for the gradual rise of a 
wealthy aristocracy had created a demand for 
secular art. As the Japanese had not had a 
profane art sufficiently rich to decorate such costly 
residences, it was but natural that they should 
borrow from Chinese sources. The lesser artists 
who remained in the service of the church 
followed traditions which soon stopped develop- 
ing. Religious art gradually became almost as 
formal as in Russia, and ceased to have any 
direct influence on other branches of art. A 
movement which was destined to give Japan a 
national school of painting began early in the 
seventeenth century. Matahei and his followers, 
taking their subjects from the daily life of the 
people, revolted against the custom of clothing 
their personages in Chinese costume and of re- 
presenting life as a series of formal pageants. They 
gave to their paintings a wonderful vitality, visual- 
izing with an extraordinary power the most signi- 
ficant attitudes and gestures of living men and 
women without losing any of the decorative quality 
which characterizes the work of their predecessors. 
Notwithstanding that the Japanese in their art 
have touched but lightly the great problems of 
life — crime, poverty, illness and death — there is 
more than a superficial resemblance between 
this work and that of certain modern French 
illustrators who have largely found their inspira- 
tion in social questions. It is only in the best 
work of Forain and of Steinlen that we find 
the same vitality as in Matahei, but their drawings 
arc entirely lacking in the feeling for beauty 
which is so characteristic of the Japanese master. 
Matahei's paintings and those of his school, 
although frequently democratic in subject, are 
so rich and sumptuous in their technique that 
the cost of production must have placed them 
beyond the reach of the common people. When at 
last the reproduction of drawings by means of a 
single wooden block, and the subsequent invention 
of colour-printing, gave to Japan an economical 
method of artistic expression, the masses became 
the arbiters of taste. Kiyonaga began to design 
colour-prints when the art was reaching its highest 
development. He stopped working before the 
rich traditions, inherited, as I have shown, from 
the great masters of style, had been abandoned. 
At the time of his death the strong influence 
which he had exerted on the art of his contem- 
poraries was no longer apparent— Kiyonaga's 
work was too delicate, too refined for the common 
people. A popular revolt against academic teach- 
ing all but swept away the traditions of art, the 

> ° 


:i O 

■J :: 




4iji^EiJk-i:!i*^'*c^ SA 

a 2 

=s o 

o ., 



knowledge accumulated during centuries of effort 
on the part of an entire race. 

Although there is little in the culture of Japan 
during the eighteenth century which would suggest 
that of the Italian Renaissance, the evolution of 
Kiyonaga's art is very similar to that of Raphael's. 
Both in their early works are but echoes of their 
masters — Raphael of Perugino, Kiyonaga of Kiyo- 
mitsu. This unquestioning loyalty to tradition — 
whether the result of great self-control or of an 
early narrowness of vision — gave them a thorough 
technical training. Raphael's genius was far too 
universal to be enslaved by the narrow mannerisms 
of Perugino and the Umbrian school. Kiyonaga 
had also such sympathy with life and with different 
phases of art that he broke away from the rules of 
the Torii school completely. After acquiring the 
needed technical skill, Raphael and Kiyonaga 
took great joy in life and in the art of their con- 
temporaries. They imitated successively the works 
of other masters before they finally found that 
exquisite impersonal balance which remains the 
fullest expression of the civilization under which 
each lived, 

Mr. Lathrop's collection includes about one 
hundred and seventy colour-prints by Kiyonaga, 
of which sixty-iive show the rise of his art. From 
these I have chosen four as illustrating the more 
important steps in his development. The tirst 
example, dating from before 1770 (plate i. No. i, 
about i2X4i inches), represents an actor on a 
white ground broken only by a tree with delicate 
foliage and blossoms. As in the contemporary actor 
prints of Kiyomitsu only three blocks have been 
used — black, rose-grey and lemon-yellow. It reveals 
how completely Kiyonaga assimilated the teachings 
of his master, for it has all the traditional vigour of 
the best art of the Torii school without anything 
new either in the design or the technique. As yet 
he has not learned that the qualities of the line 
work of the great masters of black and white are 
in no way suited to colour-printing. Colour has 
not been accepted as an integral part of the design, 
but is considered as a superficial ornamentation of 
a print in black-and-white. 

A more logical use of colour is shown in the next 
print (plate i, No. 3, about 12x4^ inches), which 
dates not later than 1771. An actress is repre- 
sented carrying a lantern. Four colour blocks 
have been used instead of three, and, although the 
arrangement is largely traditional, the colours have 
been used to accentuate and complete the draw- 
ing. There is but little to distinguish this print 
from much of Kiyomitsu's work, yet it is notice- 
able that the influences which begin to appear are 
from without the Torii school of Harunobu and 
of Shigemasa. The background is no longer 
wholly symbolic, but is an elaborate device to 
give a semblance of reality to the figure. Kiyonaga 
has not begun that direct study of nature which 

Art in America 

will eventually free him from traditional formalism. 
Only such a study can furnish the materials 
necessary for a new interpretation of life.* 

In the following print (plate ii. No. 4, about 
7ix8i inches), although it dates from but a year 
later, Kiyonaga is at last wholly free from the 
restraint of the Torii tradition.^ There is, however, 
nothing individual, nothing to distinguish it from 
the work of Toyomasa and other contemporary 
masters. In subject and treatment, the influence 
of Harunobu and Shigemasa is very apparent. 
This tendency to learn from others does not pre- 
vent Kiyonaga from studying directly from nature. 
It is with a naive naturalism that he has expressed 
the intimacy of home-life, the beauty and grace of 
childhood. Tenderness is the characteristic of 
this phase of Kiyonaga's work, a tenderness quite 
opposed to the impersonal dignity of his later 

The opposing influences of Harunobu and of 
Shigemasa could not long continue as equal forces 
in the development of Kiyonaga. The naturalism 
of Shigemasa succeeds to the purism of Harunobu.^ 
This is shown in the next illustration, taken from a 
series of small prints dating about 1779 (plate ii, 
No. 6, about 10 x 7^ inches). His careful adherence 
to nature is most marked in the proportions of 
the human figure, which have become normal. 
Throughout Kiyonaga's work of this period there 
runs a delight in movement, grace and rhythm. 
His later work, being much more intellectual, loses 
this spontaneous enthusiasm. 

Of the seventy-five prints in Mr. Lathrop's 
collection representing the period during which 
Kiyonaga's art reaches its highest achievement, I 
have selected four as showing the types of his 
most successful work. The first of these prints 
(plate ii, No. 5, about 15x10 inches) dates from 
about 1783. The proportions of this print were 
new to the Japanese artists, but the form became 
the most popular and has remained so ever since. 
The sheet is larger, the height being increased rela- 
tively more than the breadth. This modification 
is important, for it enables Kiyonaga to make the 
human figure taller without changing his methods 
of composition. Thus his growing desire for 
greater dignity is easily realized. This impression 
shows a great technical advance on the preceding 
ones, which were rather carelessly printed. Willi 
his increasing power of design Kiyonaga appre- 
ciates the need of greater care, not only in the 
manipulation of the wooden blocks, but also in 
the choice of paper and of colour, so that the 
impressions of this period of his art are models of 

'The drawing closely resembles Harunobu in the Irealineiit 
the face, the right hand and the draperies. 

'' It will be noticed that the name Torii is now omitted from 
the signature. 

^ Style is so characteristic of all Japanese art of the eiijhteenth 
century that the term naturalism may be misleading. Shunslio 
and Shigemasa are naturalistic only as compared with their 


Art in America 

colour-printing. It is Kiyonaga's work of this 
time that exerted so strong an influence on Shuncho 
and on Yeishi. 

Although Kiyonaga designed so many of the 
long narrow prints, known as kakemono-ye, it had 
but slight effect on his other work. He is, how- 
ever, so successful in this form of composition 
that it has seemed necessary to include one in the 
illustrations in order to give an adequate idea of 
the breadth of his genius. The print chosen 
(plate i. No. 2, about 27x5 inches) dates from 
1783. With an exquisite moderation Kiyonaga 
has here relieved the simplicity of the general lines 
with a great variety of patterning. This love for 
flowing line-work broken by arabesques is very 
characteristic of his genius ; as is also the elegance 
of the folds of the dress as it is tossed about by 
the movement of the feet. The bared leg suggests 
how beautifully Kiyonaga treated the nude. 

I regret being able to give only the right hand 
print of the diptych in plate iii. No. 7, for in the 
complete work the symmetry of the space com- 
position is as studied as in Raphael's decorations 
in the Vatican. Kiyonaga has, however, in this 
print so successfully united the utmost purity of 
style with a rare poetic feeling that it seemed best 
to include it in the illustrations, especially as he 
invariably composes each sheet so that it is a work 
of beauty in itself. A group of women at leisure 
is listening to soft music, and the charm of their 
graceful idleness is enhanced by the suggestion of 
labour in the distant background. The sense of 
toil is so remote that it but relieves what otherwise 
might have seemed monotonous. 

There is — at least to the western mind — less of 
human interest in the next print, which is from 
the same period as the preceding one (plate iii. 
No. 8, about 15x10 inches). A court lady with 
her attendant maid is shown. In illustrations of 
court life it was customary to follow the traditional 
type furnished by paintings of the Tosa school. 
The faces are heavy, yet weak and effeminate — 
characteristics developed by centuries of luxury 
and indolence. Kiyonaga has here made fewer 
concessions to this custom than was usual. The 
composition is supremely decorative. The blacks 
are full and vigorous, bringing out the great 
distinction of the line-work. There is a rare 
harmony of bufts and olive greens, relieved by the 
tine quality of the black. Then, as if beauty of 
colour and line were not enough, the surface, in 
places, is richly embossed. 

During the years 1786 and 1787 Kiyonaga 
executed a number of theatrical sheets remarkable 
in design and colour. Strong lines cross each 
other at startling angles, giving an idea of barbaric 
force. The restless crudity of the colour in some 
of the prints is so full of vitality that it is difficult 
to understand why the decline of his art should 

have begun within a j'ear or two. The first step 
in this decadence is shown in the next print, where 
for the first time one finds crudities in the design, 
which come from a degeneration of his powers 
(plate iv. No. 9, about 15x10 inches). The gown 
of the woman on the left, with its rather violent 
spotting of bamboo and chrysanthemum on black, 
seems out of taste.* The way the folds of the 
kimonos fall about the feet is more mannered 
than in his earlier work. Yet in spite of such 
defects the print is very beautiful, and the profound 
influence which the work of this period had upon 
Kiyomine and other younger artists is not sur- 

The next print, a section from a triptych dating 
about 1792, shows how rapidly Kiyonaga's art 
declined (plate iv. No. 10, about 15x10 inches). 
The overcrowded composition is filled with 
conventional figures robed in kimonos which fall 
in heavy meaningless folds. An insipid type of 
face is used for men and women alike. The forms 
expressed with a line lacking in accent and delicacy 
are wholly without elegance. Although the subject 
is new to him, Kiyonaga, apparently, has taken no 
interest in the execution of this print. It would be 
difficult to know whether, yielding to the increas- 
ing vulgarity of taste, Kiyonaga had simply de- 
signed what his customers would buy, or if, in this 
last phase of his art, his powers of design had 
really failed. 

With the aid of Mr. Lathrop's prints, I have 
now roughly traced the evolution of the art of 
Kiyonaga. His work is the natural expression of 
the society in which he lived — a mature civilization 
rich in traditions. Wood engraving in black and 
white had already its highest point in Japan in the 
work of Masanobu, many of whose early prints 
were coloured by hand. This led to an innovation 
— the use of colour-blocks. The conditions were 
most favourable to the rapid development of the 
new art. The processes of printing had been 
gradually perfected, so that Kiyonaga had at his ser- 
vice an adequate means of expression. In his earliest 
work he is entirely impersonal, following the tradi- 
tions of the Torii school without a trace of emotion. 
He thus masters the use of his materials. Then, 
borrowing from his contemporaries what appeals 
to him, and studying directly from nature, he gives 
a most sympathetic interpretation of Japanese 
life. But this only leads up to his highest achieve- 
ment: an elegance as free from personality as his 
earliest work, save for an occasional touch of 
humour. It has the supreme qualities of classical 

H.4MILT0N Easter Field. 

[■* The contrasts in ttiis print are certainly more audacious ; 
but an artist, far from recognizing a decadence, migtit argue 
Willi some reason that this increase of boldness indicated a 
positive advance in Kiyonaga's power of design. — Ed.] 



EP'^'^'-' I. 

^ . i!) PRESERVa. 



es the 

careful attention ._ . ... .. . 

a subject of which the imporia 
year is being more widely and 
realized. Since the publication 
feasor Baldwin Brown's admirable sr 
of the steps taken by other couni 
the preservation of their historic r\\ 
ments/ no 

fpv • • 

ince a-: 

mission will be appointed to report vn the 
preservation of ancient monumc; ts i- 
Great Britain. The suggestions involve ; 
(i) The creation of a centr;! per!i' 
nent monument commission f; ■' each 
the three kingdoms, to draw ur- > reg 
of national monument^^-, ai; : the: 
protect them with t^ 

architects •• ' 

a Govern!' 

mf ' 



another ; 




the presci.i 


tion, even it ... 


panied by any re 

grant of 

money in additic '■ to the 

>a!r-.nes. In its 

present form i'. appears 

rather imprac- 

' See The Burlington MAGA«i> 

i pp. 436-7 (Marti), 

IKS Bi;»: :v. . j> 'AKamtr 

- August, lgo8. 


' z at a time when monev is wa? 
;iM -> many other purposes which ma.^l 
make a much larger appeal to the popular 
imagination. We need not, therefore, 
discuss at present whether the creation of 

a bureaucracy, however sensibly n ', 

is the best means of preserving ouj . t 

monuments from the speculator, the vandal 
or the dunce. 

One exceedingly practical piece of work 
has already been carried through by 
the Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings, The committee has issued 
through Mr. Batsford, at the price of 
eighteenpence, an admirable little volume 
of ' Notes on the Repair of Ancient 
Buildings,' which, though necessarily brief, 
is as clear and precise as such a thing 
well could be. Not only does it include 
general questions of treatment, but it goes 
carefully into details of structure and 
timber-work, so that where the services 
of a trained architect are not available it 
can be understood by an intelligent mason. 
The great advantage of such a publication 
lies in the fact that it can in a moment be 

.iced in the hands of any owner who 
contemplates restoring an o'!' '-•■•' -'—t^ 
and can leave him under no rn. , . 1- 

sion as to the best way of doing the work. 

The difficulty is to find the owners and 
the buildings at the critical r,i 'I 
here the support of a Roy,il .~ .1 
might augment immeasurably Jty's 
usefulness. At present it seems tp be 
prevented by want of funds from prepar- 
ing any pr- — -.-d of the ancient 

buildings an nts in the United 

Kingdom. Such a register is a necessary 
basis for subsequent action, and if the 

Royal -■ ■' ■ ■ t 

the exp^;... '' 

society in t' .e und^rtal i 

have gone far to solve a difficult prui 


HE suggestive paper read 
by Sir John Stirling-Max- 
well at the general meet- 
ing of the Society for the 
Protection of Ancient 
Buildings deserves the 
careful attention of all who are interested in 
a subject of which the importance year by 
year is being more widely and completely 
realized. Since the publication of Pro- 
fessor Baldwin Brown's admirable summary 
of the steps taken by other countries for 
the preservation of their historic monu- 
ments/ no one has had the slightest excuse 
for not knowing how much might be done 
to forward the society's admirable work. 

Sir John Stirling-Maxwell's suggestions, 
however, have a particular significance at 
the moment, from the fact that the Prime 
Minister has announced that a Royal Com- 
mission will be appointed to report on the 
preservation of ancient monuments in 
Great Britain. The suggestions involve : 
(i) The creation of a central perma- 
nent monument commission for each of 
the three kingdoms, to draw up a register 
of national monuments, and then to 
protect them with the help of a staff of 
architects and inspectors, supported by 
a Government grant ; 

(ii) The creation of a county monu- 
ment commission for each county, to 
work on similar lines. 
Whether the institution of a large per- 
manent official staff, which in one way or 
another these suggestions involve, comes 
within the range of practical politics at 
the present time would be open to ques- 
tion, even if the proposal were unaccom- 
panied by any request for a modest grant of 
money in addition to the salaries. In its 
present form it appears rather imprac- 

'See The Burlington Magazine, Vol. viii. pp. 43*^-7 (March, 

Thb Burlington Magazine, No. 65. VoL Xlll— August, 1908. 



ticable at a time when money is wanted 
for so many other purposes which must 
make a much larger appeal to the popular 
imagination. We need not, therefore, 
discuss at present whether the creation of 
a bureaucracy, however sensibly managed, 
is the best means of preserving our ancient 
monuments from the speculator, the vandal 
or the dunce. 

One exceedingly practical piece of work 
has already been carried through by 
the Societv for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings. The committee has issued 
through Mr. Batsford, at the price of 
eighteenpence, an admirable little volume 
of ' Notes on the Repair of Ancient 
Buildings,' which, though necessarily brief, 
is as clear and precise as such a thing 
well could be. Not only does it include 
general questions of treatment, but it goes 
carefully into details of structure and 
timber-work, so that where the services 
of a trained architect are not available it 
can be understood by an intelligent mason. 
The great advantage of such a publication 
lies in the fact that it can in a moment be 
placed in the hands of any owner who 
contemplates restoring an old building, 
and can leave him under no misapprehen- 
sion as to the best way of doing the work. 

The difficulty is to find the owners and 
the buildings at the critical moment, and 
here the support of a Royal Commission 
might augment immeasurably the society's 
usefulness. At present it seems to be 
prevented by want of funds from prepar- 
ing any proper record of the ancient 
buildinps and monuments in the United 
Kingdom. Such a register is a necessary 
basis for subsequent action, and if the 
Royal Commission does no more than assist 
the experience and entlnisiasm of the 
society in this single undertaking, it will 
have gone hv to solve a difficult problem. 


The Preservation of Ancient Buildings 

We feel strongly that the case is one where quarters, and on that account the Prime 
unofficial action will work best, if only it Minister's announcement is specially wel- 
can be assured of proper support at head- come. 

<u*^ A CORRECTION cu> 

"HEN discussing last 
month the present 
condition of affairs at 
fthe National Gallery, 
the practical wisdom 
of Lord Rosebery's 
Treasury Minute was questioned, but it 
was not till the magazine had gone to 
press that we were authoritatively in- 
formed : 

(i) That there is nothing in the Trea- 
sury Minute to suggest that anything more 
than the consent of a majority of the 
Trustees present at any properly convened 
meeting is necessary to sanction a purchase ; 
(2) That in cases of emergency the 
Director is free to make purchases on his 
own responsibility. 

This statement will, we believe, be news 
even to those who are not wholly ill-in- 
formed as to the difficulties surrounding 
the administration of the National Gallery, 
and is the more perplexing in that it by 
no means accords with the actual experi- 
ences of those who from time to time 
have been in correspondence with that 
institution. We publish the information 
gladly, both to make amends for any 

injustice that may have been done in our 
former note, and also because it seems to 
imply that the Director is legally in a far 
stronger position than is generally thought. 

At the same time such a condition of 
affairs cannot be regarded as satisfactory. 
The administration of the National Gal- 
lery has become a matter of serious public 
interest, and the public might not unreason- 
ably claim that it had a right to know 
what the exact wording of the Treasury 
Minute was, and how it comes about that 
the official status of the Director and the 
Trustees was so long allowed to be univer- 
sally misunderstood. 

The appointment of a new Trustee in 
the place of Sir T. D. Gibson-Carmichael, 
would in any case be a matter of some 
difficulty. At the present juncture it is 
likely to be scrutinized with more than 
usual care. We trust the Government will 
recognize how anomalous a situation has 
gradually been created, and, while making 
the choice without political fear or per- 
sonal favour, will couple with it some relief 
from a condition of affairs which is the 
reverse of creditable to our national reputa- 
tion for plain dealing and common sense. 


HEX Attila, the 'Scourge 
of God,' died, the course 
of the river Danube was 
diverted in order that in its 
bed a suitable sepulchre 
might be found for him. 
One wonders whether 
what was possible for the 
Hunnish warriors is not equally possible for Italian 


engineers. If only the Tiber, at least that little 
stretch of it on which Rome stands, could be run 
dry and made to give up its treasures, what a store 
of art and history should be revealed to us 1 The 
river was always a convenient dumping-place for 
things as well as persons that were unconsidered, 
or that had in the turn of fortune lost consideration. 
There must have been thousands of such cases 
um"ecorded, not to speak of the historical instances 

(t-;;vi/ A.l>. I.S6-:92l 1\ THE CDI.I.ECTldX OE MR. llEORCil' sAl.TlNIi 



known to us ; and especially of the emperors who 
were discredited after death, the memorials must 
often have found their way thither. 

Though we have not yet recovered from its 
bed (where tradition reports that it lies) the famous 
golden candlestick from the temple at Jerusalem, 
we do occasionally obtain from it objects of 
important historical interest, whereof the bronzes 
here published bear witness. 

They represent the bust of a bearded man in a 
Phrygian cap and dress, 0.24 m. high, which is 
placed upon a moulded basedecorated with a subject 
in relief. Both were found in the Tiber, and belonged 
formerly to the Martinetti collection. They were 
offered recently to the British Museum, but as the 
Greek and Roman Department happens to be even 
more than usually short of funds, they have been 
purchased by Mr. George Salting, who has kindly 
allowed me to publish them here. It is hoped that 
they may eventually find their way to the National 

I am informed by the recent owner that there is 
some doubt whether the base belongs to the bust 
as here shown. He tells me that other bases of 
similar character were also found with the bust. 
Whether this is so or not, I think it will be agreed 
that, as shown in the illustration, the two seem 
well adapted to form one composition : the bold 
and spirited modelling of the bust finds an excellent 
foil in the graceful genre scene and delicate orna- 
ments of the base. Moreover, we know that in the 
Roman period it was usual to mount portrait busts 
on bases of this form, and not only do both bronzes 
show adhering to the back a river deposit of identical 
character, but the patination is the same on both, 
and the peculiar deep-coloured gilding which is 
still preserved over a considerable portion of the 
bust is traceable also here and there on the base. 

One peculiar feature of the bronzes thus recov- 
ered from the Tiber is the state of their preservation, 
which, contrary to what we should expect, is usually 
excellent. The bronzes here published are no excep- 
tion to this rule ; except for some discoloration, and 
an occasional light green patch showing that decay 
is now at work, the surface is in admirable order. 

The bust is that of a man of about thirty years 
of age, with rich curling hair and beard ; the type 
is evidently idealized, but the features, and especi- 
ally the somewhat large and prominent eyes, mark 
it unmistakably as the portrait of the Emperor 
Commodus. We are reminded of the description 
given of him by Herodian when he ascended the 
throne at the age of nineteen — ' Commodus, then 
in the bloom of manhood, possessed a form which 
was rendered attractive by the symmetry of his 
limbs and the manly beauty of his features. His 
look was friendly, but full of fire ; his hair was 
naturally blond and curly, so that, when the sun- 
shine fell upon it, it gleamed as though strewn 
with gold dust.' It is sad to find, however, 

^ Bronze Bust of Qommodus 

that a less friendly critic (Lampridius) puts 
the same facts in a less flattering fashion ; he 
asserts that the emperor let his hair and beard 
grow, because he was afraid to trust himself to the 
barber's razor, and suggests that the gleaming 
radiance of his hair was due to the application of 
powdered gold. 

Whichever story is correct, we may see a reflec- 
tion of what was actually the case in the fact that 
the hair and beard in the bronze have originally 
been entirely gilded ; probably, however, the 
gilding was not due merely to the desire to repro- 
duce nature, because it has been extended not 
only over the hair but over the dress and (as we 
have seen) over the base as well. 

As a study of character, the bust is finely con- 
ceived ; the features have the symmetrical beauty 
recorded by the historian, and there is a certain 
spirited vigour in the look, which was probably 
still more marked when the silver inlay of the 
eyes was untarnished. But, withal, it is the face 
of such a one as we know Commodus to have 
been ; the mouth is small and weak, and the 
features betray both sell-indulgence and egotism. 
One can easily understand this man posing as a 
god in public shows, but allowing others to rule 
for him, while he indulged his vanity with useless 
accomplishments and unrestrained vices. 

When one thinks of the author of the ' Reflec- 
tions,' and realizes that the only encomium 
history has found for his son is that he 'excelled 
in shooting and manual dexterity,' the tragedy of 
Commodus's career is thrown into striking relief. 
Dio goes so far as to say that ' of all the evils 
which befell the Romans, none was more baneful 
than the rule of Commodus.' 

The Phrygian cap which he wears in the bronze 
is ornamented with stars. These are engraved 
and have silver centres, with the rays filled with 
niello. (Besides these star centres, and the eyes, 
the sleeve buttons also are silvered). This fact, 
taken in connexion with the gilding, make it 
certain that the dress is that of a solar deity, and 
that we have the emperor here represented in the 
guise of Mithras. We know from history that 
Commodus counted among his favourite foibles 
that of posing as various deities, and the fancy 
seems to have grown upon him as he grew older. 
At the age of thirty, Dio tells us, he appeared as 
Mercury in the gladiatorial games, and we know, 
too, that his favourite vole was that of Hercules ; 
he assumed the title of ' Hercules Komanus,' and 
appeared in public with the club and lion-skin, 
and is thus represented on coins, as well as in 
statues and busts. The best example of the latter 
is the well-known marble bust in the Palazzo dei 
Conservatori in Rome, which stands, like ours, 
on a richly decorated base, and offers llie best 
analogy to it. 

So far as I know, no other example has come 


A Bronze Bust of Qommodus 

down to us of this emperor in the guise of 
Mithras ; but we know that it was a cult which 
found especial favour in his eyes ; when he was 
fourteen years old he travelled with his father in 
Syria and Egypt, and to this journey, and the effect 
it may have had on his youthful imagination, may 
partly be due the fact that as emperor he was 
attached to the cults of Mithras and of Isis. We 
are further told by Dio that in Rome there was set 
up in his honour a statue (presumably of the sun- 
god) made from a thousand pounds of gold, with 
a bull and a cow at its feet. The connexion of 
the bull and cow with the sun-god is not very 
clear, unless we may suppose that it has some 
reference (possibly misunderstood by the historian) 
to the bull which figures so promuiently in the 
Mithras cult; at any rate, we know that Commodus 
played a considerable part in making the Syrian 
solar worship popular in Rome : he was himself 
initiated into its mysteries, and his example was 
followed by most of the patrician class in Rome. 

The fact is historically interesting in view of the 
bearing which Mithraism in the second and third 
centuries of our era had on Christianity. The case 
has been put by Renan (' Marc-Aurele,' p. 579) : 
'Si le Christianisme eiit ete arrets dans sa crois- 
sance par quelque maladie mortelle, le monde eut 
ete Mithraiste' — a strong statement, but not too 
strong in the light of the facts. The first part of 
the second century had seen the growth of the 
neo-Platonic philosophy and the concurrent 
attempt to revive the old religion. It would seem 
that this was no mere artificial movement of the 
upper and the cultivated classes ; it coincided with, 
and in some degree sprung from the vague desire 
which was stirring in all men's minds for a higher 
principle of conduct. The State theology which 
had satisfied Republican Rome, and which Marcus 
Aurelius attempted to revive, no longer satisfied 
the Romans of the Empire. Already the extended 
campaigns of the legions had brought once more 
the religions of the East to the lower classes of the 
conquering race — for, like Christianity, Mithraism 
found first its converts among the poor and 
humble. In the second century it took the upper 
ranks also by storm. As Dill says in his admirable 
' Roman Society ' : ' Pure from all grossness of 
myth, the Persian god of light came as the 
mediator and comforter, to soothe the poor and 
broken-hearted, and give the cleansing of the 
mystic blood. His hierarchy of the initiated, his 
soothing symbolic sacraments, his gorgeous ritual, 
and his promise of immortality to those who 
drank the mystic Haoma, gratified and stimulated 
religious longings which were to find their full 
satisfaction in the ministry of the Church.' No 
wonder that the early Christians regarded with 
jealous suspicion a religion which thus fought them 
with their own weapons ; it was no longer a 
decaying and worn-out Paganism that confronted 


them, but a vigorous faith, adapted to the needs 
of the age, catholic in its application to the differ- 
ent ranks of society and the various nationalities 
of the Empire, elastic enough to absorb the best 
features of existing cults ; it was this very tolera- 
tion, as opposed to the uncompromising tenets 
of its rival, that proved in the end fatal to 

It may seem odd that a religious community 
so spiritual and refined as the Mithraists should 
have borne patiently the travesty of incarnation 
of their god in a person so contemptible as that 
of Commodus : the explanation is to be sought in 
the history of the imperial cultus. In the province 
of Asia particularly we know that the nurture of 
the imperial idea — what we should now call 
patriotism or imperialism — was part of the care- 
fully planned scheme of the Roman political 
organization. It is reflected in the claim by Paul 
of Tarsus as a Roman citizen. Professor Ramsay 
in his 'Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia ' (I, i, 
p. 53) has shown how the process started from the 
conjoined worship of the leading local deity with 
the emperor ; already in B.C. 29 we have (at 
Nicaea, for instance) the identification of the hero 
Caesar with the cult of the god Men or Sabazios, 
who wears a Phrygian cap and rides on a horse. 
From this starting-point it was a natural transition 
to the deification of the emperor in the guise of 
the god ; but in such a case we are dealing less 
with the personality of the emperor than with the 
idea for which he stood — and from this point of 
view even Commodus was ' Rome.' 

There is also another feature of ancient religion 
which must be borne in mind if we would under- 
stand the apparent paradox of our bronze bust. 
From the earliest times it was a commonplace of 
Greek religion that the chief ministrant of the 
deity should on festal occasions assume the dress 
and attributes of the deity ; and since the emperor, 
in virtue of his rank, was Pontifex Maximus, the 
appearance of Commodus as Mithras would have 
suggested to Roman eyes nothing unnatural or 

Commodus was murdered at the age of thirty- 
one, in the last hours of the year 192. After his 
death, his memory was execrated and his effigies 
destroyed. Probably the Salting bronze was thrown 
into the Tiber at this time, or soon after ; at any 
rate, it is unlikely that it can have been modelled 
at any subsequent date.' The portrait represents 
a man of not less than twenty-five years of age.' 
We thus have a limit of the years 186-192 as the 
limit of date within which this bronze must 
fall. I need hardly insist on the interest in the 
1 It is true that in 197 Alexander Sevenis compelled the Senate to 
consecrate Commodus, but it is improbable tliat if further statues 
were erected in his honour they would have taken this form. 

■^The length of the beard marks it as falling into the second 
class of the bearded portraits (see Bernoulli, ' Icon. Rom. 
2 p. 238), and therefore presumably later than 185 a.d. 

history of art which is presented by a bronze 
of this importance, dateable within such narrow 

The bust has the same slight turn to 
the right which characterizes the best-authen- 
ticated portraits of this emperor. Tiie moustache 
has the strong downward turn at the angles 
which is shown more clearly in the coins than 
in the marbles ; the hair and beard have 
the same rendering in crisp detached curls, 
which in the bronze treatment becomes more 
definitely marked. On the other hand, the nose 
is straighter in profile than the other portraits 
would lead one to expect ; this may partly be due 
to the obvious intention of the artist to idealize 
his type, and which has led him in the treatment 
of the beard to imitate what is probably the type 
which Pheidias created for his Olympian Zeus ; in 
general character it has a certain similarity to the 
beard of the Melos head of Zeus in the British 
Museum, which has been rightly associated with 
the Pheidian type. As that type came to be 
adopted for the later heads of Serapis, it may have 
been intentionally selected as suggesting a syn- 
cretism of Serapis with Mithras, which would 
have been appropriate to the personality of 

The most characteristic feature in the portraits 
of Commodus is the heav^ overhanging upper 
eyelid, a peculiarity which he evidently inherited 
from his father. At first sight this feature would 
appear to be wanting in the bronze, but it is not 
really the case. A close inspection shows that the 
upper lid of both eyes was originally indicated by 

^For a later instance of the identification of Jupiter Serapis 
with the Sun, see the altar of the Capitol dedicated by the augur 
Scipio Orfitus to Jupiter Maxiraus Sol Serapis (C. I. L. vi, 402). 

A Bronze Bust of Qommodus 

a thin layer of bronze ; this has now almost wholly 
perished by oxydization, but the lower edge can 
still be traced in a line which it has left in the 
surface of the sih^er used for the whites of the eyes. 
This line runs across the hole which is drilled for 
the eyeball, and thus proves that when the bust 
was uninjured the characteristic feature was as 
strongly marked in this example as in any of the 
portraits known to us. 

The little genre scene on the base is just one of 
those simple rustic subjects which we now recog- 
nize as an outcome of Augustan art; it is the kind 
of motive which was popular in the gems and wall 
paintings of the Augustan period, and is charac- 
terized by a dainty arcadian naturalism in which 
the idyllic subject is handled with a certain sense 
of humour. Perhaps the best parallel is afforded 
by the relief on the Lateran fountain (Mrs. Strong, 
' Roman Sculpture,' p. 82), in which Pan and a 
goat also figure. Here Pan, the goatherd, is 
milking a she-goat in a shady grove, while a sheep 
sits by, placidly chewing the cud. The artist's 
sense of humour and his observation of nature are 
shown in the characteristically contrasted attitudes 
of the two animals — the goat, as ever, bold and 
inquisitive, looks round at the sprite-like litde 
herd ; the sheep sits all unmoved, placidly gazing 
into vacancy. The charming Greek leaf pattern 
in low relief which borders the scene above and 
below shows a welcome return to simplicity after 
the Flavian tendency to over-elaboration of orna- 
ment — a simplicity which admirably harmonizes 
with the figure subject. Assuming, as I think we 
may, that the base is contemporary with the bust, 
it is interesting to know that in the period of 
Commodus so much of the Augustan spirit still 




HE fine large bowl of Chinese 
blue and white porcelain illus- 
trated in the accompanying 
plate is now on exhibition in 
the rooms of Messrs. Owen 
Grant and Co., Ltd., at 11 
Kensington Square, where it 
has been my privilege to 
examine it. It figures as the most important piece 
in a collection of old oriental porcelain which was 
inherited by the present owner from Francis Gwyn, 
Esq., of Llansannor, Glamorgan, and Forde Abbey, 
Dorset, who was born in 1648, was Groom of the 
Bedchamber to Charles 11, Clerk of the Council, 
Under-Secretary of State and Secretary of War to 
Queen Anne, and who died in 1734. It is chiefly 
remarkable for its artistic silver-gilt mounting of 


tazza shape, which, although not actually hall- 
marked, is referred from the technique and cha- 
racter of the goldsmith's work to the Tudor period, 
circa 1575. The ceramic qualities of the bowl 
itself certainly confirm the date ; the glaze is of 
the rich liquescent tone which characterizes the 
reigns of Lung Ch'ing and Wan Li (1567-1619), 
imbued with the usual slight tinge of green that 
harmonizes so well with the soft blue of the 
decoration. It is the largest and most imposing 
mounted piece of the kind that has been noticed, 
the height being 9^ in., the diameter of the base 
7 in., and the circumference 46 in. Before pro- 
ceeding to its detailed description a summary 
account of some other examples of early Chinese 
porcelain authenticated by similar mounts of the 
Tudor period may not be without interest. 

The earliest specimens of the kind known in 
England are probably the Trenchard bowls referred 


Ming Bowl with a Tudor Mount 

to in Hutchins's ' History of Dorset,' which are 
said to have been presented, in the year 1506, 
by Philip of Austria and Joan to Sir Thomas 
Trenchard, the High Sheriff, after they had been 
entertained by him at his house at Wolveton. 
They are still in the possession of a descendant of 
the family, a pair of 8-in. bowls painted in blue 
with nclumbium lotus flowers and fish, the mounts 
bearing London hall-marks inside, of a date some 
forty years later than Iving Philip's visit to Wey- 
mouth. One of the Trenchard bowls is figured in 
W. G. Gulland's ' Chinese Porcelain,' Vol. ii. 
No. 4S7, in company with a contefnporary piece 
of some celebrity, the Warham bowl (No. 488), a 
little celadon cup, 5 in. across, in a silver-gilt 
setting, which was presented to New College, 
Oxford, by Archbishop Warham (1504-1532). 

Five interesting pieces of this class are illustrated 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum handbook of 
' Chinese Art.' An octagonal melon-shaped wine 
pot (fig. 20), decorated in blue with Chinese boys 
playing and conjuring, is mounted in Elizabethan 
silver-gilt with hall-marks of the year 1585. The 
other four pieces (figs. 21-24), also with Eliza- 
bethan mounts, now belong to Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan, and are exhibited on loan at the museum. 
They were shown at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club in 1895, and are described in the ' Catalogue 
of Blue and'White Oriental Porcelain,' printed at 
the time, as coming from Burghley House, where 
they had been in the possession of the Cecil family 
from the time of Queen Elizabeth. The ewer 
(fig. 21), artistically painted in soft blue with birds 
and flowers, is mounted with a silver-gilt base, six 
bands formed as wreaths with cherubs' heads in 
relief, a band round the neck, with lip and lid 
surmounted with three dolphins, and a handle 
formed of a mermaid with a double-twisted tail, all 
in silver-gilt. The last of these four pieces — a 
bowl (fig. 24) decorated with floral sprays and 
imperial phoenixes pencilled in typical Ming style 
— has the mark Wan Li (1573-1619) inscribed 
under the foot ; the rest are unmarked, but are 
unmistakable examples of the ceramic style of the 
same reign. 

Less known than the above, but no less interest- 
ing, are two mounted pieces of Ming porcelain in 
the Gold Room of the British Museum : a Chinese 
bowl of fine technique, decorated in blue in four 
panelswith jars of lotus flowers and egrets, mounted 
in English silver-gilt with an Elizabethan hall- 
mark ; and another with a celadon ground outside 
pencilled over in gold with running floral scrolls, 
set in a German mount of the sixteenth century. 
It seems to be becoming the fashion to decry the 
Ming period as ' primitive,' and to ascribe its more 
delicate ceramic productions to a later date, ' so 
that it is well to be able to point to occasional 
early pieces, like the above, authenticated by 
mounts of contemporary date. 


But it IS time to turn to our own bowl, which 
contrasts especially with the foregoing in its larger 
dimensions. It is a typical hio ivaii, or ' fruit 
bowl,' of the Chinese, intended to be placed on a 
dining-table piled up with slices of mixed fruits, to 
which the guests help themselves with silver forks, 
or occasionally filled with live gold-fish swimming 
in water. The technical details and style of brush- 
work are those of the early years of the reign of 
Wan Li (1573-1619), and seem to indicate that the 
bowl is not much older than its mount. 

The decoration, outside, is arranged in six panels 
of foliated outline, framed with a ribbon scroll 
running round the rim and stretching down the 
sides, the intervals being filled in with narrow 
bands, bordered alternately with svastika scroll- 
work and scale pattern, displaying pcnddoqncs of 
yin-yaiig symbols of light and darkness hung with 
strings of beads. The six foliated panels contain, 
passing in Chinese fashion from right to left : — 

(i) A dragon of old bronze design {chili liiiig), 
with lizard-like body and bifid tail, winding 
through sprays of Polyponis liicUliis, the sacred 
fungus of longevity. 

(2) A pair of butterflies flying in the midst of 
flowers and berried shrubs. 

(3) A phoenix [fcng liiiang) enveloped in scrolls 
of clouds. 

(4) A nelumbium lotus, with blossom, buds 
and shield-shaped leaves, together with other 
water plants. 

(5) A bird perched upon a rockery, from which 
spring asters and other flowers, with its mate 
flying down from the left. 

(6) A wild goose on the bank of a lake, with 
lotus and other flowers in the background. 

The interior of the bowl is decorated round the 
sides with six panels of foliated outline filled 
alternately with leafy branches of peaches, the 
fruit of life of the Taoists, and sprays of peach 
blossom, separated by narrow panels displaying 
pcnddoqncs of y/;;-jan^ symbols like those outside. 
The bottom of the bowl, inside, is filled with a 
large circular double-ringed medallion containing 
antique emblems [po hi), including a palm leaf in 
the centre, surrounded by a vase decorated with a 
single prunus blossom, silken tassels tied with 
knotted cords, sprays of peaches encircled by 
foliage, and branches of sacred fungus. 

The treatment of the birds and flowers and other 
details of the decoration is not too realistic, being 
freely conventionalized in the usual decorative 
spirit of the ceramic art of the period, so that the 
bowl is not altogether unworthy of the brave 
setting with which it is ennobled. 


The unique bowl under notice, from the point 
of view of the student of English goldsmiths' 


-i' Tv. ., ,f^)i'.t*y 


Ming Bowl with a Tudor Mount 

work, ranks next in importance to the remarkable 
set of Chinese porcelain vessels — three bowls of 
different sizes and a bottle, with English silver-gilt 
mounts of about 1585 — acquired by Mr. J. Pier- 
pont Morgan from the Marquis of Exeter's sale 
in 1888, now on loan at the South Kensington 
Museum, and figured in Dr. Stephen W. Bushell's 
'Chinese Art,' Vol. ii, figs. 21, 22, 23 and 24. The 
silver-gilt mount on the mouth is engraved on the 
top side with the conventional strap-band filled 
with arabesques — a familiar feature on Elizabethan 
communion cups — while the side (overhanging) is 
scalloped and incised with vertical and other lines, 
which are also common features of the period. 
The bowl is supported by three flat and jointed 

bands, plain in the centre, with scalloped edges; 
it rests in a shallow receptacle, embellished with a 
band formed of punched hollows, and engraved 
along the top with a series of chevron-like orna- 
ments. This receptacle is decorated underneath 
with a band of small scrolled ornaments in very 
slight relief. The large spreading foot, which has 
a stamped ovolo edge, is covered with incised 
vertical bands, alternately plain and matted, in 
imitation of flutings, and not unlike the flutings 
on the highly interesting tazza of 1572-73, and the 
later copy of 1609-10, at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. Though no marks appear on the mounts, 
the date is of the last quarter of the sixteenth 
century. E. Alfred Jones. 



^ BY ROGER E. FRY ^ ^k; 

F the exhibition of illuminated 
MBS. presents a grave difliculty 
owing to the fact that only two 
pages out of a whole book can 
be shown, this difficulty makes 
itself felt with painful force to 
^■^^" the critic who endeavours to 
yr^fc^deduce generalizations from such 

a display of mediaeval pictures as that at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club. One has to reflect 
that each book is usually the composite work 
of several scribes and artists, and that theories 
and classifications based on the pictures exhibited 
may be overthrown by some contradictory or at 
least diverse appearances that the turning of a few 
pages might unfold. The critical instinct is to seek 
order by discrimination and generalization, and 
this is constantly baffled by the frequent and 
apparently inexplicable variations which the illus- 
trations to these manuscripts reveal. In the same 
book we find a plodding mechanic hand sharing the 
labour and apparently the honour with a creative 
genius. Indeed, one wonders at times whether, 
provided the book was richly and handsomely 
decorated, the patrons and the public of mediaeval 
times recognized any more clearly than the public 

' Owing to his recent appointment to the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Mr. Sydney Cockerell, to whose knowledge and experience the 
great success of the recent exliibition is so largely due, is unable, 
as was hoped, to sum up the results obtained by this remarkable 
collection of examples, and I am therelore compelled, since it 
would be a pity ihat they should go unrecorded, to do what is 
possible in his stead, relying on him, however, for much infor- 
mation and correction. I have also to thank the owners of the 
MSS. illustrated, for their courteous permission to reproduce 
them, and the Committee of the Burlington Fine Arts Club for 
its generosity in allowing me to use for that purpose some of 
the photographs by XIr. Emery Walker, prepared for the forth- 
coming illustrated catalogue of the Exhibition. 

For a previous article see The Burlington Magazin'p, 
Vol. xiii, p. 128 (June, 1908). 

of to-day the difference between art and industry. 
And surely, what one may call a decorative 
industry tended to play a large part in the 
illuminator's activity ; the borders in particular 
often degenerating into a mere thoughtless addi- 
tion of decorative elements without preconceived 
plan or idea of controlling harmony. The artist 
emerges constantly from this general level of 
capable but insect-like activity. He emerges, 
however, as often as not without any particular 
consciousness of his distinction, and works on 
equal terms with his less gifted collaborators. 

These difficulties in any general critical survey 
are increased by the comparative instability of 
the tradition of miniature painting. In the 
French, especially the Parisian manuscripts, we 
can, it is true, point to a very strong traditional 
control with a continuous and logical developinent. 
From Pucelle to Fouquet each step can be traced 
with some certainty and accuracy, somewhat in 
the manner in which we trace the story of Flemish 
or Italian painting of the fifteenth century. 

But when we come to consider the English 
miniatures we are helped by no such guiding 
lines, and what has been true of the story oi 
painters in modern England is true of these early 
predecessors — namely, tliat art tends to be sporadic, 
highly individualized and insubordinate to tradi- 
tional control, and these characteristics are 
specially marked when we compare English art 
with that of France, with which it has so often 
come into relations of temporary sympathy or 

We can, nevertheless, make out certain centres of 
the illuminator's art where for a longer or shorter 
time the various artists were held together by a 
common tradition. The first, and in some ways 
the greatest of all, is the Anglo-Sa.\on school of 


English Illuminated Manuscripts 

Winchester, of which there is one supreme 
example lierc, the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold 
(tenth century), with which may be compared the 
Winchester Vulgate by an English scribe of the 
twelfth century. Of about the same period we 
have a centre at Bury St. Edmunds marked by a 
vigorous, rough energy which is in striking 
contrast to the exquisite perfection of the Win- 
chester productions. The later Romanesque 
style just before it gives place to the early Gothic 
is found in its finest perfection in the Psalter (No. 
31) written in an Augustinian house in the diocese 
of York, a work which by its perfection points to 
a highly cultivated centre of artistic tradition. 

In the thirteenth century the Winchester school 
with its Anglo-Saxon traditions has waned, Canter- 
bury takes a leading place and keeps in closer 
touch than other centres with the rising splendour 
of the Parisian artists. London also appears as a 
centre at this time, with works in a style not very 
different from Canterbury. Bury St. Edmunds 
and York persist as places of origin, and works of 
a rather distinct style can be traced at this period 
to Peterborough. It is, however, very difficult to fix 
the characteristics of the works from various places, 
as may be seen by the fact that in default of any 
documentary indications it has been found im- 
possible to determine the place of origin of the 
only signed work of this period, namely the Book 
of Hours (58) and the Psalter (59) by W. de Brailes. 

With the early fourteenth century there comes 
into prominence the East Anglian school, which 
has for the short period of its existence a greater 
continuity and a more marked consistency than 
any other. The Gorleston and St. Omer Psalters 
represented this at the exhibition. Two books 
of the second half of the fourteenth century, the 
Psalters of John of Gaunt (72) and Humphrey 
de Bohun (73), show a quite distinct and peculiar 
style, which leaves but little trace on subsequent 
developments. It may be supposed from the 
position of the owners at court to have had a 
London origin. 

With the fifteenth century the English art of 
illumination, which has hitherto kept more or less 
its position as a worthy rival to the French, begins 
to degenerate. It is wanting as a rule both in 
quantity and quality, and while the Limbourgs 
and Fouquet are showing in illuminations the 
future possibilities of painting, England is sinking 
into a period of artistic decadence and eclipse. 
But the fading glories of the English school are 
illuminated by one great and striking original 
genius, Thomas Chaundler, Chancellor of Oxford. 

Such are in brief the main cLissifications of 
English miniatures which the exhibition enables 
us to make. We will consider in detail a few 
of the more typical examples. It is not a little 
surprising that we come at the very beginning 
of our period in the Aldelmus de Virginitate 


(No. 8), upon a drawing which is in some ways 
as accomplished as anything which the whole 
series of English miniatures "has to show. The 
artist who drew the figures of St. Hildelith, 
Abbess of Barking, and her eight attendant nuns 
crowding round the seated St. Aldhelm to receive 
from him his book, is treating a subject from 
actual life and no traditional composition with 
an established canon of placing and proportion, 
and yet he composes his figures in an admirable 
group excellently expressive, in its general rhythm 
and in the particular movements of the figures, of 
the deferential eagerness of